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9. Process based river restoration design in practice - Hamish Moir, CBEC EcoEngineering

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On 17 and 18 June 2020 the EPA held its National Water Event as an online conference.

This year's theme was 'Restoring our waters'.

This years event was free to attend. It was the EPA's largest water event ever, with over 1250 attending.

To everyone who joined us: thanks for attending; thanks for your probing questions; thanks for your passion; thanks for caring about our waters. We can achieve more working together.

Special thanks to all our presenters and the team who worked behind the scenes to make sure this years conference happened.

For science and stories about water quality in Ireland, check out www.catchments.ie

Published in: Science
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9. Process based river restoration design in practice - Hamish Moir, CBEC EcoEngineering

  1. 1. Insert Main Title Insert Subtitle Insert Date Presenter #1 Presenter #2 Restoring Rivers: Working with River Processes (but within site constraints) Hamish Moir cbec eco-engineering UK Ltd Rivers and Lochs Institute, University of the Highlands and Islands EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, Online Conference, 18 June 2020
  2. 2. EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 PROCESS RESTORATION • Over-arching philosophy: restore catchment-scale river processes as much as possible. o Largest feasible spatial scales. o Restore process not local-scale design. o Longer temporal scales – not ‘quick fix’. o Sustainable– let the river do the work! • HOWEVER, constraints exist: o Land-use pressures. o Fragmented land-ownership. o Lack of catchment scale management plans. o Inappropriate timescales.
  3. 3. GIVEN GEOMORPHIC REGIME AND IMPACTS, WHAT IS REQUIRED? Process Restoration in Practice Dec 2015 Potential for geomorphic work (Perceived)degreeofrisk ‘DO NOTHING’ EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  4. 4. ~1750 ‘DO NOTHING’ - White Esk, Dumfries and Galloway Natural Recovery 1858 EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  5. 5. GIVEN GEOMORPHIC REGIME AND IMPACTS, WHAT IS REQUIRED? Process Restoration in Practice Dec 2015 Potential for geomorphic work (Perceived)degreeofrisk ‘DO NOTHING’ ‘ASSISTED RECOVERY’ ‘INITIAL CONDITIONS DESIGN’ ‘FUNCTIONAL DESIGN’ EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  6. 6. GIVEN GEOMORPHIC REGIME AND IMPACTS, WHAT IS REQUIRED? Process Restoration in Practice Dec 2015 Potential for geomorphic work (Perceived)degreeofrisk ‘ASSISTED RECOVERY’ (‘Stage 0’) Allt Lorgy ‘INITIAL CONDITIONS DESIGN’ Eddleston Water ‘FUNCTIONAL DESIGN’ Mains of Dyce EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 ‘ASSISTED RECOVERY’ River Nairn at Aberarder
  7. 7. Process Restoration in Practice Dec 2015 Case Study 1: Allt Lorgy – Assisted Recovery • Unusually ‘constraint free’ restoration site • Very simple land-ownership of area. • Very little infrastructure ‘at risk’. ‘EVERYTHING ON THE TABLE!’ EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 ‘Stage 0’?
  8. 8. EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 Case Study 1: Allt Lorgy – Assisted Recovery (‘Stage 0’) • Let the river do most of the work after constraints to physical process removed – kick-start dynamic geomorphic activity
  9. 9. Assisting channel evolution: Allt Lorgy 9
  10. 10. EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 Allt Lorgy: Pre- and Post- Restoration Implementation 2012201420162019
  11. 11. Allt Lorgy: spawning habitat 2011-13 = 0 redds 2014 = 5 redds 2015 = 11 redds 2016 = 14 redds 2017 = 31 redds 2018 = 29 redds Pre-design to post-flood REDDS REDD REDD REDD 2011 (pre-design) ~5 years for spawning habitat to evolve?
  12. 12. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery 12 Greater risks than Allt Lorgy – slightly more constrained design Approximate extents of wetland/ pond areas areas. Large wood structures
  13. 13. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  14. 14. Channel evolution 20th – 25th Sept. 2017 Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  15. 15. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  16. 16. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  17. 17. Approximate extents of wetland/ pond areas areas. ~28,200m2 of online wetland habitat created Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  18. 18. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  19. 19. wood placement A A 239 239.2 239.4 239.6 239.8 240 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Level[m] Cross chainage SECTION A-A [m] 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 January February March April May June July August September October November December Q95Discharge[m3/s] RESTORED (POOL)UN-RESTORED Q95 water depths Hydraulic model output
  20. 20. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 Velocity[m/s] Depth [m] Restored reach Un-restored reach Fr 0.1 Fr 0.7 Distribution of depth and velocity at Q95 Hydraulic model output
  21. 21. Habitat utilisation: spawning
  22. 22. EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 What is (has been) more typical… • More significant constraints to design • Unlikely to be working in relatively un-impacted system ‘Initial Conditions Design’ • Design initial physical ‘template’ for river processes to adjust • But must be based on systematic, science-based design methodology!
  23. 23. Case study 3 – Eddleston Water - Initial Condition Design Anthropogenic and natural constraints: – relatively low energy – infrastructure/ services – agriculture – flood risk EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  24. 24. Case study 3 – Eddleston Water - Initial Condition Design EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 • Imposed Q and slope • Determine if new channel alignment is appropriate for modern controlling physical variables • Determine general channel geometry (width, depth) – threshold/ regime equations, ‘extremal hypothesis’ relationships, analogue sites • Iterative 2D modelling – design adjustments, progressive introduction of complexity • Final design is ‘initial condition’ w = aQb w = aQbSc w = aQbScMd etc
  25. 25. PBA Water Summit, Oct. 2018 Project Example (UK) – Eddleston Water
  26. 26. Case study 4 – Mains of Dyce – ‘Functional Design’ EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 • Small culverted tributary flowing to the south of the River Don in Aberdeen city • Catchment highly industrial and urban • Course of channel tightly controlled by housing development – unnaturally high channel slope • Initial construction good example of lack of consideration of appropriate geomorphic design
  27. 27. ‘Stable’ Channel Design (high gradient) Practical River Works, Inverness, 23-24 Sept. 2019 • Reproduce natural morphology of ‘step-pool’ type channels, given high imposed slope (> ~3%) 41.000 41.500 42.000 42.500 43.000 43.500 44.000 44.500 45.000 45.500 46.000 0 50 100 150 200 Elevation(m) River station (m) Step-pool profile Basal bed profile Design conditions (Q = 3.0 m3s-1) (H/L) × S = C C = 1 to 2
  28. 28. Case study 4 – Mains of Dyce - Functional Design EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  29. 29. Conclusions and take home points • Understanding of physical river process key to successful river management design • Reproducing natural river form is the most effective and sustainable design strategy • Different types of approach are required in different environments • Some reproduction of natural process possible, regardless of constraints and scale • BUT design methodology needs to be theoretically/ evidence based may require detailed assessment (e.g. hydraulic modelling) • Rivers change – this must be considered in the design process MANAGEMENTOFRISK MANAGEMENTOFRISK EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  30. 30. Any questions? SSE Workshop, Inverness, 3rd Sept. 2019 h.moir@cbecoeng.co.uk 01463 667318
  31. 31. CASE STUDIES Process Restoration in Practice Dec 2015 Full catchment scale process restoration 1. Allt Lorgy – Assisted Recovery (‘Stage 0’) 2. River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery (initial conditions?) 3. Eddleston Water – Initial Conditions Design 4. Mains of Dyce – Functional Design Increasingdesignconstraints, decreasingpotentialfor geomorphicwork EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  32. 32. Process Restoration in Ideal and Practice May 2014EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 Conclusions Explicit consideration of physical process in restoration design is essential: • Ensures that some reproduction of natural process, regardless of constraints and scale • Better understanding of risk to design if controlling processes (and related uncertainties) are understood • BUT design methodology needs to be systematic and theoretically/ evidence based Further development needed on: • Further research needed to assess the assumption that instream ecology responds to natural physical process • MORE carefully designed monitoring – feedback into design methodology and biophysical linkages
  33. 33. Case study 3 – Eddleston Water - Initial Condition Design EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020
  34. 34. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  35. 35. Case Study 2: River Nairn at Aberarder – Assisted Recovery
  36. 36. Habitat utilisation: spawning POT POT TAIL TAIL HABITAT UTILISATION BY SPAWNING SALMON WITHIN 3 WEEKS OF PROJECT COMPLETION
  37. 37. EPA National Water Event 2020, Restoring Our Waters, June 2020 Acknowledgements Liz Henderson, Duncan Ferguson Julie Tuck, Alasdair Matheson Will Boyd-Wallis Anne Elliott Luke Comins, Hugh Chalmers, Chris Spray
  38. 38. Controls on channel morphology Process Restoration in Practice Sept 2014 WANDERING POOL- RIFFLE STEP-POOL CASCADE PLANE BED Transport capacity DYNAMIC POOL- RIFFLE ‘Supply-limited’ channel morphologies

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