Producing Food and Feed:Towards a More Diversified Cropping System                             Firdousi Naher       Bangla...
Area under cereals and pulses in Bangladesh,                                       1985/86 to 2010/11                     ...
Expansion in maize acreage in Southern                        Bangladesh                                                 7...
Change in pulse acreage in southern districts,              1986/87 to 2009/10   200000                  Jessore   180000 ...
Growth of acreage, production and yield under           cereals and pulses, 2000-11                                       ...
Growth of maize production and yield in southern              districts, 1999-2010                  60   57          56   ...
Growth of production and yield of major pulses in     southern districts, 1985-86 to 2009-10             4                ...
Division-wise spread of maize and pulse growers             40             35                                     33      ...
Farm size distribution of maize and pulse growers70                                                                45     ...
Technology diffusion among maize                        and pulse farmers                                                 ...
Fertilizer use in maize and pulse cultivation                                    Percentage of land treated with fertilize...
Use of pesticides in maize and pulses (taka/acre) 1400 1200                1161 1000                                      ...
Yield of maize and pulses (tons/hectare)Crop                  FtF zone   NationalMaize                   6.2        5.9Pul...
Average per capita consumption (kg) per month              of poultry products and pulses0.60.5        1995      2000     ...
Proportion households consuming pulses in past         7 days: maize and pulse growers9080                             78 ...
Per capita daily protein intake (grams) among               maize and pulse producers60                                   ...
National retail price ratios of select food items                   vis-à-vis rice prices10 9                             ...
Cost of acquiring protein from different sources    For 50 grams of protein from:   Cost (Taka)   Masur                   ...
Net returns from maize and pulsesCrop                                     Net return      Farm gate                       ...
Conclusions• Phenomenal increase in maize acreage in past 10  years – both in the FtF zone and at the national  level.• Ar...
Conclusions (cont’d)• Consumption of pulses, the cheapest source of  protein, has declined; remains much below  desired le...
Policy implications• Research and development efforts for pulses  need to be strengthened to incorporate pulses in  the ce...
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Towards a more diversified cropping system

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Producing Food and Feed: towards a more diversified cropping system, by Dr. Firdousi Naher, IFPRI

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Towards a more diversified cropping system

  1. 1. Producing Food and Feed:Towards a More Diversified Cropping System Firdousi Naher Bangladesh Policy Research and Strategy Support Program International Food Policy Research Institute Workshop on The Feed the Future Zone in the South and the Rest of Bangladesh: A Comparison of Food Security Aspects 16 January 2013 Dhaka
  2. 2. Area under cereals and pulses in Bangladesh, 1985/86 to 2010/11 14000 2500 Wheat, maize & pulses (000 acres) 12000 2000 PulsesBoro rice (000acres) 10000 Wheat 1500 8000 Boro rice 6000 1000 4000 500 2000 Maize 0 0 2
  3. 3. Expansion in maize acreage in Southern Bangladesh 72586 70100 60100 50100 1999/2000Acres 40100 2009/2010 30100 20100 13086 10100 175 390 100 Jessore Kushtia 3
  4. 4. Change in pulse acreage in southern districts, 1986/87 to 2009/10 200000 Jessore 180000 Barisal 160000 140000 Patuakhali 120000 KushtiaAcres 100000 80000 60000 40000 Khulna 20000 0Source: BBS 4
  5. 5. Growth of acreage, production and yield under cereals and pulses, 2000-11 Growth rates of:Crop Area Production YieldBoro rice 2.9 5.4 2.6Wheat -8.1 -6.8 1.3Maize 31.1 39.4 8.0Pulses -5.02 -3.7 1.3 5 Source: Calculated from BBS
  6. 6. Growth of maize production and yield in southern districts, 1999-2010 60 57 56 50Percentage/year 40 30 Production Yield 20 10 10 10 0 Jessore Kushtia 6
  7. 7. Growth of production and yield of major pulses in southern districts, 1985-86 to 2009-10 4 3 3 Production 2 2 Yield 1 1 0.6Percentage 0.1 0.04 0 0 -1 Barisal Jessore Kushtia Khulna Patuakhali -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -4 7
  8. 8. Division-wise spread of maize and pulse growers 40 35 33 33 30 30 27 Maize 25Percentage 21 Pulses 20 20 15 13 10 8 9 5 5 0 1 0 0.2 0 8 Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011
  9. 9. Farm size distribution of maize and pulse growers70 45 62 FtF National 41 4060 36 35 3250 47 Maize 30 2840 38 25 22 Pulses 2030 16 23 15 1520 18 10 12 1010 5 0 0 0 0 Marginal Small Medium Large Marginal Small Medium Large Maize farmers Pulses farmers FtF zone 2% 53.4% Bangladesh 3.4% 20% Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011 9
  10. 10. Technology diffusion among maize and pulse farmers 120100 92 100 92 Pulses: FtF 9890 Maize 7780 80 74 6770 60 Local HYV60 40 33 2350 20 8 240 030 26 Masur Mung Mashkalai Khesari 12020 Pulses: National 96 100 93 8410 8 76 80 Local 0 60 HYV FtF Zone National 40 OPV Hybrid 24 16 20 7 3 Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011 0 10
  11. 11. Fertilizer use in maize and pulse cultivation Percentage of land treated with fertilizer Maize PulsesFtF zone 100 56National 98 71 Maize (kg/acre) Pulses (kg/acre) Urea TSP DAP MoP Urea TSP DAP MoPFtF zone 113 75 27 40 18 11 3 7National 99 98 17 32 20 11 2 5Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011 11
  12. 12. Use of pesticides in maize and pulses (taka/acre) 1400 1200 1161 1000 FtF 801 National 800 600 400 255 217 200 0 Maize Pulses Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011 12
  13. 13. Yield of maize and pulses (tons/hectare)Crop FtF zone NationalMaize 6.2 5.9Pulses:Masur (lentils) 0.99 0.96Mung (green gram) 0.67 0.72Mashkalai (black 0.91 1.2gram)Khesari (grass pea) 0.99 1.1 13
  14. 14. Average per capita consumption (kg) per month of poultry products and pulses0.60.5 1995 2000 2005 2010 0.48 0.44 0.43 0.420.4 0.340.3 0.22 0.220.2 0.16 0.16 0.12 0.13 0.090.1 0 Poultry meat Eggs Pulses RDA (kg/person/month) Pulses: 1.8 Eggs: 0.15 Poultry meat: 0.75 14 Source: Calculated from Household Income and Expenditure Surveys; RDAs from BAN-HRDB, Ministry of Agriculture
  15. 15. Proportion households consuming pulses in past 7 days: maize and pulse growers9080 78 73.2706050 47 40 Maize producing40 households30 Pulse producing households2010 0 FtF Zone National 15Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011
  16. 16. Per capita daily protein intake (grams) among maize and pulse producers60 5555 52.6 51.7 51.35045 Maize producers40 Pulse producers35302520 FtF zone National 16Source: IFPRI, Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey 2011
  17. 17. National retail price ratios of select food items vis-à-vis rice prices10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 6 1990/91 5 4 4 2000/01 4 2009/10 3 3.0 3.1 3 2 2.8 2 2 2 1 1 0 Masur Khesari Eggs Chicken Beef 17 Source: BBS
  18. 18. Cost of acquiring protein from different sources For 50 grams of protein from: Cost (Taka) Masur 22 Mung 23 Mashkalai 15 Khesari 9 Chicken 40 Hen egg 50 18
  19. 19. Net returns from maize and pulsesCrop Net return Farm gate (Taka/hectare) price (Taka/kg)Maize 53,527 17Masur 32,130 55Mung 27,401 63Mashkalai 27,787 44Khesari 15,812 29 19 Source: Calculated from IFPRI, BIHS 2011
  20. 20. Conclusions• Phenomenal increase in maize acreage in past 10 years – both in the FtF zone and at the national level.• Area under pulses have declined drastically in the FtF zone as well as in Bangladesh as a whole.• Technology generation and diffusion has been higher in maize – till date 11 BARI hybrid maize varieties while only 6 HYVs for lentil and green gram and 3 for black gram and grass pea.• Maize requires about 5 times more fertilizers than pulses. Pesticide application is also higher. 20
  21. 21. Conclusions (cont’d)• Consumption of pulses, the cheapest source of protein, has declined; remains much below desired levels• Compared to maize farmers: – pulse farmers have a higher consumption of pulses – pulse farmers have a higher intake of protein• Since 1990s, egg prices have gone up 3x and chicken prices by 8x that of rice. Maize feeds mostly into the poultry industry• Economically maize is much more profitable than pulses 21
  22. 22. Policy implications• Research and development efforts for pulses need to be strengthened to incorporate pulses in the cereal-intensive cropping system• Farmers’ easy access to agriculture extension and other support and advisory services is necessary to build their awareness on pulses to diversify the cereal-cereal crop rotations• Guidelines should be developed and, if necessary, market prices guaranteed to encourage farmers to diversify their cropping pattern 22

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