1. Allocate identity according to their personal beliefs, experiences and understandings about identity. Grounded in their tacit knowledge that this is what good teachers do, and in their attempts to be culturally responsive educators 2. Influences the ways students will understand identity and ultimately ‘see’ themselves.
Cultural provider: concerned with ethnic identity. Believes student is confused over who they are and where they belong in society (kiwis or their ethnic homeland). These students may be marginalised by society (curriculum from dominant culture makes their culture invisible). Rather than validating students’ self-identification the teacher chooses to identify the ethnic identity aspect. This is done through learning songs and dances, promoting role models. Teachers as cultural providers ‘save’ supposedly marginalised children to reconstitute fragmented identities and validate diverse and personal ethnic identities Cultural mediator: less explicit than first more concerned with smoothing over differences that exist over diverse students ethnic identity. They do this through linking to ancestral places of origin. This helps students acknowledge they were different , different places, languages so can value their own and others’ cultures. Teachers as cultural mediator believe that it helps them understand diverse nature of NZ multicultural society, that one did not have to be the same to belong, accept differences to minimise ethnic conflict in school and society. Cultural transmitter: Concerned with national identity with NZ national identity. Accepts plurality of NZ but all subsumed under national identity, common shared heritage, teacher wants to pass on established knowledge, beliefs, values that support a national identity so all students will fit in and belong. Cultural popularist: Characterised by what it means to be a Kiwi, most often through music and sport, loyalty and patriotism and national pride key features so wants to strengthen students’ national identity as a NZer
Danger of getting a tourist view which may serve to perpetrate stereotypes, undermine sense of identity, and students may be unwilling to align themselves with the type of Pasifika person being promoted Link with academic achievement and disparities which exist show high statistics to suspensions, young age of leaving school, poor school results and low socio-economic so that Being Pasifika is not always associated with feelings of pride and success in NZ school contexts Lack of choice which is held by the dominant culture but a teacher’s view may be a forced identity rather than a self-affirmation. The term also of Pasifika is too wide and so students want to know who they really are.
This is a beginning point for you to start thinking about a classroom where these students can achieve their potential. This will be reviewed towards the end of the session.
Private versus public, purpose of public talk. Shyness, respect for other’s including elders, reluctance to ask questions, use of body language Core Pasifika values. Individual accountability versus collective and notions of service Look at how the teacher role is interpreted and how the student role is interpreted. Teacher is elder so their role is to listen to the teacher.
Culturally responsive teaching for pasifika students
Culturally responsive teaching and learningwith Pasifika firstname.lastname@example.org
Some key facts• Auckland has the largest Pasifika population inthe world• Pasifika peoples are a complex multi-ethnic,heterogeneous group comprising differentlanguages and cultures• Many Pasifika students in our NZ schools andparticularly in low socio-economiccommunities experience educational disparities• NZ Pasifika communities have highestproportion of people with no qualifications
The fluidity of Pasifika identities• Being educated in NZ should not requirePasifika young people to:• assimilate or;• submit to any form of cultural identityallocation.1.Why do teachers allocate students’identity2.What is the effect on the student of teacherallocation of identity?3.What should we promote instead?
The cultural identity allocation of wellintentioned teachers• Directly related to, and a consequence of thechoices teachers make about classroomcontent.• Two forms of identity commonly recognised-national identity or ethnic identity• Teachers often choose to focus on one or theother but not bothWhy is this a problem for the Pasifika student?
Four types of teacher allocationThe teacher as•cultural provider•cultural mediator•cultural transmitter•cultural popularistWhat do you think teachers do in each group?With each one make predictions about eachtype and how it plays out in the classroom.
Problems with teacher allocation of culturalidentity• A gap exists between an ideological and livedview of Pasifika identity• Teachers understanding of Pasifika identitycan be shaped by deficit views• Allocation does not allow for choice orvariabilityTeachers need to develop a deep contextualisedunderstanding of Pasifika identities
Critical levers for academic success• Perceptions and expectations by students andof students by teachers is one of the mostcrucial levers of academic success• Pasifika students’ views of themselves andtheir self-aspirations need to be incorporatedinto the organisational structures of the schooland the education system• Core Pasifika values need addressing forrelational equity
Relational equity• Term used to describe how opportunities aredistributed equitable in classrooms• Counters social and academic statusdifferences on the premise that these do notemerge because of the particular students;they emerge because of group interactions.
Core Pasifika valuesReciprocity Respect ServiceInclusion Relationships SpiritualityLeadership Love BelongingFamilyWhat do these concepts mean?How can/do they play out in classrooms?How can we use them in ways that willincrease relational equity for Pasifika students?
Pedagogical factors which impact on learning• High expectations• Application of skills to match backgroundand experiences of students in front of them• Clear links to core Pasifika valuesDevelop a concept map of what this wouldlook like in a classroom which usesculturally responsive teaching and whichpromotes relational equity for all learners?
Uni-dimensional classroomsIn a unidimensional classroom only somepractices are valued.How does this description fit with what mostchildren experience in school ? What does itmean for the Pasifika child?
Multi-dimensional classroomsMultidimensional classrooms expand thedimensions and recognise that students areall different and will use different methods,ask different questions, use different waysto think about and represent ideas, activelydiscuss and question ideas.What does this mean for the Pasifika childin a classroom?
Multidimensional classroomsMore students have access to ideas and maybe regarded as contributing in importantways.Teachers apply a multiple abilitiesapproach…no student is good at all theabilities but each student will be good at, atleast one.What does this suggest teachers need toconsider for the Pasifika child?
Culturally inclusive classrooms• culturally inclusive classrooms do notsacrifice high achievement, but ratherencourage it in minority group learners• require establishing environments that arelikely to encourage Pasifika students’interest, acknowledging individual effortsand setting standards that other students canmodel on, addressing communication andparticipation patterns
Assigning competenceAssigning competence involves teachersraising the status of students that may be oflower status in a group by:• Praising something they do or say that hasintellectual value and bringing it to groupattention• Asking them to present it in their own way• Publicly praising the work in a whole classsetting.
Public and intellectual dimensionsProviding feedback that raises status mustbe:• Public• Intellectual• Specific• Relevant to the task.Think of the core Pasifika values. Howcould teachers provide feedback whichaffirm the students use of these?
Public and intellectual dimensionsThe public dimension allows other studentsto learn about the broad dimensions that arevalued.The intellectual dimension ensures that thefeedback is an aspect of the task.
Positioning students as competentPositioning students as someone with goodideas in this broader sense, disrupts thosetraditionally narrow ways of beingcompetent in school work like finishingfirst, or being born with academic ability.
Setting classroom normsEstablishing norms for learning is a keyaspect of determining which students learn,what they learn, and how they learn.What norms do you think might be importantto enact to ensure Pasifika students havemany opportunities to learn?
Commitment to the learning of others• Look closely at group work. Teach students tobe responsible for the learning of others throughdeveloping reciprocity. See learning as ancollective rather than individual act to constructmultiple perspectives.• Look closely at the communication andparticipation norms enacted in the classroom.Who talks, when and how and the use of bodylanguage. Monitor and promote risk taking
What does a classroom look like which catersto the needs of Pasifika learnersRevise your concept map where needed tobetter meet the needs of Pasifika learners