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  1. 1. X Rhys McBreen(How the internet works)
  2. 2. XContents The Layers and what they do IP Addressing
  3. 3. XLayers Application Layer Host-to-Host Layer Internet Layer Network Interface LayerThese layers stack on top of each other to form the basic TCP/IP structure and functionality
  4. 4. XApplication Layer This has to accommodate for all of the things an application might want to do, so it has the most protocols of any layer, these are a few:  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)  File Transfer Protocol (FTP)  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)  Domain Name System (DNS)  Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
  5. 5. XHypertext Transfer Protocol This is used for viewing pages on the internet
  6. 6. XFile Transfer Protocol Is for simple file transfer, like downloading a file.
  7. 7. XSimple Mail Transfer Protocol Is for things like hotmail, etc. This is the protocol for mail transfer from a mail server to a client computer
  8. 8. XDomain Name System Ever wondered how your computer knows what server to connect to when you type in ‘’? This is the protocol that gets the IP address of the server from one of the many DNS servers across the world. This finds the nearest DNS server, connects to it, and requests the IP of the website your trying to access. For example, turns into This is used because is far easier to remember than
  9. 9. XRouting Information Protocol This gives a computers network card information as to where to route the packets through Instead of the computer sending the packet to every other computer on the internet, this gives a simple, easy path for the data to go through
  10. 10. XHost-to-Host (Transport) Layer This is what the application layer calls on if it needs data, or needs to send data This has two protocols:  Transmission Control Protocol  User Datagram Protocol
  11. 11. XTransmission Control Protocol This give a one to one connection service that is reliable This also manages errors such as packet loss, sequencing and acknowledgment of how many packets were sent
  12. 12. XUser Datagram Protocol UDP is a one to one or one to many communication service It’s very unreliable and connectionless UDP is used when:  the data wanting to be sent is very small (one packet)  you don’t want to have the bother of setting up a TCP connection  when the applications provide reliable delivery
  13. 13. XInternet layer This handles addressing, packaging and routing functions This has many protocols such as:  Internet Protocol (IP)  Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)  Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)  Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  14. 14. XInternet Protocol This is an unreliable, connectionless protocol for routing between hosts This protocol makes its best effort to get the data to the receiving host If a piece of data does not get through, this protocol does not attempt to recover that piece of data.
  15. 15. XAddress Resolution protocol This resolves the MAC address (a unique number given to every network capable device) It helps to deliver the packets to the receiving host by giving the packets a path to go through
  16. 16. XInternet Control Message Protocol This is the protocol that makes sure that all of the packets go through the network If a packet is not delivered, or is lost during transmission, this protocol sends another request to send the packet
  17. 17. XInternet Group Management Protocol This manages groups of hosts (computers, routers, etc) The groups can be of any size
  18. 18. XNetwork Interface Layer This handles placing ‘packets’ of data on and off of the network medium This is designed to give the layers that stack on top of this to be able to function normally across any network medium
  19. 19. XIP Addressing IP addresses consist of 4, 8 bit “octets” that when grouped together, make up the IP address of any network capable device. There are 3 classes of IP address:  Class A  Class B  Class C
  20. 20. XClass A IP Addresses These IP addresses make up the base on which all network capable devices stand These types of IP addresses allow 126 networks and 16,777,214 devices. These are used for major networks or ISPs
  21. 21. XClass B IP Addresses These classes of IP addresses are for large networks, such as universities, schools and large businesses They allow for 16,384 networks, under each class A IP address, and 65,534 hosts, or users, in each network
  22. 22. XClass C IP Addresses These are for smaller networks, such as home networks, small businesses, and other places such as libraries These IP addresses allow for over 2,097,152 networks, but each with only 254 devices
  23. 23. XBibliography
  24. 24. XHow to work this: Just hit the buttons Wave your mouse around to get the cursor up Have fun • Links to another slide related to the text in the box Get to the help section (here) Link to previous header Link to previous topic Link to previous home
  25. 25. XTemplate