1. Definition Of Learning Difficulties.
2. Types Of Learning Disabilities.
3. The Relationship Between Academic Learning Disabilities &
4. The Difference Between Learning Disabilities, Slow Learning
5. How To Recognize Learning Disabilities(Criteria).
6. Language learning disabilities.
7. Causing Factors For Language Learning Disabilities.
8. Some Remedial Methods For Language Learning Disabilities.
9. The Treatment Of Academic Reading Disabilities.
10. Remedial Teaching Strategies.
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“Specific learning disability” means a disorder in
one or more of the basic psychological processes
involved in understanding or in using language,
spoken or written, which disorder may manifest
itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think,
speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical
Federal Definition of
Specific Learning Disabilities
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In Federal law, under the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA), the term is “specific learning
disability,” one of 13 categories of disability under that
“Learning Disabilities” is an “umbrella” term describing a
number of other, more specific learning disabilities, such
as dyslexia and dysgraphia.
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3- The relationship between
developmental learning difficulties and
academic learning difficulties:-
A major role/ Prominent role.
Cause and effect.
High correlation (90 %).
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4- The Difference Between Learning Disabilities, Slow learning
Limited learn necessary
but at rate and
Repeats exams in
From 90 to
A small cerebral
damage in a
particular part in
Adaptive failure in
one or more of
daily life skills like:
individuals or daily
Wide clear reduction in
all subjects .
Don’t continue to
more than once in
the curriculum to
suit his abilities
From 70 to 84
An injury or
damage in more
than a part in the
brain that Causes
weakness in some
of the Genetic
No clear reduction in
ones that need
The presence of
Repeats exams in
his case should
be studied by
From 90 to
Not genetic or
5- Criteria for recognizing learning
B. Elimination (Exclusion).
C. Special Education.
D. Problems associated with maturity.
E. Organic Signs.
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6- language learning difficulties:-
A- Reading disability (dyslexia):
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
defines reading disability or dyslexia as follows: "Dyslexia is
a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically
impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals
typically read at levels significantly lower than expected
despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder
varies from person to person,
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Social causes: Low social level
Psychological causes: fear
Mental causes: low ability to perceive and imagine.
Physical causes: auditory and visual weakness
o Other causes.
B- writing disability.
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There are 28 reading difficulties:
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1- word by word reading
2-Wrong pronunciation of phrases
6-Inversions or Reversal
7-not knowing vowel sounds
8-not knowing consonant sounds
11-Basic sight words
13-Moving the lips while reading
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2-Inability to make
5-Weakness in the
sequence of events
1-Low rate of speed
2-Speed at the expense of
4-Inability to co-ordinate
between speed and the
difficulty of the material
Skills of using
1-Low skills of
right source of
7- Causing factors of language learning
1) Organic causes.
2) Environmental causes.
3) Educational causes.
4) Inner psychological reasons.
5) Functional reasons.
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8- Some methods of the treatment of
2) Doing some experiments
3) Using scientific discoveries
4) The use of models and maquettes
5) Using pictures
6) Using mazes
7) Using stories
8) Treatment based on the use of realism
9) Search / teach tutoring approach
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9- Treatment of academic reading
I. Functional treatment.
II.General remedial programs:
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2-Using prefixes and suffixes.
10- Remedial Teaching Strategies:
a. Individual teaching.
b. Direct teaching.
c. The multiplicity of the senses strategy.
d. Fernald method.
e. Orton- Gill Ingham.
f. Auditory verbal therapy.
g. Writing for reading.
h. Trial and error learning.
i. Skills training model.
j. Skills training model.
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It means that a teacher teaches one student at one time
or the teacher skill to take into account individual
differences among learners.
It doesn’t mean that the learner has to work alone.
Its purpose is to get closer to the students as possible.
Schools can achieve this strategy by:
Using computers or peers or small groups teaching or
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Directed Teaching/ Mastery
It focuses on achieving the learning outcomes by
concentrating on direct skills which is related to the
For example: Multiplication table.
Steps: 1-accurately determine the outcomes.
2-directly measure the students performance.
3-Analysing and arranging the elements.
4-Give enough time.
6- directing the students to practice till perfection
7- showing students performance data in suitable
charts and diagrams.
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Writing for reading Strategy
Through personal experience.
Children find it easy to read a word which they gathered
For example: A picture of a train.
Steps of writing for reading strategy(steps-ten units-
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