Business to Arts Strategy for Performance Improvement Alan Christie, University of Ulster
Strategy for Performance Improvement <ul><li>Managing strategy - course objectives </li></ul><ul><li>introduction to strat...
Get a Competitive Position! <ul><li>On what basis will we compete? </li></ul><ul><li>Which direction should we go? </li></...
Successful Companies <ul><li>Understand their core competences and use them to develop in unexpected ways </li></ul><ul><l...
I Will Use….. <ul><li>Everyday examples e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tesco </li></ul></ul><...
Defining the Path <ul><li>Where in the landscape are we? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Defining the Path <ul><li>Where is it possible to go? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core competency analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Strategy Process Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-10 ©  1998 by Prentice Ha...
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES What basis? Which Direction? How? ALTERNATIVE DIRECTIONS Withdrawal Consolidation Market penetratio...
Elements of Strategic Management STRATEGIC CHOICE STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIC  ANALYSIS
Competitive Advantage Through: <ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul>Tra...
Competing on Differentiation <ul><li>Uniqueness - can go beyond both the physical characteristics and service attributes t...
Competing on Cost <ul><li>Maximum value as defined by customer </li></ul><ul><li>Does not imply low value or low quality <...
Competing on Response <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul><ul><li>Requires insti...
Michael Porter’s Five Competitive Forces Competitors in the industry Competition among existing companies Bargaining power...
GROWTH STRATEGY NEW EXISTING PRODUCTS EXISTING NEW M A R K E T S Product Development Market Development Market Penetration...
Mission <ul><li>Organization’s purpose for being </li></ul><ul><li>Provides boundaries & focus </li></ul><ul><li>Answers ‘...
COW DOG STAR M A R K E T G R O W T H R A T E 10% 0 10X 1.0X 0.1X 20% RELATIVE MARKET SHARE
Re Write The Rules! The paradigm Development of Strategy Implementation Company Performance Step 1 Tighter Controls Step 2...
Performance Management Performance and Appraisal Steve Pollard,  Associate Lecturer
Measuring Performance Where are we now? Where do we want to go to? How do we get there? HOW WILL WE KNOW?
Basic Questions <ul><li>How will performance be measured?  i.e. by what indicators  </li></ul><ul><li>What are the perform...
Performance Measures Income Response Times Satisfaction Value Added Turnover Ratios Quality Attendances Profit ? Cost
Good Targets ... <ul><li>relate to objectives </li></ul><ul><li>are achievable … but also stretch </li></ul><ul><li>are cl...
The Dashboard Approach <ul><li>More than one measure </li></ul><ul><li>A few critical areas: fuel; speed; time etc </li></...
Your Dashboard? Cost Time ??? Volume ??? Quality
Further Module Aims <ul><li>To: </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how we can achieve high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss o...
The Organisation People Hardware Software Manager’s Task:   to deliver the best possible performance from the available re...
Performance Management <ul><li>Performance management  is about monitoring performance against targets, identifying opport...
The EFQM Excellence Model Leadership People Policy and Strategy Partnerships and Resources Processes People Results Custom...
Think about an occasion when you/your team performed really well <ul><li>What went well? </li></ul><ul><li>What or who mot...
The DMP Achieving Results Personal Effectiveness Managing People Managing Communications Continuous Improvement Activity: ...
Operational Planning Organisation/Personal Aims/ Objectives Planning and Organisation Implementation Monitoring and Contro...
Aims and Objectives <ul><li>What is an Aim? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Objective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></...
Planning Mind Mapping
Aims and Objectives Activity:  In groups, you are going to plan redecorating a room in your house. This includes some elec...
Planning <ul><li>Identifying activities/estimating durations </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating responsibilities </li></ul><ul><...
Planning, Implementation, Monitoring and Control <ul><li>The Gantt Chart </li></ul>
 
 
 
Improving Performance through Problem Solving <ul><li>Problem recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing the factors contribu...
1.  Recognising and  Identifying the Problem <ul><li>Key indicators of problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul>...
Perceiving the Problem Problem
2.  Analysing the Causes for  the Problem <ul><li>Problem-Solving Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Fishbone Diagram </li></ul><ul>...
The Fishbone Diagram 20% of service calls are more than one hour late P eople absenteeism overloaded staff untrained staff...
The Ask Why 5 Times Method Change policy Staff judged on activity not results Too busy –  why? Include as agenda item Poor...
3.  Generating Potential  Solutions: the Creative Process Green Light   Thinking Red Light  Thinking Einstein:  ‘Imaginati...
3.  Generating Potential  Solutions: the Creative Process
Developing Creative Thinking Attitudes <ul><li>Think – can do! </li></ul><ul><li>Be open-minded to new ideas and the ideas...
Brainstorming  <ul><li>Leader writes up problem </li></ul><ul><li>Group tosses out ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Accept </li></u...
Deciding Which Solution to Implement <ul><li>The Decision Matrix  </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Tree Exercise </li></ul><ul><...
Review and Evaluation <ul><li>Have we achieved: </li></ul><ul><li>our aims and objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>targets? </li...
Giving Feedback on Performance
Can We Change Things? Circle of Concern Circle of Influence Circle of Concern Being Reactive Being Proactive Circle of Inf...
Performance Management <ul><li>Performance management  is about monitoring performance against targets, identifying opport...
Can We Change Things? <ul><li>Forums: </li></ul><ul><li>Line of command </li></ul><ul><li>Talk back days </li></ul><ul><li...
Reflection
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  • Mission to provide a high quality patient care that is known to be excellent Initiatives To improve responsible dog ownership To reduce the number of dog fouling complaints
  • Strategy Performance

    1. 1. Business to Arts Strategy for Performance Improvement Alan Christie, University of Ulster
    2. 2. Strategy for Performance Improvement <ul><li>Managing strategy - course objectives </li></ul><ul><li>introduction to strategy-purpose/value </li></ul><ul><li>tools and techniques-practical formulation </li></ul><ul><li>strategic thinking- vision and mission </li></ul><ul><li>developing a strategy- setting objectives </li></ul>
    3. 3. Get a Competitive Position! <ul><li>On what basis will we compete? </li></ul><ul><li>Which direction should we go? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul><ul><li>How will we stay there? </li></ul><ul><li>Where next? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Successful Companies <ul><li>Understand their core competences and use them to develop in unexpected ways </li></ul><ul><li>Re-write the rules so that only they can win </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that CULTURE eats STRATEGY for breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>… .the aim of today is for these lessons to be manifest in your strategy for development </li></ul>
    5. 5. I Will Use….. <ul><li>Everyday examples e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tesco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ryanair!!!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOH to discover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On what basis it competes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which direction it is headed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will it get there? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Defining the Path <ul><li>Where in the landscape are we? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is the landscape going to change? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scenario possibilities </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Defining the Path <ul><li>Where is it possible to go? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core competency analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic development </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Strategy Process Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-10 © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458 Environmental Analysis Company Mission Business Strategy Function Area Strategies SWOT Analysis Operations Decisions Marketing Decisions Financial / Acct. Decisions
    9. 9. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES What basis? Which Direction? How? ALTERNATIVE DIRECTIONS Withdrawal Consolidation Market penetration Product development Market Development Diversification Related Unrelated ALTERNATIVE METHODS Internal Development Acquisition Joint Development / Alliances GENERIC STRATEGIES Price based Differentiation Focus
    10. 10. Elements of Strategic Management STRATEGIC CHOICE STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
    11. 11. Competitive Advantage Through: <ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul>Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-11 © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
    12. 12. Competing on Differentiation <ul><li>Uniqueness - can go beyond both the physical characteristics and service attributes to encompass everything that impacts customer’s perception of value </li></ul>Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-12 © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
    13. 13. Competing on Cost <ul><li>Maximum value as defined by customer </li></ul><ul><li>Does not imply low value or low quality </li></ul>Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-13 © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
    14. 14. Competing on Response <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul><ul><li>Requires institutionalization within firm of ability to respond </li></ul>Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-14 © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
    15. 15. Michael Porter’s Five Competitive Forces Competitors in the industry Competition among existing companies Bargaining power Customers Substitutes Suppliers Threat from substitutes Potential New Entrants Bargaining power Threat from substitutes
    16. 16. GROWTH STRATEGY NEW EXISTING PRODUCTS EXISTING NEW M A R K E T S Product Development Market Development Market Penetration Diversification excluded strategy
    17. 17. Mission <ul><li>Organization’s purpose for being </li></ul><ul><li>Provides boundaries & focus </li></ul><ul><li>Answers ‘How can we satisfy people’s needs?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in mission statement </li></ul>Transparency Masters to accompany Operations Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 2-6 © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc. A Simon & Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458 © 1995 Corel Corp.
    18. 18. COW DOG STAR M A R K E T G R O W T H R A T E 10% 0 10X 1.0X 0.1X 20% RELATIVE MARKET SHARE
    19. 19. Re Write The Rules! The paradigm Development of Strategy Implementation Company Performance Step 1 Tighter Controls Step 2 Reconstruct or Develop New Strategy Step 3 Abandon Paradigm and Adopt New One
    20. 20. Performance Management Performance and Appraisal Steve Pollard, Associate Lecturer
    21. 21. Measuring Performance Where are we now? Where do we want to go to? How do we get there? HOW WILL WE KNOW?
    22. 22. Basic Questions <ul><li>How will performance be measured? i.e. by what indicators </li></ul><ul><li>What are the performance targets set? </li></ul><ul><li>How will progress be measured? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be responsible? </li></ul><ul><li>How and when will the results be fed back into the planning cycle? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Performance Measures Income Response Times Satisfaction Value Added Turnover Ratios Quality Attendances Profit ? Cost
    24. 24. Good Targets ... <ul><li>relate to objectives </li></ul><ul><li>are achievable … but also stretch </li></ul><ul><li>are clear and stable over time </li></ul><ul><li>are easily understood </li></ul><ul><li>have commitment/are agreed </li></ul><ul><li>have responsibility made clear </li></ul><ul><li>are honest and unambiguous </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Dashboard Approach <ul><li>More than one measure </li></ul><ul><li>A few critical areas: fuel; speed; time etc </li></ul><ul><li>Much more than the rear view mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Guides … not automatic pilot! </li></ul>
    26. 26. Your Dashboard? Cost Time ??? Volume ??? Quality
    27. 27. Further Module Aims <ul><li>To: </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how we can achieve high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss operational planning and apply certain planning tools </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the problem solving/decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Assess how we give feedback on performance </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Organisation People Hardware Software Manager’s Task: to deliver the best possible performance from the available resources
    29. 29. Performance Management <ul><li>Performance management is about monitoring performance against targets, identifying opportunities for improvement and delivering change </li></ul>Lets come back to this..
    30. 30. The EFQM Excellence Model Leadership People Policy and Strategy Partnerships and Resources Processes People Results Customer Results Society Results Key Performance Results Enablers Results
    31. 31. Think about an occasion when you/your team performed really well <ul><li>What went well? </li></ul><ul><li>What or who motivated you? </li></ul><ul><li>What conditions were in place that enabled your high performance? </li></ul><ul><li>What lessons does this give you as a line manager in helping others to achieve high performance? </li></ul>
    32. 32. The DMP Achieving Results Personal Effectiveness Managing People Managing Communications Continuous Improvement Activity: In groups, pick out key factors from each of the 3 modules which ‘enabled’ the achievement of results Managing Change
    33. 33. Operational Planning Organisation/Personal Aims/ Objectives Planning and Organisation Implementation Monitoring and Control Evaluation
    34. 34. Aims and Objectives <ul><li>What is an Aim? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Objective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results Related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Bound </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Planning Mind Mapping
    36. 36. Aims and Objectives Activity: In groups, you are going to plan redecorating a room in your house. This includes some electrical rewiring and a new carpet. For now, we need your aim, objectives (specifications), and milestones.
    37. 37. Planning <ul><li>Identifying activities/estimating durations </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Skills matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Communications plan </li></ul><ul><li>Quality plan </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment and contingency planning </li></ul>
    38. 38. Planning, Implementation, Monitoring and Control <ul><li>The Gantt Chart </li></ul>
    39. 42. Improving Performance through Problem Solving <ul><li>Problem recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing the factors contributing to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Generating solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding on the solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Review and evaluation </li></ul>
    40. 43. 1. Recognising and Identifying the Problem <ul><li>Key indicators of problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>You need: </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement that the problem needs resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed aims and objectives </li></ul>
    41. 44. Perceiving the Problem Problem
    42. 45. 2. Analysing the Causes for the Problem <ul><li>Problem-Solving Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Fishbone Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Ask Why 5 Times Method </li></ul>
    43. 46. The Fishbone Diagram 20% of service calls are more than one hour late P eople absenteeism overloaded staff untrained staff P lant business location E nvironment traffic roadwork weather E quipment unreliable equipment poor phones M ethods poor scheduling over-ambitious rotas region too big poor admin and filing unavailable spares M aterials
    44. 47. The Ask Why 5 Times Method Change policy Staff judged on activity not results Too busy – why? Include as agenda item Poor communications – why? Fix obvious. Locate less obvious Poor working conditions – why? Low moral – why? Record reasons High abenteeism – why? Consequent Improvement Level of Problem
    45. 48. 3. Generating Potential Solutions: the Creative Process Green Light Thinking Red Light Thinking Einstein: ‘Imagination is more important than knowledge’
    46. 49. 3. Generating Potential Solutions: the Creative Process
    47. 50. Developing Creative Thinking Attitudes <ul><li>Think – can do! </li></ul><ul><li>Be open-minded to new ideas and the ideas of others </li></ul><ul><li>Have an enquiring mind </li></ul><ul><li>Never be satisfied – assume everything can be improved </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be put off by ridicule </li></ul><ul><li>Put aside critical, analytical, judicial thinking while working creatively </li></ul><ul><li>Look at a range of ideas/solutions – the first may not be the best </li></ul>
    48. 51. Brainstorming <ul><li>Leader writes up problem </li></ul><ul><li>Group tosses out ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Accept </li></ul><ul><li>No editing </li></ul><ul><li>Build/synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-off </li></ul><ul><li>Screen/shortlist </li></ul><ul><li>Individual scoring? </li></ul>
    49. 52. Deciding Which Solution to Implement <ul><li>The Decision Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Tree Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Action plan </li></ul>
    50. 53. Review and Evaluation <ul><li>Have we achieved: </li></ul><ul><li>our aims and objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>targets? </li></ul><ul><li>standards? </li></ul><ul><li>An effective solution to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>The journey to excellence through continuous improvement </li></ul>
    51. 54. Giving Feedback on Performance
    52. 55. Can We Change Things? Circle of Concern Circle of Influence Circle of Concern Being Reactive Being Proactive Circle of Influence
    53. 56. Performance Management <ul><li>Performance management is about monitoring performance against targets, identifying opportunities for improvement and delivering change </li></ul>
    54. 57. Can We Change Things? <ul><li>Forums: </li></ul><ul><li>Line of command </li></ul><ul><li>Talk back days </li></ul><ul><li>Communications officers </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet message board </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing best practice </li></ul>Internal External
    55. 58. Reflection

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