USMLE Step 1 clues 2- 800 slides

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USMLE Step 1 clues 2- 800 slides

  1. 1. Pass Program Clues “ You ain’t told me squat till you tell me the CLUE!!!”
  2. 2. What are the 5 bacteria causing Heart Block? <ul><li>Lyme Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella typhii (typhoid) </li></ul><ul><li>Chagas Disease (Whipple’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Legionella </li></ul><ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Lets Stop Doing Long Contractions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What bacteria cause Reiter’s Syndrome? <ul><li>Shigella </li></ul><ul><li>IBD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crohn’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>Yersina </li></ul><ul><li>Reiter & Crohn Saw Yersina and got Chlamyia </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are the Low Complement bugs causing Cryoglobuniemia? <ul><li>Influenzae </li></ul><ul><li>Adenovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasma </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C </li></ul><ul><li>EBV </li></ul><ul><li>I AM HE </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the drugs induced SLE? <ul><li>Hydralazine </li></ul><ul><li>INH </li></ul><ul><li>Phenytoin </li></ul><ul><li>Procainamide </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillamine </li></ul><ul><li>Ethosuximide </li></ul><ul><li>H I PPPE </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are the drugs that Blast the BM? <ul><li>AZT </li></ul><ul><li>Benzene </li></ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol </li></ul><ul><li>Vinblastine </li></ul><ul><li>Vinblastine Anilate Bone Cells </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are the Comma Shaped bugs? <ul><li>Vibrio </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobacter </li></ul><ul><li>Listeria </li></ul><ul><li>H. pylori </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobacter Has Very Long Comma Genes </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is the cresent shaped protozoa? <ul><li>Giardia lamblia </li></ul>
  9. 9. What bacteria looks like Chinese letters? <ul><li>Corynebacter </li></ul>
  10. 10. What are the TB Rx? <ul><li>Rifampin </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrazinamide </li></ul><ul><li>INH </li></ul><ul><li>Ethambutanol </li></ul><ul><li>Streptomycin </li></ul><ul><li>R E S P I </li></ul>
  11. 11. What are the 6 Low Complement assocs. with Nephrotic Syndrome? <ul><li>Serum Sickness </li></ul><ul><li>PSGN </li></ul><ul><li>SLE </li></ul><ul><li>SBE </li></ul><ul><li>Cryoglobinemia </li></ul><ul><li>MPGN II </li></ul>
  12. 12. What drugs Induce p450? <ul><li>BAG 4 CPR QTS </li></ul><ul><li>Car Grabs Queens Tets to Rev Up </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic doing drugs and stinking up car </li></ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Griseofulvin </li></ul><ul><li>Carbamazapine </li></ul><ul><li>Rifampin </li></ul><ul><li>Quinidine </li></ul><ul><li>Tetracycline </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfa drugs </li></ul>
  13. 13. What drugs Inhibit p450? <ul><li>I Do SMACK Quinolones </li></ul><ul><li>INH </li></ul><ul><li>Dapsone </li></ul><ul><li>Spirolactones </li></ul><ul><li>Macrolides </li></ul><ul><li>Amiodarone </li></ul><ul><li>Cimetidine </li></ul><ul><li>Ketoconazole </li></ul><ul><li>Quinilones </li></ul>
  14. 14. What drugs are P450 Dependent? <ul><li>Warfarin </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phenytoin </li></ul><ul><li>Theophylline </li></ul><ul><li>Digoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Theo came from war & dig inside WDEPT taking Estrogen & now is Phenytoin </li></ul>
  15. 15. What disease is a Neutophil Deficiency? <ul><li>CGD </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is another name for CGD? <ul><li>Chronic Granulomatous disease </li></ul><ul><li>NADPH Oxidase deficiency </li></ul>
  17. 17. What are the Side effects of Statins? <ul><li>Myositis </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Increased liver enzymes </li></ul>
  18. 18. What are the painful genital Lesions? <ul><li>Chancroid </li></ul><ul><li>Herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphogranuloma inguinale </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is the painful chancroid lesion due to? <ul><li>Hemophilus ducreyi </li></ul>
  20. 20. What are the 4 hormones with disulfide bonds? <ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibin </li></ul><ul><li>GH </li></ul><ul><li>I PIG on BONDS </li></ul>
  21. 21. What are the Hookworms? <ul><li>Necatur americanis </li></ul><ul><li>Enterobius vermicularis </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylostoma duodenale </li></ul><ul><li>Trichuris trichurium </li></ul><ul><li>Ascaris lumbercoides </li></ul><ul><li>Strongyloides </li></ul><ul><li>Hooks AS NEAT </li></ul>
  22. 22. What are the X-Linked enzyme Deficiencies? <ul><li>G6-PD </li></ul><ul><li>CGD </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate dehydrogenase Def. </li></ul><ul><li>Fabry’s </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter’s </li></ul><ul><li>Lesch-nyhan </li></ul><ul><li>Lesch-Nyhan Hunter Puts Fabrys on G6 Clothes </li></ul>
  23. 23. What diseases do we screen for at birth? <ul><li>Please </li></ul><ul><li>Check </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>Going </li></ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>PKU </li></ul><ul><li>CAH(Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia) </li></ul><ul><li>Biotinidase </li></ul><ul><li>Galactosemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul>
  24. 24. HLA-Antigens <ul><li>HLA-DR2 = Narcolepsy, Allergy, Goodpasture’s, MS </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-DR3 = DM, Chronic Active Hepatitis, Sjogren’s, SLE, Celiac Sprue </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-DR3 & 4 = IDDM(Type I) </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-DR4 = Rheumatoid Arthritis, Pemphigus Vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-DR5 = JRA, Pernicious Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-DR7 = Nephrotic Syndrome(Steroid induced) </li></ul>
  25. 25. HLA-Antigens <ul><li>HLA-DR 3 & B8= Celiac Disease </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-A3= Hemochromatosis(chromo. 6, point mut.-cysteine>tyrosine) </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-B8= MG </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-B13= Psoriasis </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-B27= Psoriais(only if w/arthritis) Ankylosing Spondylitis, IBD, Reiter’s, Postgonococcal Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>HLA-BW 47= 21 alpha Hydroxylas def.(Vit.D) </li></ul>
  26. 26. What are the actions of Steroids? <ul><li>Kills helper T-cells & eosinophils </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits Macrophage migration </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits Mast cell degranulation </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits Phospholipase A </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Stablizes endothelium </li></ul>
  27. 27. What are the causes of Monocytosis? <ul><li>Salmonella (typhoid) </li></ul><ul><li>TB </li></ul><ul><li>EBV </li></ul><ul><li>Listeria </li></ul><ul><li>Syphillis </li></ul>
  28. 28. E. Coli is the most common cause of what? <ul><li>UTI </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal abscess </li></ul><ul><li>Cholecystitis </li></ul><ul><li>Ascending cholangitis </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicitis </li></ul>
  29. 29. What are the one dose treatments for Gonorrhea? <ul><li>Ceftriaxone </li></ul><ul><li>Cefixime </li></ul><ul><li>Cefoxine </li></ul><ul><li>Ciprofloxin </li></ul><ul><li>Oflaxacin </li></ul><ul><li>Gatifolxacin </li></ul>
  30. 30. What is the one dose treatment for Chlamydia? <ul><li>Azithromycin </li></ul>
  31. 31. What are the “Big Mama” anaerobes? <ul><li>Strep bovis </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium melanogosepticus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriodes fragilis </li></ul>
  32. 32. What are the “Big Mama” Rx? <ul><li>Clindamycin </li></ul><ul><li>Metranidazole </li></ul><ul><li>Cefoxitin </li></ul>
  33. 33. What “big mama” bugs are associated with colon cancer? <ul><li>Strep. Bovis </li></ul><ul><li>Clostridium melanogosepticus </li></ul>
  34. 34. What do you see in the serum with low volume state? <ul><li>K+? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Na+? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Cl-? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases </li></ul><ul><li>pH? </li></ul><ul><li>Increases </li></ul><ul><li>BP? </li></ul><ul><li>Increases </li></ul>
  35. 35. What are psammoma bodies? <ul><li>Calcified CA’s </li></ul>
  36. 36. In what diseases are Psammoa Bodies present? <ul><li>Papillary carcinoma of the Thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Meningioma </li></ul><ul><li>Mesothelioma </li></ul>
  37. 37. What are the Urease (+) Bacteria? <ul><li>Proteus </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas </li></ul><ul><li>Ureaplasma urealyticum </li></ul><ul><li>Nocardia species </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptococcus neoformans </li></ul><ul><li>H. pylori </li></ul>
  38. 38. What types of stones are formed from Proteus? <ul><li>Struvite (90%) </li></ul>
  39. 39. What type of motility do Proteus have? <ul><li>swarming </li></ul>
  40. 40. What are 5 indications of Surgery? <ul><li>Intractable pain </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhage (massive) </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruction (from scarring) </li></ul><ul><li>Perforation </li></ul>
  41. 41. What drugs cause Cardiac Fibrosis? <ul><li>Adriamycin (Doxyrubicin) </li></ul><ul><li>Phen-fen </li></ul>
  42. 42. What drug is used to tx cardiac fibrosis? <ul><li>Dozaroxsin </li></ul>
  43. 43. What is the MCC of any ….penia? <ul><li>#1 = Virus </li></ul><ul><li>#2 = Drugs </li></ul>
  44. 44. What is seen in the Salmonella Triad? <ul><li>High Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Rose spots (rash) </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal fire </li></ul>
  45. 45. What drugs cause Myositis? <ul><li>Rifampin </li></ul><ul><li>INH </li></ul><ul><li>Predinsone </li></ul><ul><li>Statins </li></ul>
  46. 46. What are the 7 Gram -encapsulated bacteria? <ul><li>Some </li></ul><ul><li>Strange </li></ul><ul><li>Killers </li></ul><ul><li>Have </li></ul><ul><li>Pretty </li></ul><ul><li>Nice </li></ul><ul><li>Capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul><ul><li>Strep. Pneumo (gr+) </li></ul><ul><li>Klebsiella </li></ul><ul><li>H. influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas </li></ul><ul><li>Neisseria </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptococcus </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is the Jones Criteria for Rheumatic Fever? <ul><li>SubQ nodules </li></ul><ul><li>Polyarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Erythema marginatum </li></ul><ul><li>Carditis </li></ul><ul><li>Chorea </li></ul>
  48. 48. What are the causes of Eosinophilla? <ul><li>Neoplasms </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies/Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Addison’s Dz </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen Vascular Dz </li></ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul>
  49. 49. What are the Risk Factors for Liver CA? <ul><li>Hep B,C,D </li></ul><ul><li>Aflatoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Vinyl chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Tetrachloride </li></ul><ul><li>Anyline Dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Hemochromatosis </li></ul><ul><li>Benzene </li></ul><ul><li>Schistomiasis </li></ul>
  50. 50. What are the 9 Live Vaccines? <ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps </li></ul><ul><li>Rubella </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Polio (sabin) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotavirus </li></ul><ul><li>Small pox </li></ul><ul><li>BCG </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul><ul><li>Varicella </li></ul>
  51. 51. What are the Killed Vaccines? <ul><li>SIR Hep A </li></ul><ul><li>Salk (polio) </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Rubella </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul>
  52. 52. What are the IgA Nephropathies? <ul><li>Henoch-Schoenlein P. (HSP) </li></ul><ul><li>Alport’s </li></ul><ul><li>Berger’s </li></ul>
  53. 53. What are the Drugs that cause Autoimmune hemolytic anemia? <ul><li>PCN </li></ul><ul><li>α -methyldopa </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalosporins </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfa </li></ul><ul><li>PTU </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-malarials </li></ul><ul><li>Dapsone </li></ul>
  54. 54. What are the drugs that cause Autoimmune thrombocytopenia? <ul><li>ASA </li></ul><ul><li>Heparin </li></ul><ul><li>Quinidine </li></ul>
  55. 55. What are the enzymes that show after an MI? <ul><li>Troponin I </li></ul><ul><li>CKMB </li></ul><ul><li>LDH </li></ul>
  56. 56. What is the first MI enzyme to appear? <ul><li>Troponin I </li></ul><ul><li>Appears </li></ul><ul><li>Peaks </li></ul><ul><li>Gone </li></ul><ul><li>2 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>2 days </li></ul><ul><li>7 days </li></ul>
  57. 57. What is the 2 nd MI enzyme to appear? <ul><li>CK-MB </li></ul><ul><li>Appears </li></ul><ul><li>Peaks </li></ul><ul><li>Gone </li></ul><ul><li>6 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>12 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>24 hrs </li></ul>
  58. 58. What is the 3 rd MI enzyme to appear? <ul><li>LDH </li></ul><ul><li>Appears </li></ul><ul><li>Peaks </li></ul><ul><li>Gone </li></ul><ul><li>1 day </li></ul><ul><li>2 days </li></ul><ul><li>3 days </li></ul>
  59. 59. What bacteria have Silver Stains? <ul><li>Legionella </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumocysitis carinii </li></ul><ul><li>H. pylori </li></ul><ul><li>Bartonella henseslae (lymph node) </li></ul><ul><li>Candida (yeast) </li></ul>
  60. 60. What are the sulfa containing drugs? <ul><li>Sulfonamides </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfonylurea </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrex </li></ul>
  61. 61. What is another name for celebrex? <ul><li>Celecoxib </li></ul>
  62. 62. What type of inhibitor is Celebrex? <ul><li>COX 2 specific </li></ul>
  63. 63. What COX-2 specific drug can you give to a pt with sulfa allergy? <ul><li>Vioxx (Rofecoxib) </li></ul>
  64. 64. What drugs inhibit dihydrofolate reductase? <ul><li>Pyremethamin/Sulfadiazine </li></ul><ul><li>Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole </li></ul>
  65. 65. What drugs cause Pulmonary Fibrosis? <ul><li>Bleomycin </li></ul><ul><li>Bulsufan </li></ul><ul><li>Amiodarone </li></ul><ul><li>Tocainide </li></ul>
  66. 66. What are the macrophage deficiency diseases? <ul><li>Chediak-Higashi </li></ul><ul><li>NADPH-oxidase deficiency </li></ul>
  67. 67. What are the SE of Loops and Thiazides? <ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperuricemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypovolemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul>
  68. 68. What are the SE of Loop diuretics? <ul><li>OH DANG </li></ul><ul><li>Ototoxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Allergy </li></ul><ul><li>Nephritis (interstitial) </li></ul><ul><li>Gout </li></ul>
  69. 69. What are the only 3 Pansystolic Murmurs and when are they heard? <ul><li>MR </li></ul><ul><li>TR </li></ul><ul><li>VSD </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease on inspiration (^exp) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase on inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease on inspiration (^exp) </li></ul>
  70. 70. Macrophages in various organs <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Lung </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><li>CT </li></ul><ul><li>Mircoglia </li></ul><ul><li>Type I pneumocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Kupffer cell </li></ul><ul><li>RES </li></ul><ul><li>Mesangial </li></ul><ul><li>Dendritic </li></ul><ul><li>Langerhans </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul><ul><li>Histiocytes or </li></ul><ul><li>Giant cells or </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelioid cells </li></ul>
  71. 71. What are the 7 Rashes of the Palms & Soles? <ul><li>TSS </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Coxsackie A (Hand/Foot & mouth dz) </li></ul><ul><li>Kawasaki </li></ul><ul><li>Syphillis </li></ul><ul><li>Scarlet Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Staph Scalded Skin Syndrome </li></ul>
  72. 72. What is seen in every restrictive lung dz and low volume state? <ul><li>Tachypnea </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease pCO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease pO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase pH </li></ul>
  73. 73. What are the different 2 nd messenger systems? <ul><li>cAMP </li></ul><ul><li>cGMP </li></ul><ul><li>IP3/DAG </li></ul><ul><li>Ca:Calmodulin </li></ul><ul><li>Ca+ </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrosine kinase </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul>
  74. 74. What is the clue for cAMP? <ul><li>It is the 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>CRH (cortisol) </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolic </li></ul>
  75. 75. What is the clue for cGMP? <ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic </li></ul>
  76. 76. What are the clues for IP3/DAG? <ul><li>Neurotransmitter </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH </li></ul><ul><li>All hypothalamic hormones xc cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>Used by what and for what? </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle for contraction </li></ul>
  77. 77. What is the clue for Ca:Calmodulin? <ul><li>Used by smooth muscle for contraction by distention </li></ul>
  78. 78. What is the clue for Ca+? <ul><li>Used by Gastrin only </li></ul>
  79. 79. What is the clue for Tyrosine Kinase? <ul><li>Used by Insulins </li></ul><ul><li>Used by ALL growth factors </li></ul>
  80. 80. What is the clue for NO? <ul><li>Nitrates </li></ul><ul><li>Viagra </li></ul><ul><li>ANP </li></ul><ul><li>LPS </li></ul>
  81. 81. What are the T & B cell deficiencies? <ul><li>WAS </li></ul><ul><li>SCID </li></ul><ul><li>CVID </li></ul><ul><li>HIV </li></ul><ul><li>HTLV-1 </li></ul>
  82. 82. What are the CLUES for WAS? <ul><li>Thrombocytopenia </li></ul><ul><li>IL-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Eczema </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease IgM </li></ul><ul><li>IgE??? </li></ul>
  83. 83. What are the CLUES for SCID? <ul><li>Framshift/Nonsense mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Adenosine deaminase deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>T-cell>B-cell </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial infections </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal infections </li></ul>
  84. 84. What are the CLUES for CVID? <ul><li>Late onset </li></ul><ul><li>Frameshift/Missense mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrosine Kinase deficiency </li></ul>
  85. 85. What are the CLUES for HIV & HTLV-1? <ul><li>T-cell>B-cell </li></ul><ul><li>CD4 rich </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Testicles </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels </li></ul>
  86. 86. What are the inhibitors of Complex 1 of the ETC? <ul><li>Amytal </li></ul><ul><li>Rotenone </li></ul>
  87. 87. What are the inhibitors of Complex 2 of the ETC? <ul><li>Malonate </li></ul>
  88. 88. What are the inhibitors of Complex 3 of the ETC? <ul><li>Antimycin D </li></ul>
  89. 89. What are the inhibitors of Complex 4 of the ETC? <ul><li>CN- </li></ul><ul><li>CO </li></ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol </li></ul>
  90. 90. What are the inhibitors of Complex 5 of the ETC? <ul><li>Oligomycin </li></ul>
  91. 91. What are the ETC chemical uncouplers? <ul><li>DNP </li></ul><ul><li>Free Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul>
  92. 92. What type of uncoupler is Aspirin? <ul><li>Physical uncoupler </li></ul>
  93. 93. What are the 4 sources of Renal Acid? <ul><li>Plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Urea cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Glutaminase </li></ul>
  94. 94. What is the one dose tx for Hemophilus ducreyi? <ul><li>Azithromycin </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram po </li></ul><ul><li>Ceftriazone </li></ul><ul><li>250 mg im </li></ul>
  95. 95. What is the one dose tx for Chlaymdia? <ul><li>Azithromycin </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram po </li></ul>
  96. 96. What is the one dose tx for Candidiasis? <ul><li>Ketoconazole </li></ul><ul><li>150mg </li></ul>
  97. 97. What is the one dose tx for Vaginal Candidiasis? <ul><li>Difluccan </li></ul><ul><li>1 pill </li></ul>
  98. 98. What is the one dose tx for Trichomonas? <ul><li>Metronidazole </li></ul><ul><li>2 grams </li></ul>
  99. 99. What is the one dose tx for Gardnerella? <ul><li>Metronidazole </li></ul><ul><li>2 grams </li></ul>
  100. 100. What are the 3 cephalosporins & doses used as one dose treatments for Gonorrhea? <ul><li>Ceftriaxone </li></ul><ul><li>250 mg im </li></ul><ul><li>Cefixime </li></ul><ul><li>400 mg po </li></ul><ul><li>Cefoxitin </li></ul><ul><li>400 mg po </li></ul>
  101. 101. What are the 3 Quinolones & doses used as one dose treatments for Gonorrhea? <ul><li>Ciprofloxacin </li></ul><ul><li>500 mg po </li></ul><ul><li>Ofloxacin </li></ul><ul><li>400 mg po </li></ul><ul><li>Gatifloxacin </li></ul><ul><li>400 mg im </li></ul>
  102. 102. What are the 4 enzymes needed to break down glycogen? <ul><li>Phosphorylase (Pi) </li></ul><ul><li>Debranching enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha-1,6 –Glucosidase </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphatase </li></ul>
  103. 103. What are the 2 enzymes needed to make glycogen? <ul><li>Glycogen synthase </li></ul><ul><li>Branching enzyme </li></ul>
  104. 104. What are the branching enzymes? <ul><li>Glycogen alpha-1,4 glycosyl transferase </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen alpha-1,6 glycosyl transferase </li></ul>
  105. 105. What is the rate limiting enzyme in the break down of glycogen? <ul><li>Phosphorylase (Pi) </li></ul>
  106. 106. What values do you see in obstructive pulmonary dz? <ul><li>pO2? </li></ul><ul><li>Normal </li></ul><ul><li>pCO2? </li></ul><ul><li>Normal or increased </li></ul><ul><li>pH? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased </li></ul>
  107. 107. What values do you see in restrictive pulmonary dz? <ul><li>pO2? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased </li></ul><ul><li>pCO2? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased </li></ul><ul><li>pH? </li></ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul>
  108. 108. What type of acidosis do you see with obstructive pulmonary dz? <ul><li>Respiratory acidosis </li></ul>
  109. 109. What are the Lysosomal Storage Disease & what is the deficiency? <ul><li>Fabry’s </li></ul><ul><li>Krabbe’s </li></ul><ul><li>Gaucher’s </li></ul><ul><li>Niemann – Pick </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs </li></ul><ul><li>Metachromatic leukodystrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Hurler’s </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter’s </li></ul><ul><li>α – galactosidase </li></ul><ul><li>Galactosylceramide </li></ul><ul><li>β – glucocerebrosidase </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingomyelinase </li></ul><ul><li>Hexosaminidase </li></ul><ul><li>Arylsulfatase </li></ul><ul><li>α – L – iduronidase </li></ul><ul><li>Iduronidase sulfatase </li></ul>
  110. 110. What dz’s are associated with HLA B27? <ul><li>Psoriasis </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylosing spondylitis </li></ul><ul><li>IBD (Ulcerative colitis) </li></ul><ul><li>Reiter’s Syndrome </li></ul>
  111. 111. What HLA is Psorisis w/RA associated with? <ul><li>HLA-13 </li></ul>
  112. 112. What are the Glycogen Storage Diseases & the deficiency? <ul><li>Von Gierke’s </li></ul><ul><li>Pompe’s </li></ul><ul><li>Cori’s </li></ul><ul><li>McArdle’s </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose – 6 – phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>α – 1 – 4 glucosidase </li></ul><ul><li>Debranching enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen phosphorylase </li></ul>
  113. 113. What are 6 places of the TCA cycle where amino acids feed in/out? <ul><li>Pyruvate? </li></ul><ul><li>Glycine </li></ul><ul><li>Alanine </li></ul><ul><li>Serine </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl CoA ? </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylalanine </li></ul><ul><li>Isoleucine </li></ul><ul><li>Threonine </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan </li></ul><ul><li>Lysine </li></ul><ul><li>Leucine </li></ul>
  114. 114. What are 6 places of the TCA cycle where amino acids feed in/out? <ul><li>Alpha-KG ? </li></ul><ul><li>Glutamate </li></ul><ul><li>Glutamine </li></ul><ul><li>Succinyl CoA? </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylalanine </li></ul><ul><li>Tryptophan </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrosine </li></ul>
  115. 115. What are 6 places of the TCA cycle where amino acids feed in/out? <ul><li>Fumerate ? </li></ul><ul><li>Proline </li></ul><ul><li>Oxaloacetate? </li></ul><ul><li>Aspartate </li></ul><ul><li>Asparigine </li></ul>
  116. 116. What are the 4 steps of B-oxidation? <ul><li>Oxidation – 7 NADH – 21 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation - 7FADH – 14 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Thiolysis – 8 AcCoA – 96ATP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>131 ATP – 2 (to bring it in) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  117. 117. What are the blood gases in neuromuscular disease (= restrictive blood gases)? <ul><li>pO2? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased </li></ul><ul><li>pCO2? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased </li></ul><ul><li>PCWP? </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased (b/c it’s a pressure problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Rate? </li></ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul><ul><li>pH? </li></ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul><ul><li>SZ? </li></ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul>
  118. 118. What are 5 Hormones produced by small cell (oat cell) lung CA? <ul><li>ACTH </li></ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul><ul><li>PTH </li></ul><ul><li>TSH </li></ul><ul><li>ANP </li></ul>
  119. 119. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-smith </li></ul><ul><li>Anti cardiolipin </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-ds DNA </li></ul><ul><li>SLE </li></ul>
  120. 120. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti – histone? </li></ul><ul><li>Drug induced SLE </li></ul>
  121. 121. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-topoisomerase? </li></ul><ul><li>PSS (Progressive Systemic Sclerosis) </li></ul>
  122. 122. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti TSH receptors? </li></ul><ul><li>Graves </li></ul>
  123. 123. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-centromere? </li></ul><ul><li>CREST </li></ul>
  124. 124. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-GBM? </li></ul><ul><li>Goodpasture’s </li></ul>
  125. 125. What does Goodpastures have antibody to? <ul><li>Type IV collagen </li></ul>
  126. 126. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-mitochondria? </li></ul><ul><li>Primary biliary cirrhosis </li></ul>
  127. 127. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-hair follicle? </li></ul><ul><li>Alopecia areata </li></ul>
  128. 128. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-IgG? </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis </li></ul>
  129. 129. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-myelin receptors? </li></ul><ul><li>MS </li></ul>
  130. 130. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-gliaden? </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-gluten? </li></ul><ul><li>Celiac sprue </li></ul>
  131. 131. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-islet cell receptor? </li></ul><ul><li>DM Type I </li></ul>
  132. 132. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-melanocyte? </li></ul><ul><li>Viteligo </li></ul>
  133. 133. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-ACh receptor? </li></ul><ul><li>MG </li></ul>
  134. 134. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-ribonuclear protein? </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Connective Tissue dz (MCTD) </li></ul>
  135. 135. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-parietal cell receptor? </li></ul><ul><li>Pernicious anemia </li></ul>
  136. 136. What does Pernicious Anemia have antibody to? <ul><li>Intrinsic factor </li></ul>
  137. 137. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-epidermal anchoring protein receptors? </li></ul><ul><li>Pemphigus vulgaris </li></ul>
  138. 138. What does Pemphigus vulgaris have antibody to? <ul><li>Intercelluar junctions of epidermal cells </li></ul>
  139. 139. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-epidermal basement membrane protein? </li></ul><ul><li>Bullous pemphigoid </li></ul>
  140. 140. What do you see with bullous pemphigoid? <ul><li>IgG sub-epidermal blisters </li></ul><ul><li>Oral blisters </li></ul>
  141. 141. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-platelet? </li></ul><ul><li>ITP </li></ul>
  142. 142. What does ITP have antibody to? <ul><li>Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa </li></ul>
  143. 143. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-thyroglobulin? </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-microsomal? </li></ul><ul><li>Hashimoto’s </li></ul>
  144. 144. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-smooth muscle? </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-scl-70? </li></ul><ul><li>Scleroderma </li></ul>
  145. 145. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-rho (SS-A)? </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-la? </li></ul><ul><li>Sjogren’s </li></ul>
  146. 146. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>Anti-proteinase? </li></ul><ul><li>C-ANCA? </li></ul><ul><li>Wegener’s </li></ul>
  147. 147. What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? <ul><li>P-ANCA? </li></ul><ul><li>Polyarteritis nodosa </li></ul>
  148. 148. What antigen & immunoglobulin is Polyarteritis nodosa associated with? <ul><li>Hepatitis B antigen </li></ul><ul><li>IgM </li></ul>
  149. 149. What are the viruses that directly cause CA and which CA do they cause? <ul><li>Papilloma virus ? </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical CA </li></ul><ul><li>EBV ? </li></ul><ul><li>Burkitts </li></ul><ul><li>Nasopharyngeal CA </li></ul><ul><li>HepB & C ? </li></ul><ul><li>Liver CA </li></ul><ul><li>HIV ? </li></ul><ul><li>Kaposi’s Sarcoma </li></ul>
  150. 150. What are the 7 Nephrotic Patterns seen with every Vasculitis? <ul><li>Clot in front of renal artery? </li></ul><ul><li>Renal artery stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Clot off whole renal artery? </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Inflamed glomeruli? </li></ul><ul><li>Glumerulo nephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Clot in papilla? </li></ul><ul><li>Papillary necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Clot off medulla? </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial nephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Clot off pieces of nephron? </li></ul><ul><li>Focal segmental GN (HIV, drug use association) </li></ul><ul><li>Clot off lots of nephrons? </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly Progressive GN </li></ul>
  151. 151. What is the most common nephrotic disease seen in kids and when does it occur? <ul><li>Min. change disease </li></ul><ul><li>2 wks post URI </li></ul>
  152. 152. What is the most common vasculitity leading to rapidly progressive glomerulonephrosis? <ul><li>Goodpasture’s </li></ul>
  153. 153. What is the most common malignant renal tumor in children? <ul><li>Wilm’s tumor </li></ul>
  154. 154. What is the most common malignant renal tumor in adults? <ul><li>Adenocarcinoma </li></ul>
  155. 155. What is the most common renal mass? <ul><li>Cyst </li></ul>
  156. 156. What is the most common renal disease in Blacks/Hispanics? <ul><li>Focal Segmental GN </li></ul>
  157. 157. What is the most common nephrotic disease in adults? <ul><li>Membranous GN </li></ul>
  158. 158. Thrombolytics & Inhibitors <ul><li>What does tPA, Streptokinase, Urokinase inhibit? </li></ul><ul><li>Aminocaproic acid </li></ul><ul><li>What doe Warfarin inhibit? </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin K </li></ul><ul><li>What does Heparin inhibit? </li></ul><ul><li>Protamine Sulfate </li></ul>
  159. 159. What is the dosage of tPA? <ul><li>IV push? </li></ul><ul><li>20mg </li></ul><ul><li>Drip? </li></ul><ul><li>40mg </li></ul>
  160. 160. What is the dosage for Streptokinase? <ul><li>IV push? </li></ul><ul><li>750K </li></ul><ul><li>Drip? </li></ul><ul><li>750K </li></ul>
  161. 161. What is Urokinase used for? <ul><li>Used ONLY for such things as: </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Central lines </li></ul><ul><li>Fistulas </li></ul>
  162. 162. What is Alopecia Areata? <ul><li>Loss of a patch of hair </li></ul>
  163. 163. What is Alopecia Totalis? <ul><li>Loss of ALL hair on head “bald” </li></ul>
  164. 164. What is Alopecia Universalis? <ul><li>Loss of hair on entire body “hairless” </li></ul>
  165. 165. What is Loffler syndrome? <ul><li>Pneumonitis with endocarditis = pulmonary infiltrate with severe eosinophilia </li></ul>
  166. 166. What is Loffler syndrome also known as? <ul><li>PIE syndrome </li></ul>
  167. 167. What are the 5 Parasites associated with Loffler Syndrome? <ul><li>Necator americanus </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylostoma duodenale </li></ul><ul><li>Shistosomiasis </li></ul><ul><li>Strongyloides </li></ul><ul><li>Ascaris lumbricoides </li></ul>
  168. 168. What happens when a patient is on prednisone for > 7 days? <ul><li>Immunocompromised </li></ul>
  169. 169. What are 2 enzymes used by B12? <ul><li>Homocystine methyl transferase </li></ul><ul><li>Methyl malonyl-coA mutase </li></ul>
  170. 170. What does Mitochondrial inheritance mean? <ul><li>No male transmission </li></ul><ul><li>All females pass it on </li></ul>
  171. 171. Who are 4 pt’s who would be susceptable to pseudomonas and staph infxns? <ul><li>Burn patients </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>DM </li></ul><ul><li>Neutropenic patients </li></ul>
  172. 172. In a neutropenic patient, what do you cover for? <ul><li>cover 1x for Staph aureus during 1st week </li></ul><ul><li>cover 2x for Pseudo after 2nd week </li></ul>
  173. 173. What are the 3 main concepts causing a widened S2 splitting? <ul><li>Increased pO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed opening/closing of the pulmonary value </li></ul><ul><li>Increased volume in the right ventricle </li></ul>
  174. 174. What are causes for a widened S2 splitting? <ul><li>Blood transfusion </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Tidal Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Giving O2 </li></ul><ul><li>Right sided heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy due to increase volume </li></ul><ul><li>IV fluids </li></ul><ul><li>ASD/VSD </li></ul><ul><li>Deep breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Hypernateremia </li></ul><ul><li>SIADH </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary regurge </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Right bundle branch block </li></ul>
  175. 175. What are the 8 common cavities of blood loss? <ul><li>P ericardium </li></ul><ul><li>I ntracranial </li></ul><ul><li>M ediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>P leural cavity </li></ul><ul><li>T highs </li></ul><ul><li>R etroperitoneum </li></ul><ul><li>A bdominal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>P elvis </li></ul>
  176. 176. What is the special list for Penicillin? <ul><li>Gram + </li></ul><ul><li>Basement membrane suppressor </li></ul><ul><li>Works on simple anaerobes </li></ul><ul><li>The #1 cause of anaphylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Causes interstial nepritits </li></ul><ul><li>Causes nonspecific rashes </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a hapten causing hemolytic anemia </li></ul>
  177. 177. What is the #1 cause of anaphylaxis? <ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul>
  178. 178. What are the Chron’s Gifts? <ul><li>Granuloma </li></ul><ul><li>Ileum </li></ul><ul><li>Fistula </li></ul><ul><li>Transmural </li></ul><ul><li>Skip Lesion </li></ul>
  179. 179. What are the negative-stranded RNA Clues? <ul><li>Prodromal period before symptoms = 1-3 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there a prodromal period? </li></ul><ul><li>Because must switch to positive stranded before replication </li></ul>
  180. 180. What are the clues for positive stranded RNA? <ul><li>Symptoms within 1 week or less </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPTIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Hanta </li></ul><ul><li>Ebola </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul><ul><li>They are -ve stranded = don’t have to switch to positive before replicating </li></ul>
  181. 181. What are the Most common cyanotic heart diseases? <ul><li>Transposition of the great arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrology of Fallot </li></ul><ul><li>Truncus Arteriosus </li></ul><ul><li>Tricuspid Atresia </li></ul><ul><li>Total anomalous pulmunary Venous Return </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoplastic Left heart syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Ebstein’s anomaly </li></ul><ul><li>Aortic atresia </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary atresia </li></ul>
  182. 182. What cyanotic heart disease is – boot shaped? <ul><li>Tetrology of Fallot </li></ul>
  183. 183. What cyanotic heart disease is associated with mom taking lithium during pregnancy? <ul><li>Ebstein’s Anomaly </li></ul>
  184. 184. What things make the membrane less likely to depolarize? <ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypermagnesemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercalcemia (except atrium) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypernatremia </li></ul>
  185. 185. What things make the membrane more likely to depolarize? <ul><li>Hyperkalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypomagnasemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocalcemia (except atrium) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyponatremia </li></ul>
  186. 186. What is Plan F? <ul><li>T P P – Thiamin – B1 </li></ul><ul><li>L ipoic Acid – B4 </li></ul><ul><li>Co A – Pantothenic acid – B5 </li></ul><ul><li>F AD – Riboflavin – B2 </li></ul><ul><li>N AD – Niacin – B3 </li></ul>
  187. 187. What are the 8 x-linked inherited diseases? <ul><li>Bruton’s Agammaglobulinemia </li></ul><ul><li>CGD (NADPH def) </li></ul><ul><li>DMD </li></ul><ul><li>Color Blindness </li></ul><ul><li>G6PD </li></ul><ul><li>Hemophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Lesch-Nyhan </li></ul><ul><li>Vit D resist. Rickets (X-linked dominant) </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrys </li></ul><ul><li>Hunters </li></ul>
  188. 188. What are the 7 B-cell deficiencies? <ul><li>Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia </li></ul><ul><li>CVID (Common Variant Imm. Def) </li></ul><ul><li>Leukemias </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphomas </li></ul><ul><li>SCID </li></ul><ul><li>WAS </li></ul><ul><li>Job Buckley Syndrome </li></ul>
  189. 189. What is the Tyrosine kinase deficiency? <ul><li>Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia </li></ul>
  190. 190. What are the B-cell deficiencies with T-cell overlap? <ul><li>SCID </li></ul><ul><li>WAS </li></ul><ul><li>Job Buckley Syndrome </li></ul>
  191. 191. What are the 4 itchiest rashes? <ul><li>Scabies </li></ul><ul><li>Lichen Planus </li></ul><ul><li>Urticaria </li></ul><ul><li>Dermatitis Herpetiformis </li></ul>
  192. 192. Tumor Markers/Oncongenes I <ul><li>L-myc? </li></ul><ul><li>Small cell lung Ca </li></ul><ul><li>C-myc? </li></ul><ul><li>Promyelocytic leukemia (Burkitt’s lymphoma) </li></ul><ul><li>N-myc? </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroblastoma </li></ul><ul><li>Small cell lung CA </li></ul><ul><li>C-able? </li></ul><ul><li>CML </li></ul><ul><li>ALL </li></ul>
  193. 193. Tumor Markers/Oncongenes II <ul><li>C-myb? </li></ul><ul><li>Colon CA </li></ul><ul><li>AML </li></ul><ul><li>C-sis ? </li></ul><ul><li>Osteosarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Glioma </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrosarcoma </li></ul>
  194. 194. Tumor Markers/Oncongenes III <ul><li>C-erb B2? </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermal growth factor receptors </li></ul><ul><li>CSF-1 ? </li></ul><ul><li>Breast </li></ul>
  195. 195. Tumor Markers/Oncongenes IV <ul><li>Erb-B2? </li></ul><ul><li>Breast CA </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian CA </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric CA </li></ul><ul><li>Ret? </li></ul><ul><li>Medullary CA of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Men II & III </li></ul><ul><li>Papillary carcinoma </li></ul>
  196. 196. Tumor Markers/Oncongenes V <ul><li>Ki-ras? </li></ul><ul><li>Lung CA </li></ul><ul><li>Colon CA </li></ul><ul><li>Bcl-2? </li></ul><ul><li>Burkitts </li></ul><ul><li>Follicular lymphoma </li></ul><ul><li>Erb? </li></ul><ul><li>Retinoblastoma </li></ul>
  197. 197. What are 6 Hormones produced by the placenta? <ul><li>hCG </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibin </li></ul><ul><li>Human placental lactogen (HPL) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin (drug lactation, pit gland prod it also) </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxin </li></ul>
  198. 198. What is cancer grading? <ul><li>Severity of microscopic change </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of differentiation </li></ul>
  199. 199. What is cancer staging? <ul><li>Degree of dissemination of tumor </li></ul><ul><li>What the surgeon sees </li></ul>
  200. 200. What are the rashes associated with cancer and what cancer are they associated with? <ul><li>Urticaria/Hives? </li></ul><ul><li>Any CA, especially lymphoma </li></ul><ul><li>Pagets Ds (ulcers around nipples) </li></ul><ul><li>Seborrheic keratosis (waxy warts)? </li></ul><ul><li>Colon CA </li></ul><ul><li>HIV if sudden increase in number </li></ul><ul><li>Normal with aging </li></ul>
  201. 201. What are the rashes associated with cancer and what cancer are they associated with? <ul><li>Actinic keratosis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry scaly plaques on sun-exposed skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Squamous Cell CA of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Dermatomyositis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>violacious, heliotropic rash, malar area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colon CA </li></ul>
  202. 202. What are the rashes associated with Cancer and the cancer they are associated with? <ul><li>Akanthosis nigricans? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dark lines in skin folds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any visceral CA </li></ul><ul><li>End organ damage </li></ul><ul><li>Erythema nodosum? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ant aspect of legs, tender nodules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anything granulomatous </li></ul><ul><li>NOT assoc. w/ bacteria </li></ul>
  203. 203. What is carried by HDL? <ul><li>Apo E </li></ul><ul><li>Apo A </li></ul><ul><li>Apo CII </li></ul><ul><li>L-CAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lecithin cholesterol acetyl transferase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from periphery to liver </li></ul></ul>
  204. 204. What is carried by VLDL? <ul><li>Apo B-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Apo E </li></ul><ul><li>Apo C II </li></ul><ul><li>Triglcyerides (95%) </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (5%) </li></ul>
  205. 205. What is carried by IDL? <ul><li>Apo B-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Apo E </li></ul><ul><li>Apo CII </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides (< VLDL) </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (>VLDL) </li></ul>
  206. 206. What is carried by LDL? <ul><li>Apo B-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from liver to tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOT a good thing!!!!! </li></ul>
  207. 207. What do chylomicrons carry? <ul><li>Apo A </li></ul><ul><li>Apo B-48 </li></ul><ul><li>Apo E </li></ul><ul><li>Apo C II </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides from: </li></ul><ul><li>GI to liver (25% of the time) </li></ul><ul><li>GI to endothelium (75% of the time) </li></ul>
  208. 208. Which lipoprotein carries the most cholesterol? <ul><li>LDL </li></ul>
  209. 209. Where are the AVMs? <ul><li>Clue = HEAL </li></ul><ul><li>Heart? </li></ul><ul><li>Machinery murmur </li></ul><ul><li>Elbow? </li></ul><ul><li>Fistula from dialysis in renal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen/Brain? </li></ul><ul><li>Von Hippel-Lindau = clot off with coils </li></ul><ul><li>Increase incidence of Renal cell CA on chrom 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs? </li></ul><ul><li>Osler Weber Rendu Syndrome </li></ul>
  210. 210. What is the Ranson’s criteria for acute pancreatitis ( at admission )? <ul><li>Glucose > 200 </li></ul><ul><li>Age > 55 </li></ul><ul><li>LDH >350 </li></ul><ul><li>AST > 250 </li></ul><ul><li>WBC > 16,000 </li></ul>