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  1. 1. Each tower was supported by a structural coreextending from its foundation in the bedrock tothe roof. This inner core housed all of theelevator’s and stairwells as well as having aflooring system structurally independent of theouter walls. This entire core structure was100% steel framed and was made to reduceweight and increase strength. The perimeter walls and the inner core were supported by cross-braces running horizontally all of the way up the buildings. Because of the WTC’s immense height, the steel framed core increased the structures strength, something which would prove to be important.
  2. 2. The WTC’s were the first skyscraper’s to be built without anymasonry, instead they were mainly steel. When constructionhad finished in 1971 200,000 ton’s of steel had been used ineach tower.Construction process’ which would usually have to be donein sequence could be done quickly and at the same time dueto the openness of the hollow structure. The inner core of steel was constructed bit by bit, and the perimeter walls and floors were built around it. By the time the building was finished the steel beams in the core were the length of the building.
  3. 3. On September 11, 2001 two airliners, hijacked by AlQaeda members were intentionally flown into the WorldTrade Centres. Within 2 hours of being hit, both towershad collapsed. The manner in which they did however hasbeen hotly debated since.The towers ‘pancaked’ which means the stories fallingabove caused the ones below to collapse, making thebuilding fall straight down.There remains some doubt regarding this story. Manypeople believe that the steel inside should have held it upand even if it did collapse that it shouldn’t have pancakedor fallen at the speed it did. Post-9/11 reports have confirmed that the WTC’s were certainly strong enough to withstand the plane crash and that a internal fires wouldn’t have damaged or weakened the structure enough to destroy it.
  4. 4. •The Colosseum was usedto host gladiatorial showsas well as a variety ofother entertainment. •The Colosseum was the largest ever built.
  5. 5. •The Colosseum is oval shaped with 2 axis, long. one is 188 m and the short one 156. The whole building has four floors. There were eighty arches on every floor, divided by pillars with a half column. •The floor was made out of wooden planks then completely covered in sand.
  6. 6. The Velarium was made outof sailcloth, attached tospokes of rope.The arches are 4.20 m wideand 7.05 m high, while onthe upper floors they areonly 6.45 m high. theoverall height of thebuilding is 48,5 m.
  7. 7. •The Burj Khalifa is askyscraper in Dubai and is thetallest man made building inthe world standing at animpressive 828m.
  8. 8. The design team led by WillBaker and Adrian Smithcreated the superstructurewith the core in a y shapedformation creating a muchmore stable building.
  9. 9. The Spire Nick Flaherty 800m above groundThe crowning point on the BurjKhalifa is it’s spire, reaching over200m it secures the title of worldstallest building as well finishing thecreation off perfectly.
  10. 10. Marina Bay Sands
  11. 11. Marina Bay Sands The Marina Bay Sands is a integrated resort, on marina bay in Singapore. It is the worlds most expensive resort.
  12. 12. Marina Bay Sands - Design Art and science museum Casino Convention centre and Shopping centreHotel and sandsskypark
  13. 13. Marina Bays Sands -Skypark The sands skypark is a park at the very top of the resort. It spans the roof tops of the hotel towers and acts as a viewing deck.
  14. 14.  The Taipei 101 skyscraper is found in Taiwan. It has an impressive height of 508.2m (1670.6ft). It was constructed from 1999 – 2004 It has 101 stories above the ground and 5 underground The Taipei 101 includes: office, communication, conference room, library, observation, restaurant, retail and a fitness centre.
  15. 15.  The Taipei 101 is designed to hold up against typhoon winds and earthquake tremors that are common in this area of Asia. Taipei 101 is flexible in strong winds enough to prevent large sideways movement. Flexibility prevents structural damage while resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and protection of glass.
  16. 16. A Tuned Mass Damper is a device placed in buildings to prevent: discomfort, damage and outright structural failure.The dampers are huge concrete blocks or steel bodies placed in skyscrapers, it moves in opposition to the resonance frequency oscillations of the structure by movement of springs.
  17. 17.  The Taipei 101 has the world’s largest passive tuned mass wind and earthquake damper, it weighs 660 metric tons with a diameter of 5.5 meters, suspended from Level 92 to Level 88. It helps the building to ensure stability of the tower and comfort for the occupiers.
  18. 18. The design achieves both strength and flexibility for the tower through the use of high- performance steel construction. Thirty-six columns supporting, including eight "mega- columns" packed with 10,000-psi concrete. Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the buildings core to those on the exterior. The Tower is built on 380 concrete piles, sunk 80 meters into the ground.
  19. 19.  Massive Steel Outrigger Trusses span between the columns on every eight floors. The structure is reinforced by a Moment Frame System linking the columns on all floors. 36 columns provide vertical support, including eight mega columns around the perimeter. The world’s largest passive tuned mass wind damper, suspended from level 92 down to level 88, helps to ensure stability and comfort.
  20. 20. Conclusion All of these buildings had their own structuraladvantages, whether it be support to withstand the forces of nature or using revolutionary materials such as bricks for the colosseum.Architects are imagining buildings with new and innovative materials and technology. The wonders of the world that are pushing the boundaries now will soon be forgotten as new super structures are created.
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