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www.vestforsk.no
Blockchain Technology as a Support
Infrastructure in e-Government
Svein Ølnes, Vestlandsforsking
Arild Ja...
www.vestforsk.no
Content
 Motivation and research questions
 Bitcoin and blockchain technology
 Open and closed blockch...
www.vestforsk.no
Motivation
 Bitcoin and blockchain technology is a hot topic!
 Significant acceptance in the last years...
www.vestforsk.no
Research objectives
 To understand the Bitcoin/blockchain technology
as
1. an emerging platform
2. poten...
www.vestforsk.no
Research method:
 Our research approach is exploratory, analysing the
diffusion of blockchain technology...
www.vestforsk.no
Cross-disciplinary!
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin and blockchain essentials
1. A peer-to-peer distributed network
 All participants run the code a...
www.vestforsk.no
Nakamoto Consensus
 Protocol for maintaining the Bitcoin blockchain
 rules for validating transactions
...
www.vestforsk.no
Open and closed blockchain networks
Open
(«permissionless)
Closed
(«permissioned»)
Who updates Everybody ...
www.vestforsk.no
Information infrastructure Perspectives
 Information Infrastructure (II) as “a shared, open and
unbounde...
www.vestforsk.no
Infrastructures must be built incremental
using building blocks that follow some basic rules
www.vestforsk.no
Bitcoin's layered architecture
Bitcoin/blockchain in an Infrastructure Perspective
www.vestforsk.no
Characteristics of different architectures
Property
Universal information infra-
structure, e. g. Interne...
www.vestforsk.no
Comparing Internet and open blockchains
as layered structures:
Internet Open Blockchain
technology
Applic...
www.vestforsk.no
Blockchain and innovations
 Leverages a set of possible tasks;
 Adaptability to new tasks
 Ease of Mas...
www.vestforsk.no
Possible use cases
 Authentication of documents
 badges, course certificates, CVs
 other certificates ...
www.vestforsk.no
Conclusions and further research
Bitcoin/blockchain can potentially evolve into a support
infrastructure,...
www.vestforsk.no
Thank you for your attention!
 Questions?
 Contact information:
svein.olnes@vestforsk.no
arildj@jus.uio...
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eGov2017 Blockchain Technology

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Presentation of the paper "Blockchain Technology as a Support Infrastructure for e-Government" at the eGov/ePart Conference at ITMO University, St. Petersburg, 05.09.2017

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eGov2017 Blockchain Technology

  1. 1. www.vestforsk.no Blockchain Technology as a Support Infrastructure in e-Government Svein Ølnes, Vestlandsforsking Arild Jansen, University of Oslo eGov 2017, 05.09.2017, ITMO University, St. Petersburg
  2. 2. www.vestforsk.no Content  Motivation and research questions  Bitcoin and blockchain technology  Open and closed blockchains  Bitcoins' layered architecture  Bitcoin/blockchain as an infrastructure  Conclusions and further research
  3. 3. www.vestforsk.no Motivation  Bitcoin and blockchain technology is a hot topic!  Significant acceptance in the last years – can be a platform for various application in different areas  Can provide secure identification and authentication in various types of distributed computing environment  Blockchain development resembles early Internet development  We argue that the Bitcoin/blockchain technology, can be used for many types of applications
  4. 4. www.vestforsk.no Research objectives  To understand the Bitcoin/blockchain technology as 1. an emerging platform 2. potentially as a support infrastructure for improving the digitalization in public sector
  5. 5. www.vestforsk.no Research method:  Our research approach is exploratory, analysing the diffusion of blockchain technology in an information infrastructure perspective.  Using the snow-ball method:  Our use of literature builds on important research papers about the subject as a starting point and going through references of papers already included  We have also searched the extensive e-Government Research Library (EGRL) v. 12.0  Still very few publications on the combination of blockchain technology and eGovernment
  6. 6. www.vestforsk.no Cross-disciplinary!
  7. 7. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin and blockchain essentials 1. A peer-to-peer distributed network  All participants run the code and keep a copy of the blockchain 2. Blockchain as a storage structure  This is the part that gets the most attention 3. The consensus protocol, including proof of work  This is where the disruptive power is!
  8. 8. www.vestforsk.no Nakamoto Consensus  Protocol for maintaining the Bitcoin blockchain  rules for validating transactions  rules for verifying blocks  proof of work to avoid double-spending and third-party reliance  Enables the participants to have a shared and agreed-upon view of the current state of the blockchain
  9. 9. www.vestforsk.no Open and closed blockchain networks Open («permissionless) Closed («permissioned») Who updates Everybody Appointed pers./org. Who produces data All users Customers Incentive to follow rules Direct economic (both carrot & whip) Reputation Storage Distributed Centralized Trust central actors No Yes Transaction costs - + Capacity/Thoughput - + Immutabililty + - Currency/token Yes No Examples Bitcoin, Ethereum HyperLedger, Corda
  10. 10. www.vestforsk.no Information infrastructure Perspectives  Information Infrastructure (II) as “a shared, open and unbounded, heterogeneous and evolving socio- technical system consisting of a set of IT capabilities and their user, operations, and design communities.”  Dispersed and distributed ownership [the lack of centralized control] :  Different actors shape, maintain, and extend information infrastructure in modular increments  Installed base – the “living” legacy of existing technical solution along with organizational, economic and legal elements
  11. 11. www.vestforsk.no Infrastructures must be built incremental using building blocks that follow some basic rules
  12. 12. www.vestforsk.no Bitcoin's layered architecture Bitcoin/blockchain in an Infrastructure Perspective
  13. 13. www.vestforsk.no Characteristics of different architectures Property Universal information infra- structure, e. g. Internet Bitcoin/blockchain Shared Universally and across multiple IT capabilities Potentially shared among those who are involved in building and maintaining this platform Open Yes, allowing unlimited connections to communities and new capabilities Bitcoin is open to any user and offers a platform for payment system and secure document/asset handling Installed base The current Internet applica- tions are integrated with its users, growing exponentially The present installed base is limited, which may stimulate innovations but lack the networks effects Evolving Yes, unlimited by time or user community. Both linear and nonlinear growth Although it is a new technology, Bitcoin has demonstrated innovative potential. Control Distributed and dynamically negotiated Distributed control based on open source sw. Changes are dynamically negotiated in user community
  14. 14. www.vestforsk.no Comparing Internet and open blockchains as layered structures: Internet Open Blockchain technology Applications Applications HTTP/HTML/… Bitcoin/other currency TCP/IP Consensus rules, peer-to- peer, security Physical and logical link Distributed blockchain database Support infrastructures
  15. 15. www.vestforsk.no Blockchain and innovations  Leverages a set of possible tasks;  Adaptability to new tasks  Ease of Mastery  Accessibility for most people
  16. 16. www.vestforsk.no Possible use cases  Authentication of documents  badges, course certificates, CVs  other certificates and licenses  ++  Proof of ownership  property  any physical or digital asset..  Security and privacy  secure, decentralized identity management  enhanced privacy (reveal only necessary information)
  17. 17. www.vestforsk.no Conclusions and further research Bitcoin/blockchain can potentially evolve into a support infrastructure, which however require:  An open technology which is flexible and enable to support different types of innovations  To resemble a layered and modular architecture  To keep it simple and easy to use  To cultivate the installed base without creating path- dependencies and lock-in mechanisms  To establish a governance structure that allow for diversity, and «conflicting handling« in creative ways Further research should aim at developing this technology according to these principles !
  18. 18. www.vestforsk.no Thank you for your attention!  Questions?  Contact information: svein.olnes@vestforsk.no arildj@jus.uio.no

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