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Te Kotahitanga a  Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of Relations:  Implications for RTLB Mere Berryman Faculty of Education, ...
<ul><li>19.1% of Early Childhood  students are Māori  (school starters 86% in 2002; 90% in 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>21.4% c...
Source: OECD (2001) Knowledge and skills for life, Appendix B1, Table 2.3a, p.253, Table 2.4, p.257 . New Zealand’s Overal...
2004 Stand-downs, suspensions, combined, Māori and non Māori, a national overview Ministry of Education, 2005: Ng ā Haeata...
Suspension  means the formal removal of a student from school until the board of trustees decides the outcome at a suspens...
Age-standardised  Stand-down Rates  by ethnicity (2000 to 2009)  per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/sta...
Age-standardised  Suspension Rates  by ethnicity (2000 to 2009)  per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/sta...
Expulsion  means the formal removal of a student aged 16 or over from the school. If the student wishes to continue school...
Age-standardised  Exclusion Rates  by ethnicity (2000 to 2009)  per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/stat...
Age-standardised  Expulsion Rates  by ethnicity (2000 to 2009)  per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/stat...
15 year old  Early Leaving Exemption  by ethnicity (2000 to 2009)  per 1,000 students ( http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz...
Retention Rates  by ethnicity (2006 to 2009) to age 17 http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_pa...
Percentage of school leavers with an NCEA Level 1 qualification or above, by ethnic group (2002 to 2009 ) retrieved from  ...
retrieved from  http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/6409/simu23-NCEA-L2.pdf Percentage of schoo...
Percentage of school leavers with University Entrance (2004 to 2009) http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cu...
In contrast <ul><li>25% of Education students who enroll at SOE Waikato are Māori (average from 2000 to 2005).  </li></ul>...
The Tail or the Gap? Hattie, J. (2007).   Narrow the gap, fix the tail, or close the curves: The power of words: Universit...
Reading Curves Hattie, J. (2007). Narrow the gap, fix the tail, or close the curves: The power of words: University of Auc...
Mathematics Curves Hattie, J. (2007). Narrow the gap, fix the tail, or close the curves: The power of words: University of...
“ Education is the opening of identities” Wenger 1999 How  we construct children’s identity has a huge impact on how they ...
<ul><li>Te Kotahitanga </li></ul><ul><li>(Background 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>We spoke with people who were most intimately...
three discourses were used to explain their experiences and from which to offer solutions <ul><li>Māori child, their home ...
Tally of discourse unit ideas showed © 2003 Ministry of Education
Te Kotahitanga Effective Teaching Profile
Te Kotahitanga Effective  Teaching Profile <ul><li>Teachers are culturally appropriate and responsive, and they possess th...
Culture <ul><li>Teachers create settings that are culturally appropriate for M ā ori  students </li></ul><ul><li>If the te...
Te Kotahitanga Discursive Positioning Discourses (sets of ideas) explaining M ā ori students’ educational achievement ● Ch...
<ul><li>Teachers demonstrate those understandings in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers care for these student...
Relationships <ul><li>Caring for the well-being of the child (soft caring) </li></ul><ul><li>She [teacher] created this wh...
<ul><li>Teachers demonstrate those understandings in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers care for these student...
How we view Knowledge: Interactions <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly everywhere we go the teachers tell us a ...
A Range of Interactions C U L T U R E Instruction  Monitoring FBB - Feedback Behaviour FFB - Feed forward Behaviour Prior ...
Points to ponder <ul><li>What questions do you have about the Effective Teaching Profile (ETP)? </li></ul><ul><li>What con...
Consider, the Effective Teaching Profile is contextual, focussed on a pedagogy of relations and is not curriculum specific...
So… what difference has implementing this  Effective Teaching Profile in classrooms made in terms of raising the achieveme...
Essential Skills Assessment 2004
Essential Skills Assessment 2005
NZQA data for NCEA  L1 in  Te Kotahitanga Sch ools   Eth-nicity n  students   o n  Year 11   r o ll n  students gaining NC...
 
The voices of Te Kotahitanga students in phase 3 schools talking about Effective Teaching  1. What do you hear? 2. What ar...
<ul><li>“ You can tell he respects us, because when it comes to learning big time he’s always there, if we don’t understan...
<ul><li>“ She is cool as, ‘cause I go to her every morning. Yeah she jokes around too and she is cool.” </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>“ She doesn’t want to be your friend or that sort of thing.  She’s like a friend, but not a friend.” </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>“ She’s dedicated to what we do in our class.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think it’s just her passion, that she likes s...
The voices of Phase 3 Te Kotahitanga Principals and teachers  1. What do you hear? 2. What are the implications to your ro...
<ul><li>“ What can I do for that hour when I have that student in my class.  I am in control in that hour, what am I going...
<ul><li>“ We’ve got work to do in terms of building relationships with the kids, that is the position we took with our sta...
<ul><li>“ The amazing stuff that kids will produce if we just give them a little bit of space, if we step back long enough...
<ul><li>“…  as a society there is an idea of social justice, and is it actually okay to have a society that knows that a m...
Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of Relations <ul><li>Interactions emerge from relationships  (Sidorkin, 2002) </li></ul><ul...
Māori students enjoying education success  as Māori <ul><li>Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Te Reo </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </...
<ul><li>“ Your job is about doing what you can do to ensure the success and wellbeing of all the tamariki at your school –...
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  1. 1. Te Kotahitanga a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of Relations: Implications for RTLB Mere Berryman Faculty of Education, University of Waikato
  2. 2. <ul><li>19.1% of Early Childhood students are Māori (school starters 86% in 2002; 90% in 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>21.4% compulsory sector are Māori </li></ul><ul><li>85% are in English medium </li></ul><ul><li>14% are in M āori medium </li></ul><ul><li> 7.8% in Level 1 (81 - 100%) </li></ul><ul><li>3.2% in Level 2 (51 - 80%) </li></ul><ul><li>3.1% in Level 3 (31 – 50%) </li></ul><ul><li>17% of Māori school-leavers enroll in tertiary </li></ul>Ministry of Education, 2005 & 2006/07 : Ng ā Haeata Mātauranga
  3. 3. Source: OECD (2001) Knowledge and skills for life, Appendix B1, Table 2.3a, p.253, Table 2.4, p.257 . New Zealand’s Overall Performance High Average and Large Variance Finland Canada New Zealand Australia Ireland Korea United Kingdom Japan Sweden Belgium Austria Iceland Norway United States Denmark Switzerland Spain Czech Republic Italy Germany Hungary Poland Greece Portugal Luxembourg Mexico 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 50 75 100 125 150 Variation expressed as percentage of average variation across the OECD Mean performance in reading literacy . r = 0.04 Low quality High equity Low quality Low equity High quality High equity High quality Low equity
  4. 4. 2004 Stand-downs, suspensions, combined, Māori and non Māori, a national overview Ministry of Education, 2005: Ng ā Haeata Mātauranga Māori Rate per 1 000 Non Māori Rate per 1 000 Boys Girls All Boys Girls All 69.7 35.6 53.0 30.4 11.09 21.3 19.5 8.9 14.3 6.2 2.6 4.4 89.1 44.6 67.4 36.6 14.4 25.8
  5. 5. Suspension means the formal removal of a student from school until the board of trustees decides the outcome at a suspension meeting. The board of trustees of a school is required to hold a meeting of the board, within 7 school days of the suspension, to decide the outcome of a suspension. Following a suspension, the board may decide to: lift the suspension without conditions; lift the suspension with reasonable conditions; extend the suspension with reasonable conditions for a reasonable period; exclude or expel the student. Stand-down means the formal removal of a student from school for a specified period. Stand-downs of a particular student can total no more than 5 school days in a term or 10 school days in a year.
  6. 6. Age-standardised Stand-down Rates by ethnicity (2000 to 2009) per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_participation/schooling/3720 Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2000 2003 2006 2009 Pākehā 59% 19.3 20.0 22.0 20.0 Māori 22% 52.0 56.9 59.4 52.9 Pacific 9% 32.1 36.4 44.8 35.4 Asian 8% 6.5 7.8 8.1 8.4 Other 2% 17.5 31.2 28.8 20.2
  7. 7. Age-standardised Suspension Rates by ethnicity (2000 to 2009) per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_participation/schooling/3721 Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2000 2003 2006 2009 Pākehā 59% 5.1 4.3 4.1 4.1 Māori 22% 19.4 16.5 15.5 14.6 Pacific 9% 8.7 8.4 10.5 8.0 Asian 8% 1.3 2.1 1.3 1.3 Other 2% 3.6 6.9 6.5 7.6
  8. 8. Expulsion means the formal removal of a student aged 16 or over from the school. If the student wishes to continue schooling, he or she may enrol elsewhere Exclusion means the formal removal of a student aged under 16 from the school and the requirement that the student enrol elsewhere. ( http://www.minedu.govt.nz/educationSectors/Schools/SchoolOperations/StanddownsSuspensionsExclusionsExpulsions/2004SDSGuidelinesMulti/1_Introduction.aspx#Natural_Justice retrieved 21 April 2009).
  9. 9. Age-standardised Exclusion Rates by ethnicity (2000 to 2009) per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_participation/schooling/80379 Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2000 2003 2006 2009 Pākehā 59% 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.4 Māori 22% 6.5 5.5 5.6 5.3 Pacific 9% 3.6 3.4 4.1 3.3 Asian 8% 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.3 Other 2% 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.2
  10. 10. Age-standardised Expulsion Rates by ethnicity (2000 to 2009) per 1,000 students http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_participation/schooling/3728 Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2000 2003 2006 2009 Pākehā 59% 1.8 1.1 1.0 1.4 Māori 22% 5.1 4.1 2.2 2.4 Pacific 9% 4.6 5.1 6.8 4.7 Asian 8% 1.4 2.6 0.8 1.3 Other 2% 2.8 4.7 3.0 7.2
  11. 11. 15 year old Early Leaving Exemption by ethnicity (2000 to 2009) per 1,000 students ( http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_participation/schooling/3732 ) Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2000 2003 2006 2009 Pākehā 59% 48.6 53.8 48.8 7.6 Māori 22% 134.2 153.4 150.5 21.2 Pacific 9% 54.9 58.4 54.3 5.7 Asian 8% 5.1 3.9 5.1 X
  12. 12. Retention Rates by ethnicity (2006 to 2009) to age 17 http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/student_participation/schooling/3736 Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2006 2007 2008 2009 Pākehā 59% 79.5 78.1 80.7 82.8 Māori 22% 63.0 61.3 62.9 65.8 Pacific 9% 81.7 82.0 81.9 85.3 Asian 8% 94.8 94.6 95.3 95.4
  13. 13. Percentage of school leavers with an NCEA Level 1 qualification or above, by ethnic group (2002 to 2009 ) retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/indicators/student_participation/schooling/80346
  14. 14. retrieved from http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/6409/simu23-NCEA-L2.pdf Percentage of school leavers with an NCEA Level 2 qualification or above, by ethnic group (2003 to 2009 )
  15. 15. Percentage of school leavers with University Entrance (2004 to 2009) http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/data_cubes/education__and__learning_outcomes/qualifications/3668 Ethnicity % Pop’n in 2006 2004 2006 2009 Pākehā 59% 37.1 41.3 51.7 Māori 22% 11.7 14.8 22.6 Pacific 9% 14.0 16.8 27.8 Asian 8% 56.2 63.0 67.8 Other 2% 30.2 40.7 49.2
  16. 16. In contrast <ul><li>25% of Education students who enroll at SOE Waikato are Māori (average from 2000 to 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>23% of Graduates of SOE Waikato are Māori (average from 2002 to 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, the total Māori PhDs was 50. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, Ngā Pae o Te Māramatanga announced the 500 th Māori PhD. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Tail or the Gap? Hattie, J. (2007). Narrow the gap, fix the tail, or close the curves: The power of words: University of Auckland. 
  18. 18. Reading Curves Hattie, J. (2007). Narrow the gap, fix the tail, or close the curves: The power of words: University of Auckland. 
  19. 19. Mathematics Curves Hattie, J. (2007). Narrow the gap, fix the tail, or close the curves: The power of words: University of Auckland. 
  20. 20. “ Education is the opening of identities” Wenger 1999 How we construct children’s identity has a huge impact on how they engage or not in education “ Family is what lives in your house”
  21. 21. <ul><li>Te Kotahitanga </li></ul><ul><li>(Background 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>We spoke with people who were most intimately involved with the education of Year 9 and 10 Māori students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The students themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their whānau (extended family) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their principals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their teachers </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. three discourses were used to explain their experiences and from which to offer solutions <ul><li>Māori child, their home and community </li></ul><ul><li>The school’s structures and systems </li></ul><ul><li>In-class relationships and interactions </li></ul>
  23. 23. Tally of discourse unit ideas showed © 2003 Ministry of Education
  24. 24. Te Kotahitanga Effective Teaching Profile
  25. 25. Te Kotahitanga Effective Teaching Profile <ul><li>Teachers are culturally appropriate and responsive, and they possess the following understandings: </li></ul><ul><li>They positively reject deficit theorising, they focus on what they can do </li></ul><ul><li>b) They are committed to and know how to bring about change in educational achievement </li></ul>
  26. 26. Culture <ul><li>Teachers create settings that are culturally appropriate for M ā ori students </li></ul><ul><li>If the teacher demonstrates cultural knowledge it has an effect on the children. They see the teacher as an individual who respects them and knows where they are coming from. The children see those teachers who have made an attempt to try and get on the same thought patterns, wavelength as them. (Parent, School 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers create contexts that are responsive to the cultural experiences or ‘toolkit’ of learners </li></ul><ul><li>I’m a Māori, they should ask me about Māori things. I’ve got the goods on this but they never ask me. I’m a dumb Māori I suppose. Yeah they asked the Asian girl about her culture. They never ask us about ours. (Engaged students, School 1) </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul>
  27. 27. Te Kotahitanga Discursive Positioning Discourses (sets of ideas) explaining M ā ori students’ educational achievement ● Child/Home Structure Relationships Discourses in terms of “educator agency” Deficit position Structural Relationship No agency Some agency Agentic position (Bishop, Berryman, Tiakiwai & Richardson, 2003)
  28. 28. <ul><li>Teachers demonstrate those understandings in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers care for these students respecting their culture </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers have high expectations for the performance of these students </li></ul><ul><li>3) Teachers create a secure, well-managed learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>4) Teachers can engage in effective teaching interactions </li></ul><ul><li>5) Teachers can use strategies to promote change </li></ul><ul><li>6) Evidence from student outcomes informs teachers’ and students’ critical reflection and next learning steps </li></ul>
  29. 29. Relationships <ul><li>Caring for the well-being of the child (soft caring) </li></ul><ul><li>She [teacher] created this whānau (family) feel. The way she spoke to the girls, you know… sort of kind and not putting down, </li></ul><ul><li>(Parent, School 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Caring for the performance of the student (hard caring) </li></ul><ul><li>Expect us to do well and to be good. Let us know you think we can do it. </li></ul><ul><li>(Non-engaged Students, School 2) </li></ul><ul><li>  You know there’s times I wish my teacher would give me a kick-up-the-ass! I can do much better in some things, but they never expect any more from me, not like my primary school teacher. He’d be pissed off with me if he saw my books now because they’re untidy and not much work is finished. I’ve got one book, maths, that is okay ‘cause the teacher expects me to do well. </li></ul><ul><li>(Non-engaged Student, School 1) </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Teachers demonstrate those understandings in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers care for these students respecting their cultural-location </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers have high expectations for the performance of these students </li></ul><ul><li>3) Teachers create a secure, well-managed learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>4) Teachers can engage in effective teaching interactions </li></ul><ul><li>5) Teachers can use strategies to promote change </li></ul><ul><li>6) Evidence from student outcomes informs teachers’ and students’ critical reflection and next learning steps </li></ul>
  31. 31. How we view Knowledge: Interactions <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly everywhere we go the teachers tell us a bit and then make us write a lot. It’s like they pour the stuff into us. It’s pretty much all you’re doing, you’re just copying. (Engaged students, School 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive and interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Good teachers give you a say in how things are done around the school and in the classroom. They listen to you. You can suggest another way of doing something and they don’t put you down. </li></ul><ul><li>(Engaged Students, School 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Good teachers know where we are coming from. They recognise that I am Māori and I have things to bring with me to school. They take you for what you are and that stuff…They want to know how I’m thinking about things. Good teachers really listen to you. They listen to your opinion. They find positive ways to make us learn. </li></ul><ul><li>(Engaged Students, School 1) </li></ul>
  32. 32. A Range of Interactions C U L T U R E Instruction Monitoring FBB - Feedback Behaviour FFB - Feed forward Behaviour Prior Knowledge FBA - Feedback Academic FFA - Feed forward Academic Co-construction culture - responsive to the learner’s culture Culture - visible culturally appropriate contexts Group Individual Whole
  33. 33. Points to ponder <ul><li>What questions do you have about the Effective Teaching Profile (ETP)? </li></ul><ul><li>What connections are you making from your own experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies might help you/others to connect to the elements of the ETP? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Consider, the Effective Teaching Profile is contextual, focussed on a pedagogy of relations and is not curriculum specific... What are the implications to your role as an RTLB?
  35. 35. So… what difference has implementing this Effective Teaching Profile in classrooms made in terms of raising the achievement of M āori students ?
  36. 36. Essential Skills Assessment 2004
  37. 37. Essential Skills Assessment 2005
  38. 38. NZQA data for NCEA L1 in Te Kotahitanga Sch ools Eth-nicity n students o n Year 11 r o ll n students gaining NCEA L1 % students gaining NCEA L1 % points in-crease % in-crease 2005 2006 2005 2006 2005 2006 Māori 973 952 312 461 32.1 48.4 16.4 51. 0 Euro 1210 1302 756 899 62.5 69.0 6.6 1 0.5 Paci 929 282 69 110 23.6 39. 0 15.4 65.1 Other 263 231 181 175 68.8 75.8 6.9 1 0.1
  39. 40. The voices of Te Kotahitanga students in phase 3 schools talking about Effective Teaching 1. What do you hear? 2. What are the implications to your role as an RTLB?
  40. 41. <ul><li>“ You can tell he respects us, because when it comes to learning big time he’s always there, if we don’t understand something he doesn’t talk to us like little babies, he talks to us like young adults.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ And you can rely on him, he’s there. Like some teachers are distant to you but he’s always there.” (School 1: Group 2, 2004) </li></ul>Effective teachers …
  41. 42. <ul><li>“ She is cool as, ‘cause I go to her every morning. Yeah she jokes around too and she is cool.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yeah like and when I got in trouble she like knew what was wrong and stuff.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yeah cause like you can talk to her like the counsellor. But she don’t tell anyone like the counsellor does.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yeah, that’s lies [that they won’t tell anyone], they tell.” (School 10: Group 3, 2005) </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>“ She doesn’t want to be your friend or that sort of thing. She’s like a friend, but not a friend.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ She never ever picks her favourites.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ She doesn’t have favourites.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Like the whole class are her favourites.” “She treats everyone the same. Then if you’re good and if you still haven’t done your homework that doesn’t mean diddly, you’re all in trouble. You gotta do it.” (School 10: Group3, 2004) </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>“ She’s dedicated to what we do in our class.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think it’s just her passion, that she likes seeing kids achieving instead of failing.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Feels cool, that we’ve got someone who’s gonna help us get through school.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ She thinks that we must be that brainy that we can do 5th form work.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ She pushes us, I think she believes in us.” (School 2: Group 3, 2005) </li></ul>
  44. 45. The voices of Phase 3 Te Kotahitanga Principals and teachers 1. What do you hear? 2. What are the implications to your role as an RTLB?
  45. 46. <ul><li>“ What can I do for that hour when I have that student in my class. I am in control in that hour, what am I going to do about it, don’t worry about anything else that goes on outside or wherever else, what can I do for that hour, …for that student.” </li></ul><ul><li>… focused on what we can do… </li></ul><ul><li>“ We’ve had an opportunity to engage with our community and we are looking forward positively. We are not looking back, and we are not in any sort of blame scenario, and its not about them blaming the school, and its not about us saying what’s happening at home?” </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>“ We’ve got work to do in terms of building relationships with the kids, that is the position we took with our staff.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ … what we can do is change what is happening in our own classrooms and within our own school. And from there I think those other relationships will build.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I know there are classes already where there are parents coming in.” </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>“ The amazing stuff that kids will produce if we just give them a little bit of space, if we step back long enough, they’ve got all of it there.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ And it’s not about us abrogating our responsibility, but it is about us actually saying, what are we all bringing to this process, and how is the learning going to be the most valuable. And I think that is where we are getting to as a school.” </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>“… as a society there is an idea of social justice, and is it actually okay to have a society that knows that a minority group within our society, who happens also to be tangata whenua, are not achieving at the same levels academically as the majority culture, and to continue to not do anything about that?” Principal Phase 3 school </li></ul>Involves Shared Vision
  49. 50. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy of Relations <ul><li>Interactions emerge from relationships (Sidorkin, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Counts (Bishop & Glynn, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Power is shared between self determining individuals within non dominating relations of interdependence (Iris Marion Young, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy is responsive and interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Learners/teachers are connected through a common purpose/vision and reciprocal responsibility </li></ul>
  50. 51. Māori students enjoying education success as Māori <ul><li>Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Te Reo </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Productive partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Ako </li></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>“ Your job is about doing what you can do to ensure the success and wellbeing of all the tamariki at your school – it’s our responsibility to make sure no student is left behind.” </li></ul><ul><li>Māori mother on BoT Phase 3 Te Kotahitanga </li></ul><ul><li>“ Think your way through to the moral space you want to occupy.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Be comfortable in that space” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Create the world as we want it to be” </li></ul><ul><li>Norman Denzin, 2010 </li></ul>

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