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Action research related to Classroom problems

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action research related to classroom problems. meaning, steps involved and example

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Action research related to Classroom problems

  1. 1. Action Research Related with Classroom Problems Prepared by Dr. Suman Saggu Assistant Professor Khalsa College of Education, Amritsar
  2. 2. • The question of the practical significancepractical significance of Research? Most published research does not speak directly to the “Real world” Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  3. 3. • We must find a way of bridging the traditional divide between educational theory and professional practice. Jack Whitehead Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  4. 4. Focusing upon these needs… • Educators can conduct, practice-oriented research to improve their classroom practice • by collecting data about their daily activities, problems, and outcomes for the purpose of improving themselves as teachers and their students as learners Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  5. 5. Action Research inAction Research in EducationEducation • Teacher-initiated, School-based research used to improve the practitioner’s practice by doing or changing something • where the teacher is the researcher and the teacher’s practice is the focus of the research • The main reason for teachers to engage in action research is to learn from and to improve their own teaching activities… Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  6. 6. What is Action Research • According to Good : Action research is research used by teachers, supervisors and administrators to improve the quality of their decisions and actions. • According to J. W. Best : Action Research is focused on the immediate application, not on the development of theory. It has placed its emphasis on real problem – here and now in a local setting Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  7. 7. Key characteristics of Action Research • Focus on Immediate Problem and its Solution • Not Concerned with building theories or Generalization • Aims to improve practices or work conditions • Need little efforts, resources and finances • A practical focus • The educator-researcher’s own practices • Collaboration • Dynamic process • A plan of action • Sharing research Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  8. 8. What is classroom Action Research? Classroom action research begins with a question or questions about classroom experiences, issues, or challenges. It is a reflective process which helps teachers to explore and examine aspects of teaching and learning and to take action to change and improve. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  9. 9. • Classroom Action Research is a method of finding out what works best in your own classroom so that you can improve student learning. There are many ways to improve knowledge about teaching. Many teachers practice personal reflection on teaching, others conduct formal empirical studies on teaching and learning. Classroom Action Research is more systematic than personal reflection but it is more informal and personal than formal educational research. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  10. 10. Purpose of CRAR • Create Healthy and Proper Class Room condition and Environment • Facilitate better teaching learning • Maximum welfare of Students Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  11. 11. Who is it for? Any teacher who: • wants to understand more about teaching and learning • wants to develop teaching skills and knowledge • wants to take action to improve student learning Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  12. 12. Practical focus • A problem that will have immediate benefits for – Single teacher – Schools – Communities Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  13. 13. Collaboration Administrators Staff Teachers Students Parents Community Stakeholders Collaborative Team Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  14. 14. Action Research Interacting Spiral Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  15. 15. Process of Action Research Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  16. 16. Steps to conduct Action research • Step I : Identification of the Problem • Step II : Defining the Problem • Step III: Listing of Probable causes of problem • Step IV : Analysis of probable causes and formulation of Action hypotheses • Step V : Action Programme • Step VI : Follow-up and Communicating the findings to others Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  17. 17. Identification of the Problem • Derived form a review of actual practice- • More narrowly-stated than global • Leads to the formulation of a hypothesis • Problem should look at something under teacher control. • The problem should also be an area in which you are willing to change. • Problem should be feasible. • In general, this means to think small--to look at one aspect of teaching in a single course. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  18. 18. Identification of problem • The Problem should be related to student learning in your classroom. For example, • Would a different type of assignment enhance student understanding? • Would a strict attendance policy result in better test scores? • Would more time spent in cooperative learning groups help students understand concepts at a higher level? The general model might be "what is the effect of X on student learning?” Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  19. 19. Areas/Fields of CRAR • Problem of spelling errors in languages (Hindi, Punjabi, English) • Problem of hand writing. • Problem of discipline and code of conduct. • Problem of poor attendance in the class. • Problem of punctuality. • Problem of school administration and organization. • Problem of wrong pronunciation in language learning. • Problem of delinquency. • Problem of copying in examination. • Problem of specific backwardness in Maths/Science/English. • Problem of map reading skill. • Problem of Home work. • Problem of lack of self confidence while communicating. • Problem of absenteeism. • Problem of Writing Speed among students. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  20. 20. Defining the Problem • Improving students’ interpersonal relationships in classrooms through regularly scheduled small-group meetings • Enhancing student understanding by giving different type of assignment Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  21. 21. EXAMPLE • Action Research for doing away with the habit of copying on the part of the students • Step 1: Identification of the problem : A mathematical teacher at the time of practice and drill work finds that some of the students are not able to solve the problems in spite of the fact  The topic has been taught to them in the class  The problem have already been assigned to them in the form of homework for practice  While checking the home assignment, the teacher has found that they have correctly solved the problem Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  22. 22. Defining/ Specification the Problem • The teacher goes deep into the problem. How have they been able to solve these problems in their home assignments? • He asks some basic questions pertaining to the solution of the problem and finds that the students really do not possess the basic knowledge and skills concerning the solution. • He ultimately finds that the students have copied the solutions from the help books. • The problem is thus identified and further specified as: Copying of the solution of the problems of mathematics given as home-assignments from help books by some students of IX class Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  23. 23. Listing of Probable causes of problem • The sum are given only from text books for which readymade solutions are available in help books. • The students are afraid of punishment. • The students are shirkers; they do not want to tax their brains. • Lack of reasoning and problem solving ability among students • No proper supervision of homework by teacher Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  24. 24. Analysis of probable causes and formulation of Action hypotheses • From the most relevant causes, those most relevant to the Problem and situation are selected. • This helps to make Action Hypothesis: If the problem is constructed by the teacher himself and the solution of the problem is not found in the help books, the habit of copying from the help books can be checked. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  25. 25. Action Programme • Pivot of Action Research. • On the basis of Action hypothesis, action is taken in prevailing the solution . • On the basis of Evaluation, the framed Hypothesis will be either accepted or not accepted. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  26. 26. Programme for Action Research Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  27. 27. Follow-up and Communicating the findings to others • The result arrived at, may, then be used by teachers for bringing improvement in their own Practices. • Result can be discussed with fellow friends Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  28. 28. Outlining of Research Report • Introduction • Need of the Study • Statement of the Problem • Objective/ Objectives of the Study • Action Hypothesis/ Hypotheses • Sample • Data Collection Technique • Action Programme • Analysis and Interpretation • Conclusion • Bibliography • Appendices Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  29. 29. Improving the spelling in English language by assigning daily five minutes dictation of difficult words Investigator : Name Student Teacher of Semester III, Year 20____ Roll no. – Khalsa College of Education, Amritsar Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  30. 30. Introduction • Conceptual Framework :  Meaning of Action research  Expert’s views on Action research in Education  Meaning of Action research related to Classroom Problems  Characteristics of Action Research in education  Area of the Problem : The field / area of the problem is spelling error in English Language  Specification of the Problem : The problem is located in class VII-B of DAV School of Amritsar.  Background of the Project / topic  How did you identify the Problem?  Analysis of the probable causes of the problem: Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  31. 31. • Need and Importance of the study : Specify for Local Needs • Statement of the Problem • Objectives of the Study:  To make students conscious of their spelling errors in English Language  To improve student’s spelling in English Language  To improve the level of Achievement in English  To realize the need and importance of correct spelling in English language Action Hypotheses / Research Questions Hypotheses are prepared in the light of most relevant causes of the problem of the situation. Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  32. 32. Action Hypotheses and Research Questions • Problem of Spelling errors in English can be solved by proper correction of English written work and by daily 5 minutes dictation of difficult words. • Research Questions : • How can I construct and use student feedback to improve my instruction in English? • What happens to student attitudes about mathematics when daily emphasize is given on functional math in classrooms? Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  33. 33. Action Research Data Collection Techniques (The Three E’s) Experiencing Enquiring Examining (By observing) (By asking) (by using records) Participant Observation (Active participant) Passive Observer Informal Interview Structured formal Interview Questionnaires Attitude Scales Standardized Tests Archival documents Journals Maps Audio and Videotapes Artifacts Fieldnotes Sample : According to demand of study. 1 student to X students ( X- number vary) Data Collection Techniques : Qualitative Or Quantitative Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  34. 34. • Procedure to conduct Study : Programme for Action Hypothesis • Analysis and Interpretation :  Quantitative : using statistical techniques  Qualitative : Based on Observation, Judgment, Expression ability of Investigator • Conclusion : Based on Implications of the study, How to Follow up and communicate. • Bibliography • Appendices Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  35. 35. Guidelines for Submission of action research report  Students are required to submit report in - Printing form ( File – Hand Written) - Non printing Form ( CD – Typed )  Language : Hindi/ Punjabi/ English  Page limit : 6 to 15  Max. Marks : 05 Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  36. 36. Class room Action Research Problems • What happens to the quality of student writing when we implement peer editing throughout our ninth-grade English classes? • How does the use of computers affect the student writing process in • fourth-grade classrooms? • What happens to student understanding of specific geometrical concepts by incorporate exploratory exercises into the teaching of geometry in classroom? • What happens to students’ academic performance in sixth-grade classrooms by assigning heterogeneous groups for cooperative learning activities? • How is student time on task affected when I assign middle-school students to co-ed groups in my classroom? • • Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  37. 37. Research Problems How can I use small-group activities and “recorders” to improve attentiveness during the presentation of new information in a class of students with behavioral problems? • What happens to student’s academic performance in history by give daily quizzes on homework assignments? • What happens to student behavior in my classroom when I start my class with a short meditation, mind-relaxing activity? • How can we use learning centers to help the children in our second-grade classrooms improve their writing? • What happens to student learning in my classroom when I use a project- centered approach to teaching the geography ? • What strategies can I use to build productive learning relationships in • mathematics with the middle-school students in my classroom? Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Educatiion, Amritsar
  38. 38. Research Problems • What happens to the reading comprehension of the students in third- grade classrooms by giving systematically differentiate instruction? • How can I use cooperative learning in high-school mathematics class to improve student learning? • How can we improve students’ interpersonal relationships in our classrooms through regularly scheduled small-group meetings? • How can I use cooperative learning to increase student translation fluidity in my ninth-grade Latin class? • How can I help non-English speakers transition into my classroom of English-speaking kindergartners? • How can I help facilitate Tim’s expressive language development in my preschool special-needs classroom? Dr Suman Saggu, Assistant Prof. Khalsa College of Education, Amritsar

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