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Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
May 14 2024
Milano
Architecting Innovative
Graph Applications
1
Alfredo Rubin
alfredo.rubin@neo4j.com
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© 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved.
Goal of Today
Demonstrate (with YOUR HELP :-)), how to build a
Graph “Application”
2
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© 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agenda
1. Logistics
2. Introduction
3. Use Case Explanation
4. Building the Solution
5. Discussion: How to Improve the Use Case Further On
6. Final Q&A
7. Goodbye
3
BREAK (15min) Around 15:30
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4
Logistics
First things first …
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© 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved.
Logistics
WIFI Access: WIFI-Name: neo4j | Password: graphsummit24
Restrooms: Out of the room and to
In the foyer area
Chargers:
Material of the workshop:
https://github.com/kvegter/gsummit2024
the left the right Straight ahead
under on top under the table in first three rows
x
5
x
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6
Introduction
A short overview of the Neo4j
Product
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Neo4j Native Graph Database - What is it?
7
Neo4j is a NORMAL
Database (DB)
● Comparable with other
DBs like Postgres,
MySQL, MariaDB,
Oracle, HANA DB, etc
● Securly save, insert,
update & query data
● Backup & Recovery
● Highly Scalable
Neo4j is “ACID Compliant”
and transaction save
● ACID (Atomicity,
Consistency, Isolation,
Durability)
● Data is stored
consistently on
transaction level
without any losses
during an outage
● Most relational DB’s
are ACID compliant,
too
*
* Source: Medium.com - Link to the Article
Neo4j is used 80%+ for
OLTP Workloads
● > 80% of Neo4j
Customers using the
database as normal
OLTP data store
● Data is stored,
changed, deleted and
queried
● With the same or even
better performance
compared to relational
database systems
Data
Data
DB
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What is the Value Using a Native Graph
Database?
8
How data is stored on disk
● Data is already stored as
connected
● Data is efficiently placed
on-disk using
“Index-free Adjacency”
● A GDB stores Nodes and
Relations instead of
Rows & Columns
● Semantics may be built
into the data!
How to query the data
● Cypher Query Language
vs. SQL (ISO -> GQL)
● Simple, lesser lines of
code, easier to read and
maintain
● Queries possible, that
span 100+ Hops in the
Graph, which is
comparable with SQL
Joins over 100+ Tables!
(:Product)-[:CONTAINS]->(:Part)
Storing complex data
networks & semantics
● Storing and analyzing
complex relations
between data
● Analyzing data from
traditionally siloed data
sources
● Extendable with data
science algorithms and AI
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DATA SOURCES
9
USE CASES
INGEST
Apache
Hop
Structured
Unstructured
DATA
ANALYTICS
DATA
MANAGEMENT
Journey Analytics
Risk Analytics
Churn Analysis
What-if Analysis
Feature
Engineering & ML
Fraud
Recommendations
Data Fabric
Data Compliance
Data Governance
Data Provenance
Data Lineage
Next Best Case
Ontologies
Neo4j
Bloom
Neo4j
GDS Library
PRODUCT COMPONENTS
Neo4j Graph Platform
APOC
VISUALIZE
DRIVERS & APIs
Neo4j - Part of a Complete Ecosystem
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10
This is a Graph …
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11
This is a Graph, as well…
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12
…and this is also a Graph! Guess, what Graph could it be?
* https://www.graphable.ai/blog/patient-journey-mapping/
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Patient Journey Mapping - Digital Twin
Figure 2: A single patient’s clinical oncology journey
Figure 3: A patient graph schema supporting disease progression and cost exploration
* https://www.graphable.ai/blog/patient-journey-mapping/
Patient
Doctors Appointment
Insurance Claim
Results (ICD10 coded)
Doctor
Legend:
6 Month Journey of a Breast Cancer Grade 1 Patient
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14
Why Graph and how does it help?
“ Within the healthcare setting, a digital twin approach can
help clinicians and analysts model past and current
events and simulate how changes to operations, care,
procedures, and programs may influence future
outcomes. Digital twins traversing a patient journey map
help to reveal real-world obstacles, gaps in care and
processes, and other challenges faced by patients and
their families. ”
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15
The 3 P’s
Pandora Papers* Panama Papers*
Paradise Papers*
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16
Profitability Paradise + Pandora Papers
Example Germany and other tax agencies
ROI Paradise/Pandora Papers
Pandora Papers:
• 2021 BKA bought Pandora
Papers, Invest: 300k Euro til
July 2023 resulted in 38,4
Mio Euro additional tax
income
• ROI = 6400% over a 2 year
time frame (adding
operations cost of 300k Euro
as an approximation)
Paradise Papers:
● Worldwide $1.36 Billion in
additional tax income
● Germany 75 Mio. Euro
[Source]
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Nodes
• Can have Labels to classify Nodes
• Labels have native indexes
Relationships
• Connect nodes by Type and
Direction
Properties
• Attributes of Nodes & Relationships
• Stored as Name/Value pairs
• Can have indexes and composite
indexes
Labeled Property Graph Model
17
W
RITES
name: “Dan”
born: 29th May, 1970
twitter: “@dan”
id: “AAJ73840”
name: Radio portable
date:1st
October
text:“I’m happy with
my purchase”
rate: 5
BUYS
H
A
S
_
R
E
V
I
E
W
Customer Product
Review
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RDBMS vs Graph Model
18
RDBMS Model Graph Model
KNOWS
KNOWS
KNOWS
ANDREAS
TOBIAS
MICA
DELIA
Person Friend
Person-Friend
ANDREAS
DELIA
TOBIAS
MICA
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The Whiteboard Model Is the Physical Model
19
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The Graph Problem Problem
Many organizations don’t realize that they have a graph problem
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Adobe Behance
Social Network of 10M
Graphic Artists
Background
● Social network of 10M graphic artists
● Peer-to-peer evaluation of art and works-in-progress
● Job sourcing site for creatives
● Massive, millions of updates (reads & writes) to Activity Feed
● 150 Mongos to 48 Cassandras to 3 Neo4j’s!
Business Problem
● Artists subscribe, appreciate and curate “galleries” of works of their own
and from other artists
● Activities Feed is how everyone receives updates
● 1st implementation was 150 MongoDB instances
● 2nd implementation shrunk to 48 Cassandras, but it was still too slow and
required heavy IT overhead
Solution and Benefits
● 3rd implementation shrunk to 3 Neo4j instances
● Saved over $500k in annual AWS fees
● Reduced data footprint from 50TB to 40GB
● Significantly easier to introduce new features like, “New projects in your
Network”
21
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Graph Data Science
22
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Graph Algorithms Verticals
65+ graph algorithms in Neo4j 23
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Knowledge
Graphs
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:SAME_AS
User
:VISITED
Website
User
IPLocation
Website
IPLocation
Website
Website :VISITED
:VISITED
:VISITED
:USED
:USED
:
U
S
E
D
:
V
I
S
I
T
E
D
:
V
I
S
I
T
E
D
:VISITED
Graphs allows you to make implicit
relationships….
….explicit
Graphs….Grow!
25
Website
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Knowledge Graphs….Grow!
:SAME_AS
User
:VISITED
Website
User
IPLocation
Website
IPLocation
Website
Website
Website
:VISITED
:VISITED
:VISITED
:USED
:USED
:
U
S
E
D
:
V
I
S
I
T
E
D
:
V
I
S
I
T
E
D
:VISITED
User
:SAM
E_AS
:USED
:VISITED
PersonId: 1
PersonId: 1 PersonId: 1
User
:VISITED
…and can then group similar nodes…and
create a new graph from the explicit
relationships…
A graph grows organically - gaining
insights and enriching your data
PersonId: 2
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What can you do with a
knowledge graph?
Collaborative filtering: users who
bought X, also bought Y
(open-ended pattern matching)
What items make you more likely to
buy additional items in subsequent
transactions?
Traverse hierarchies - what items
are similar 4+ hops out?
How many flagged accounts
are in the applicant’s network
4+ hops out?
How many login / account
variables in common?
Add these metrics to your
approval process
What completes the
connections from genes to
diseases to targets?
What genes can be reached 4+
hops out from a known drug
target?
What mechanisms in common
are there between two drugs?
Financial Domain Life Sciences Marketing and
Recommendations
27
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Knowledge Graphs
Structured
Unstructured
Ontologies
Graph Algorithms and
Graph Queries
Semantics,
Derived Relationships and
Additional Context
Natural
Relationships
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…
Large Language
Models
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LLMs save time and money
Customer Operations Marketing & Sales
Software Engineering R&D
75% of GenAI value will come from these four areas
The economic potential of generative AI: The next productivity frontier, McKinsey & Company, June 2023. 30
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Lack of Enterprise Domain Knowledge
LLMs Challenges…
Outdated Public Sources Hallucination
Probabilistic
31
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Reliability
Ground LLMs in Neo4j’s Knowledge Graph
Improve Accuracy and Specificity
Security and Privacy
Probabilistic Deterministic Facts
Explainability
32
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Setting the context - From a user point of
view
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About Indexes
Indexes are used to 'land' in the Graph as quickly as possible
Normal Index Full Text Index Vector Index
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Vector Example
//
// Question input
//
with "Heb ik recht op een ov jaarkaart?" as vraag
//
// Question to embedding with OpenAI
//
WITH genai.vector.encode(vraag,"OpenAI",{token: $openaikey, model: $model } ) as embedding
//
// Vector search with the question-embedding as search parameter
//
CALL db.index.vector.queryNodes('tekst-embeddings', 5, embedding) YIELD node, score
//
// Now based on the nodes found in the vector index we can retrieve the context of the found nodes
//
MATCH p=(node)<-[*]-(:Wet)
RETURN score, node.tekst as text, p
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Vector Example
//
// Question input
//
with "Heb ik recht op een ov jaarkaart?" as vraag
//
// Question to embedding with OpenAI
//
WITH genai.vector.encode(vraag,"OpenAI",{token: $openaikey, model: $model } ) as embedding
//
// Vector search with the question-embedding as search parameter
//
CALL db.index.vector.queryNodes('tekst-embeddings', 5, embedding) YIELD node, score
//
// Now based on the nodes found in the vector index we can retrieve the context of the found nodes
//
MATCH p=(node)<-[*]-(:Wet)
RETURN score, node.tekst as text, p
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37
Data Insertion & Loading
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Data Insertion & Loading into Neo4j
● >>neo4j-admin import Command
● Cypher CSV Loader
● APOC
● ETL Tools (Apache Hop,…)
● Driver Connections
● 3rd Party Platforms (Kafka, Spark)
More about Data loading, etc. on the Neo4j Documentation
38
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39
Data Visualization
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Neo4j Bloom - Neo4j Visualisation Platform
40
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NeoDash - Dashboarding with Your
Graph Data
41
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42
Use Case Explanation
Digital Twin-An Overview
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What is a Digital Twin?
A Digital Twin is a digital
representation of an intended or
actual real-world physical
product, system, or process (a
physical twin) that serves as the
effectively indistinguishable
digital counterpart of it for
practical purposes, such as
simulation, integration, testing,
monitoring and maintenance.
43
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44
* It has been done before
• Challenge: Legacy technology
could not track and analyze train
journeys
• Solution: Neo4j Knowledge Graph
• Identify and avoid bottlenecks (DB)
EU Railway Network -
Track & Trace
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Why do we need a Digital Twin? (few reasons)
45
Improved efficiency
It can optimize its operations and
reduce costs by simulating
different scenarios and making
data-driven decisions.
Enhanced safety
It can identify potential hazards
and test safety measures to
improve safety for passengers and
employees.
Predictive maintenance
It can monitor asset condition in
real-time, predict maintenance
needs, and increase asset lifespan.
Improved customer
experience
A digital twin can simulate disruptions
and help proactively address issues to
enhance the customer experience and
increase satisfaction.
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Another reason why a digital twin might
be helpful
46
https://www.euronews.com/travel/20
23/02/21/unspeakable-botch-spain-s
pends-258-million-on-trains-that-are-t
oo-big-for-its-tunnels
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POI’s Included
47
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Unleash the power of the Graph
48
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49
Abstracting from this
Use Case
Digital Twin and Networks are everywhere
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Many other use cases are networks or
Digital Twins, too!
- Supply Chain
- Mobile Phones Networks
- Power Grids / Gas Grids / Fibre Networks
- Social Networks
- Patient Journeys
- Bill of Materials (BoM)
- Variants Management Graphs (Hard-& Software BoM combined)
- etc.
50
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51
Mobile Network Operations - Large Mobile Provider
● Digital Twin of Mobile
Network
● Planning and operation
○ Low signal strength of
tower
○ Moving equipment
around
● Simulation of possible failure
scenarios
● Repair & maintenance
support
○ Supply Chain Impact
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52
Plan maritime routes based on distances,
costs, and internal logic.
Results:
● Subsecond maritime routes planning
● Reduce global carbon emissions
60,000 tons
● 12-16M ROI for OrbitMI customers
“We wanted to create a solution that exploits
artificial intelligence, integrates current and
historical AIS positions as well as multiple
data feeds and APIs. Such an effort would
require a world-class infrastructure. That’s
why we selected Neo4j.”
David Levy
Chief Marketing Officer
OrbitMI
Customer Case Study:
Logistics and Supply
Chain
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53
The Sample Dataset
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Sample Data: Railway Network Digital Twin Dataset
Provided Data:
- Consists of a Railway Track Network + Operation Point (OP)
- It includes attributes like:
- Tracks called Sections,
- Stations and other OPs,
- Geo location information,
- Section length and speed,
- other parameters
- Add on from us: Point of Interest (POI) along tracks
- Format: CSV → Generated from XML
- Origin of Data: https://data-interop.era.europa.eu/search 54
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The Data Explained - In an Easy Way
“The data can be seen as a highway that has ramps throughout its entire
path.
Each ramp can be an Operation Point (OP) like a Station, a Switch, etc.
Tracks have a length and a speed associated. Tracks have a start point and
an endpoint and will be inter-connecting Operation Points.
An Operation Point has a name and is referred to by a relationship with a
country code.
55
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Operation Points (OP) - Data Explanation (Nodes)
CSV Header titles:
● id: the internal number of the OP
● extralabel: the kind of OP we deal with, e.g. Station, Junction, Switch, etc.
● name: the name of a OP
● latitude: of the OP
● longtitude: of the OP
Station
Small
Station
Switch
Border
Point
Junction
Passenger
Stop
Geolocation
Geolocation
sectionlength
speed
56
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Section Connection Data Explanation (Relationships)
CSV Header titles:
● source: start OP for this section
● target: end OP for this section
● sectionlength: the length in km of that section
● trackspeed: max speed allowed on that section
Station
(source)
Small
Station
Switch
(target)
Border
Point
Junction
Passenger
Stop
sectionlength
trackspeed
57
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Point of Interest (POI) Data Explanation
CSV Header titles:
● CITY: City the POI is in or close by
● POI_DESCRIPTION: A short description of of the POI
● LINK_FOTO: a short name
● LINK_WEBSITE: is the name of the track corresponding to the shortcut
● LAT: Latitude of the POI
● LONG: Longitude of the POI
● SECRET: True if not well know, False if well known (e.g. Berlin)
Station / OP
Name
Small
Station
Switch
Border
Point
Junction
Passenger
Stop
POI
(can be outside the city)
Geolocation
58
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59
Data Modeling - Writing
down Questions &
Answers
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What is graph data modeling?
A collaborative effort where the application domain is analysed by
stakeholders and developers to come up with the optimal model for use
with Neo4j.
Stakeholders include:
● Business analysts
● Architects
● Managers
● Project leaders
● Data Scientists
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no one
EVER
gets it right
FIRST
time
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The Modeling Workflow
62
1. Derive the
question
2. Obtain the
data
3. Develop a
model
4. Ingest the
data
5. Query/Prove
the model
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Data Modeling - The Questions are the Input
1. How long is the journey in KM from station X to station Y?
2. How long in KM is an alternative route if a station on my journey is closed?
3. Do I have alternative routes if a station in my journey is down?
4. What is the shortest distance in KM between stations X and Y?
5. Can I geolocate stations in my static rail network?
6. What are the stations expecting the most traffic?
7. What POIs are along my route?
Note: Aggregations are also possible, but we focus on the “graphy” queries here!
63
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Expected Answers
1. Your journey is 30 stations and 239km long
2. Your alternative route is 36 stations and 271km
long
3. The shortest route between X and Y is XXX km
4. The geo location of your station is Lat / Long
5. The station with the most traffic is … ?
6. The following POIs are along your route …
64
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65
Data Modeling
Building the Model
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Tools for Graph Data Modeling
Arrows Tool → https://arrows.app
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Data Modeling Using the Questions as Input
1. How long is the journey in KM from station X to station Y?
2. How long in KM is an alternative route if a station on my journey is closed?
3. Do I have alternative routes if a station in my journey is down?
4. What is the shortest distance in KM between stations X and Y?
5. Can I geolocate stations in my static rail network?
6. What are the stations expecting the most traffic?
7. What POIs are along my route?
Remember those questions?
Blue → Nodes / Properties? Orange → Relationship Types
67
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Building a First Data Model 1/6
- Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the
relationships
- Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type
- Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or
answer questions
68
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Building a First Data Model 2/6
- Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the
relationships
- Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type
- Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or
answer questions
69
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Building a First Data Model 3/6
- Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the
relationships
- Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type
- Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or
answer questions
=
70
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Building a First Data Model 4/6
- Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the
relationships
- Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type
- Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or
answer questions
71
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Building a First Data Model 5/6
- Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the
relationships
- Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type
- Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or
answer questions
72
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Building a First Data Model 6/6
- Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the
relationships
- Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type
- Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or
answer questions
We will add more Labels to
this node, eg. Switch,
BorderPoint, etc.
73
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You DON’T have to do it again and again!
- Use Case Template repository*, that is growing
- https://neo4j.com/developer/industry-use-cases/finserv/
74
* And we have more templates to contribute
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75
Workshop Time
Let’s build the solution
together …
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Let’s Do it Together …
1. Create a Neo4j Graph instance via any of:
a. Neo4j Aura
i. You can spin up a Free aura instance here. If you already have one Aura Free db in use
and don't want to clear it can use the following option for this workshop
b. Neo4j Sandbox use a "Blank Sandbox"
c. Neo4j Desktop
i. If you are using Neo4j Desktop, you will need to ensure that APOC is added to any graph
you create. Installation instructions can be found here.
2. Open the Github page at: https://github.com/kvegter/gsummit2024
a. Open up the file: cypher/load-all-data.cypher
b. Copy and paste the file contents into your Neo4j browser.
.
https://console.neo4j.io/
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© 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved.
77
(Basic) Cypher Hands-On
See cypher/all_queries.cypher for a cheat-sheet of
all the queries used in this workshop.
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Cypher: Powerful and Expressive Query Language
MATCH (:Person { name:“Dan”} ) -[:LOVES]-> (:Person { name:“Ann”} )
LOVES
Dan Ann
NODE NODE
LABEL PROPERTY
LABEL PROPERTY
CREATE
RELATIONSHIP
MATCH <PATTERN> RETURN <DATA>
78
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// What is this Query Doing?
MATCH (a:Person)-[:FRIEND_OF]->(b:Person)<-[:FRIEND_OF]-(c:Person)
WHERE a.name = “Niels de Jong”
AND c.name = “Marco De Luca“
RETURN b.name as Name, b.id as FriendID
Cypher Check Up
79
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// Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s
Cypher Hands-on Questions
80
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// Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s
MATCH (op:OperationalPoint)
RETURN op
ORDER BY id(op)
LIMIT 50;
Cypher Hands-on Questions
81
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// Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s
MATCH (op:OperationalPoint)
RETURN op
ORDER BY id(op)
LIMIT 50;
// Find All Operation Points Names in the city of Amsterdam
Cypher Hands-on Questions
82
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// Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s
MATCH (op:OperationalPoint)
RETURN op
ORDER BY id(op)
LIMIT 50;
// Find All Operation Points Names in the city of Amsterdam
MATCH (op:OperationalPointName)
WHERE op.name CONTAINS 'Amsterdam'
RETURN op.name;
Cypher Hands-on Questions
83
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// Find the Station id's for Berlin and Paris
// HINT: Use the pattern (OperationalPointName)<-[:NAMED]-(Station)
Cypher Hands-on Questions
84
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// Find the Station id's for Berlin and Amsterdam
// HINT: Use the pattern (OperationalPointName)<-[:NAMED]-(Station)
Cypher Hands-on Questions
MATCH (n:OperationalPointName)<-[r:NAMED]-(station:Station)
WHERE n.name STARTS WITH 'Berlin'
RETURN n.name, station.id
MATCH (n:OperationalPointName)<-[r:NAMED]-(station:Station)
WHERE n.name STARTS WITH 'Amsterdam'
RETURN n.name, station.id
85
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// Find the Shortest path between Frankfurt and Amsterdam
(Frankfurt-id: DE000FF, Amsterdam-id: NLASD)
TIP: use shortestPath
Cypher Hands-on Questions
MATCH (op1:OperationalPoint WHERE op1.id = 'NLASD')
MATCH (op2:OperationalPoint WHERE op2.id = 'DE000FF')
MATCH sp=shortestPath((op1)-[:SECTION*]-(op2))
RETURN sp;
86
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
// Find the Shortest path between Amsterdam (POI) and Berlin (POI)
Cypher Hands-on Questions
MATCH(a:POI), (b:POI)
WHERE toLower(a.city) CONTAINS "amsterdam"
AND toLower(b.city) CONTAINS "berlin"
WITH a, b
MATCH p = shortestPath((a)-[*]-(b))
RETURN p
87
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
© 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved.
88
Build your own Graph Solution
with NeoDash
Go to the github page here and follow instructions:
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
NeoDash
Open http://neodash.graphapp.io/ when you have a local
database
Open https://neodash.graphapp.io/ when you have a sandbox or
aura db
Import the dashboard from GitHub
89
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
How Could this “Mini Digital Twin” be Enhanced?
Extending the Graph is easy, e.g. with further track information:
- For example with possible pace on track, track quality metrics, mobile network
coverage, etc.
- Sensor information about switches to quickly find problems and re-route traffic
- The more related information is added, the more use cases could benefit from
the digital twin
Going even further:
- Additional information about trains running on the tracks enable additional
benefit:
- Track and schedule optimization
- Simulation of new track (to grow traffic)
90
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
91
Q & A
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
92
Thanks for Graphing
with me!
Contact us:
alfredo.rubin@neo4j.com
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
93
Additional Information
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
Neo4j Graph Data Platform Overview
Analytics
Tooling
Graph Transactions
Data Integration
Dev.
& Admin
Drivers & APIs Discovery & Visualization
Graph Analytics &
Data Science
Developers
Admins
Applications Business Users
Data Analysts
Data Scientists
Bloom
94
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
Cypher
MATCH (u:Customer
{customer_id:'customer-one'
})-[:BOUGHT]->(p:Product)<-
[:BOUGHT]-(peer:Customer)-[:BOUGHT]->(reco:Product)
WHERE not (u)-[:BOUGHT]->(reco)
RETURN reco as Recommendation
, count(*) as Frequency
ORDER BY Frequency DESC LIMIT 5;
SQL
SELECT product.product_name AS Recommendation,
count(1) AS Frequency
FROM product, customer_product_mapping, (SELECT
cpm3.product_id, cpm3.customer_id
FROM Customer_product_mapping cpm,
Customer_product_mapping cpm2,
Customer_product_mapping cpm3
WHERE cpm.customer_id = ‘customer-one’
AND cpm.product_id = cpm2.product_id
AND cpm2.customer_id != ‘customer-one’
AND cpm3.customer_id = cpm2.customer_id
AND cpm3.product_id NOT IN (SELECT DISTINCT
product_id
FROM Customer_product_mapping cpm
WHERE cpm.customer_id = ‘customer-one’)
) recommended_products
WHERE customer_product_mapping.product_id =
product.product_id
AND customer_product_mapping.product_id IN
recommended_products.product_id
AND customer_product_mapping.customer_id =
recommended_products.customer_id
GROUP BY product.product_name
ORDER BY Frequency DESC
95
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
What Does the Sample Data Looks
Like?
● Operation Points Data*:
● Tracks & Speed Data*:
● Point-of-Interest Data:
○ https://github.com/neo4j-field/gsummit2023/tree/main/data
* Translation of Shortcuts and certain Operational Units into english done by the Neo4j team!
Origin of data:
○ https://data-interop.era.europa.eu/search
The data set is public available and can be used under the license and conditions mentioned by OpenDB. We have
translated the data to make it better understandable to everyone outside Germany.
96
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
97
Building Our Solution
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
High Level Approach Building a Graph Solution
1. DOMAIN
Understand the domain you
try to model
5. First Data Model
Build your first data model with all
stakeholders involved and load sample data
2. Sample Data
Get accurate sample data
you understand
4.Identify entities & connections
Find entities & connections that
are part of your data model
3. Q & A from Business
Define Questions & Answers
the Business wants to
understand
Graph Solution -
First Phase
Go to next steps
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
High Level Approach Building a Graph Solution
9. Interactive Components
Build dashboards, Bloom
perspectives, Jupyter NBs, or
other interactive components to
demonstrate your graph data.
8. Scalability
If possible, test scalability. If
not make sure your data
model does scale.
7. Refine Data Model
Refine your Data Model
eventually, if it improves
answers
6. Test questions
Test your questions against
your model and data by
writing Cypher queries
Graph Solution -
Second Phase
coming from prev. steps
Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024
100
Stakeholders Recommended to Build a Graph Solution
● Maintain / extend graph
● Help to precise data model
objects like labels,
relationships, etc.
● Build UIs, Dashboards,
etc.
● Know what is missing today
● Build and operate data
loading (ETL process)
● Provide answers and rating
for results to above questions
● Build the graph
● Provide questions they want
to ask
● Translate questions into
queries / scripts
● Add domain knowledge
Domain Experts Consultants / Developers

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Workshop - Architecting Innovative Graph Applications- GraphSummit Milan

  • 1. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 May 14 2024 Milano Architecting Innovative Graph Applications 1 Alfredo Rubin alfredo.rubin@neo4j.com
  • 2. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 © 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Goal of Today Demonstrate (with YOUR HELP :-)), how to build a Graph “Application” 2
  • 3. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 © 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Agenda 1. Logistics 2. Introduction 3. Use Case Explanation 4. Building the Solution 5. Discussion: How to Improve the Use Case Further On 6. Final Q&A 7. Goodbye 3 BREAK (15min) Around 15:30
  • 4. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 4 Logistics First things first …
  • 5. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 © 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. Logistics WIFI Access: WIFI-Name: neo4j | Password: graphsummit24 Restrooms: Out of the room and to In the foyer area Chargers: Material of the workshop: https://github.com/kvegter/gsummit2024 the left the right Straight ahead under on top under the table in first three rows x 5 x
  • 6. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 6 Introduction A short overview of the Neo4j Product
  • 7. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Neo4j Native Graph Database - What is it? 7 Neo4j is a NORMAL Database (DB) ● Comparable with other DBs like Postgres, MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, HANA DB, etc ● Securly save, insert, update & query data ● Backup & Recovery ● Highly Scalable Neo4j is “ACID Compliant” and transaction save ● ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) ● Data is stored consistently on transaction level without any losses during an outage ● Most relational DB’s are ACID compliant, too * * Source: Medium.com - Link to the Article Neo4j is used 80%+ for OLTP Workloads ● > 80% of Neo4j Customers using the database as normal OLTP data store ● Data is stored, changed, deleted and queried ● With the same or even better performance compared to relational database systems Data Data DB
  • 8. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 What is the Value Using a Native Graph Database? 8 How data is stored on disk ● Data is already stored as connected ● Data is efficiently placed on-disk using “Index-free Adjacency” ● A GDB stores Nodes and Relations instead of Rows & Columns ● Semantics may be built into the data! How to query the data ● Cypher Query Language vs. SQL (ISO -> GQL) ● Simple, lesser lines of code, easier to read and maintain ● Queries possible, that span 100+ Hops in the Graph, which is comparable with SQL Joins over 100+ Tables! (:Product)-[:CONTAINS]->(:Part) Storing complex data networks & semantics ● Storing and analyzing complex relations between data ● Analyzing data from traditionally siloed data sources ● Extendable with data science algorithms and AI
  • 9. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 DATA SOURCES 9 USE CASES INGEST Apache Hop Structured Unstructured DATA ANALYTICS DATA MANAGEMENT Journey Analytics Risk Analytics Churn Analysis What-if Analysis Feature Engineering & ML Fraud Recommendations Data Fabric Data Compliance Data Governance Data Provenance Data Lineage Next Best Case Ontologies Neo4j Bloom Neo4j GDS Library PRODUCT COMPONENTS Neo4j Graph Platform APOC VISUALIZE DRIVERS & APIs Neo4j - Part of a Complete Ecosystem
  • 10. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 10 This is a Graph …
  • 11. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 11 This is a Graph, as well…
  • 12. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 12 …and this is also a Graph! Guess, what Graph could it be? * https://www.graphable.ai/blog/patient-journey-mapping/
  • 13. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Patient Journey Mapping - Digital Twin Figure 2: A single patient’s clinical oncology journey Figure 3: A patient graph schema supporting disease progression and cost exploration * https://www.graphable.ai/blog/patient-journey-mapping/ Patient Doctors Appointment Insurance Claim Results (ICD10 coded) Doctor Legend: 6 Month Journey of a Breast Cancer Grade 1 Patient
  • 14. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 14 Why Graph and how does it help? “ Within the healthcare setting, a digital twin approach can help clinicians and analysts model past and current events and simulate how changes to operations, care, procedures, and programs may influence future outcomes. Digital twins traversing a patient journey map help to reveal real-world obstacles, gaps in care and processes, and other challenges faced by patients and their families. ”
  • 15. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 15 The 3 P’s Pandora Papers* Panama Papers* Paradise Papers*
  • 16. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 16 Profitability Paradise + Pandora Papers Example Germany and other tax agencies ROI Paradise/Pandora Papers Pandora Papers: • 2021 BKA bought Pandora Papers, Invest: 300k Euro til July 2023 resulted in 38,4 Mio Euro additional tax income • ROI = 6400% over a 2 year time frame (adding operations cost of 300k Euro as an approximation) Paradise Papers: ● Worldwide $1.36 Billion in additional tax income ● Germany 75 Mio. Euro [Source]
  • 17. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Nodes • Can have Labels to classify Nodes • Labels have native indexes Relationships • Connect nodes by Type and Direction Properties • Attributes of Nodes & Relationships • Stored as Name/Value pairs • Can have indexes and composite indexes Labeled Property Graph Model 17 W RITES name: “Dan” born: 29th May, 1970 twitter: “@dan” id: “AAJ73840” name: Radio portable date:1st October text:“I’m happy with my purchase” rate: 5 BUYS H A S _ R E V I E W Customer Product Review
  • 18. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 RDBMS vs Graph Model 18 RDBMS Model Graph Model KNOWS KNOWS KNOWS ANDREAS TOBIAS MICA DELIA Person Friend Person-Friend ANDREAS DELIA TOBIAS MICA
  • 19. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 The Whiteboard Model Is the Physical Model 19
  • 20. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 20 The Graph Problem Problem Many organizations don’t realize that they have a graph problem
  • 21. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Adobe Behance Social Network of 10M Graphic Artists Background ● Social network of 10M graphic artists ● Peer-to-peer evaluation of art and works-in-progress ● Job sourcing site for creatives ● Massive, millions of updates (reads & writes) to Activity Feed ● 150 Mongos to 48 Cassandras to 3 Neo4j’s! Business Problem ● Artists subscribe, appreciate and curate “galleries” of works of their own and from other artists ● Activities Feed is how everyone receives updates ● 1st implementation was 150 MongoDB instances ● 2nd implementation shrunk to 48 Cassandras, but it was still too slow and required heavy IT overhead Solution and Benefits ● 3rd implementation shrunk to 3 Neo4j instances ● Saved over $500k in annual AWS fees ● Reduced data footprint from 50TB to 40GB ● Significantly easier to introduce new features like, “New projects in your Network” 21
  • 22. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Graph Data Science 22
  • 23. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Graph Algorithms Verticals 65+ graph algorithms in Neo4j 23
  • 24. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 24 Knowledge Graphs
  • 25. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 :SAME_AS User :VISITED Website User IPLocation Website IPLocation Website Website :VISITED :VISITED :VISITED :USED :USED : U S E D : V I S I T E D : V I S I T E D :VISITED Graphs allows you to make implicit relationships…. ….explicit Graphs….Grow! 25 Website
  • 26. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Knowledge Graphs….Grow! :SAME_AS User :VISITED Website User IPLocation Website IPLocation Website Website Website :VISITED :VISITED :VISITED :USED :USED : U S E D : V I S I T E D : V I S I T E D :VISITED User :SAM E_AS :USED :VISITED PersonId: 1 PersonId: 1 PersonId: 1 User :VISITED …and can then group similar nodes…and create a new graph from the explicit relationships… A graph grows organically - gaining insights and enriching your data PersonId: 2 26
  • 27. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 What can you do with a knowledge graph? Collaborative filtering: users who bought X, also bought Y (open-ended pattern matching) What items make you more likely to buy additional items in subsequent transactions? Traverse hierarchies - what items are similar 4+ hops out? How many flagged accounts are in the applicant’s network 4+ hops out? How many login / account variables in common? Add these metrics to your approval process What completes the connections from genes to diseases to targets? What genes can be reached 4+ hops out from a known drug target? What mechanisms in common are there between two drugs? Financial Domain Life Sciences Marketing and Recommendations 27
  • 28. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 28 Knowledge Graphs Structured Unstructured Ontologies Graph Algorithms and Graph Queries Semantics, Derived Relationships and Additional Context Natural Relationships
  • 29. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 29 … Large Language Models
  • 30. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 LLMs save time and money Customer Operations Marketing & Sales Software Engineering R&D 75% of GenAI value will come from these four areas The economic potential of generative AI: The next productivity frontier, McKinsey & Company, June 2023. 30
  • 31. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Lack of Enterprise Domain Knowledge LLMs Challenges… Outdated Public Sources Hallucination Probabilistic 31
  • 32. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Reliability Ground LLMs in Neo4j’s Knowledge Graph Improve Accuracy and Specificity Security and Privacy Probabilistic Deterministic Facts Explainability 32
  • 33. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 33 Setting the context - From a user point of view
  • 34. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 34 About Indexes Indexes are used to 'land' in the Graph as quickly as possible Normal Index Full Text Index Vector Index
  • 35. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 35 Vector Example // // Question input // with "Heb ik recht op een ov jaarkaart?" as vraag // // Question to embedding with OpenAI // WITH genai.vector.encode(vraag,"OpenAI",{token: $openaikey, model: $model } ) as embedding // // Vector search with the question-embedding as search parameter // CALL db.index.vector.queryNodes('tekst-embeddings', 5, embedding) YIELD node, score // // Now based on the nodes found in the vector index we can retrieve the context of the found nodes // MATCH p=(node)<-[*]-(:Wet) RETURN score, node.tekst as text, p
  • 36. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 36 Vector Example // // Question input // with "Heb ik recht op een ov jaarkaart?" as vraag // // Question to embedding with OpenAI // WITH genai.vector.encode(vraag,"OpenAI",{token: $openaikey, model: $model } ) as embedding // // Vector search with the question-embedding as search parameter // CALL db.index.vector.queryNodes('tekst-embeddings', 5, embedding) YIELD node, score // // Now based on the nodes found in the vector index we can retrieve the context of the found nodes // MATCH p=(node)<-[*]-(:Wet) RETURN score, node.tekst as text, p
  • 37. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 37 Data Insertion & Loading
  • 38. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Data Insertion & Loading into Neo4j ● >>neo4j-admin import Command ● Cypher CSV Loader ● APOC ● ETL Tools (Apache Hop,…) ● Driver Connections ● 3rd Party Platforms (Kafka, Spark) More about Data loading, etc. on the Neo4j Documentation 38
  • 39. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 39 Data Visualization
  • 40. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Neo4j Bloom - Neo4j Visualisation Platform 40
  • 41. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 NeoDash - Dashboarding with Your Graph Data 41
  • 42. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 42 Use Case Explanation Digital Twin-An Overview
  • 43. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 What is a Digital Twin? A Digital Twin is a digital representation of an intended or actual real-world physical product, system, or process (a physical twin) that serves as the effectively indistinguishable digital counterpart of it for practical purposes, such as simulation, integration, testing, monitoring and maintenance. 43
  • 44. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 44 * It has been done before • Challenge: Legacy technology could not track and analyze train journeys • Solution: Neo4j Knowledge Graph • Identify and avoid bottlenecks (DB) EU Railway Network - Track & Trace
  • 45. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Why do we need a Digital Twin? (few reasons) 45 Improved efficiency It can optimize its operations and reduce costs by simulating different scenarios and making data-driven decisions. Enhanced safety It can identify potential hazards and test safety measures to improve safety for passengers and employees. Predictive maintenance It can monitor asset condition in real-time, predict maintenance needs, and increase asset lifespan. Improved customer experience A digital twin can simulate disruptions and help proactively address issues to enhance the customer experience and increase satisfaction.
  • 46. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Another reason why a digital twin might be helpful 46 https://www.euronews.com/travel/20 23/02/21/unspeakable-botch-spain-s pends-258-million-on-trains-that-are-t oo-big-for-its-tunnels
  • 47. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 POI’s Included 47
  • 48. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Unleash the power of the Graph 48
  • 49. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 49 Abstracting from this Use Case Digital Twin and Networks are everywhere
  • 50. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Many other use cases are networks or Digital Twins, too! - Supply Chain - Mobile Phones Networks - Power Grids / Gas Grids / Fibre Networks - Social Networks - Patient Journeys - Bill of Materials (BoM) - Variants Management Graphs (Hard-& Software BoM combined) - etc. 50
  • 51. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 51 Mobile Network Operations - Large Mobile Provider ● Digital Twin of Mobile Network ● Planning and operation ○ Low signal strength of tower ○ Moving equipment around ● Simulation of possible failure scenarios ● Repair & maintenance support ○ Supply Chain Impact
  • 52. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 52 Plan maritime routes based on distances, costs, and internal logic. Results: ● Subsecond maritime routes planning ● Reduce global carbon emissions 60,000 tons ● 12-16M ROI for OrbitMI customers “We wanted to create a solution that exploits artificial intelligence, integrates current and historical AIS positions as well as multiple data feeds and APIs. Such an effort would require a world-class infrastructure. That’s why we selected Neo4j.” David Levy Chief Marketing Officer OrbitMI Customer Case Study: Logistics and Supply Chain
  • 53. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 53 The Sample Dataset
  • 54. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Sample Data: Railway Network Digital Twin Dataset Provided Data: - Consists of a Railway Track Network + Operation Point (OP) - It includes attributes like: - Tracks called Sections, - Stations and other OPs, - Geo location information, - Section length and speed, - other parameters - Add on from us: Point of Interest (POI) along tracks - Format: CSV → Generated from XML - Origin of Data: https://data-interop.era.europa.eu/search 54
  • 55. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 The Data Explained - In an Easy Way “The data can be seen as a highway that has ramps throughout its entire path. Each ramp can be an Operation Point (OP) like a Station, a Switch, etc. Tracks have a length and a speed associated. Tracks have a start point and an endpoint and will be inter-connecting Operation Points. An Operation Point has a name and is referred to by a relationship with a country code. 55
  • 56. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Operation Points (OP) - Data Explanation (Nodes) CSV Header titles: ● id: the internal number of the OP ● extralabel: the kind of OP we deal with, e.g. Station, Junction, Switch, etc. ● name: the name of a OP ● latitude: of the OP ● longtitude: of the OP Station Small Station Switch Border Point Junction Passenger Stop Geolocation Geolocation sectionlength speed 56
  • 57. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Section Connection Data Explanation (Relationships) CSV Header titles: ● source: start OP for this section ● target: end OP for this section ● sectionlength: the length in km of that section ● trackspeed: max speed allowed on that section Station (source) Small Station Switch (target) Border Point Junction Passenger Stop sectionlength trackspeed 57
  • 58. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Point of Interest (POI) Data Explanation CSV Header titles: ● CITY: City the POI is in or close by ● POI_DESCRIPTION: A short description of of the POI ● LINK_FOTO: a short name ● LINK_WEBSITE: is the name of the track corresponding to the shortcut ● LAT: Latitude of the POI ● LONG: Longitude of the POI ● SECRET: True if not well know, False if well known (e.g. Berlin) Station / OP Name Small Station Switch Border Point Junction Passenger Stop POI (can be outside the city) Geolocation 58
  • 59. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 59 Data Modeling - Writing down Questions & Answers
  • 60. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 What is graph data modeling? A collaborative effort where the application domain is analysed by stakeholders and developers to come up with the optimal model for use with Neo4j. Stakeholders include: ● Business analysts ● Architects ● Managers ● Project leaders ● Data Scientists
  • 61. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 no one EVER gets it right FIRST time
  • 62. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 The Modeling Workflow 62 1. Derive the question 2. Obtain the data 3. Develop a model 4. Ingest the data 5. Query/Prove the model
  • 63. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Data Modeling - The Questions are the Input 1. How long is the journey in KM from station X to station Y? 2. How long in KM is an alternative route if a station on my journey is closed? 3. Do I have alternative routes if a station in my journey is down? 4. What is the shortest distance in KM between stations X and Y? 5. Can I geolocate stations in my static rail network? 6. What are the stations expecting the most traffic? 7. What POIs are along my route? Note: Aggregations are also possible, but we focus on the “graphy” queries here! 63
  • 64. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Expected Answers 1. Your journey is 30 stations and 239km long 2. Your alternative route is 36 stations and 271km long 3. The shortest route between X and Y is XXX km 4. The geo location of your station is Lat / Long 5. The station with the most traffic is … ? 6. The following POIs are along your route … 64
  • 65. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 65 Data Modeling Building the Model
  • 66. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Tools for Graph Data Modeling Arrows Tool → https://arrows.app 66
  • 67. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Data Modeling Using the Questions as Input 1. How long is the journey in KM from station X to station Y? 2. How long in KM is an alternative route if a station on my journey is closed? 3. Do I have alternative routes if a station in my journey is down? 4. What is the shortest distance in KM between stations X and Y? 5. Can I geolocate stations in my static rail network? 6. What are the stations expecting the most traffic? 7. What POIs are along my route? Remember those questions? Blue → Nodes / Properties? Orange → Relationship Types 67
  • 68. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Building a First Data Model 1/6 - Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the relationships - Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type - Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or answer questions 68
  • 69. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Building a First Data Model 2/6 - Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the relationships - Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type - Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or answer questions 69
  • 70. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Building a First Data Model 3/6 - Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the relationships - Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type - Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or answer questions = 70
  • 71. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Building a First Data Model 4/6 - Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the relationships - Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type - Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or answer questions 71
  • 72. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Building a First Data Model 5/6 - Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the relationships - Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type - Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or answer questions 72
  • 73. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Building a First Data Model 6/6 - Nouns in your questions are the nodes, verbs are the relationships - Nodes have a Label, Relationships MUST have a Type - Properties should help to uniquely identify Nodes and/or answer questions We will add more Labels to this node, eg. Switch, BorderPoint, etc. 73
  • 74. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 You DON’T have to do it again and again! - Use Case Template repository*, that is growing - https://neo4j.com/developer/industry-use-cases/finserv/ 74 * And we have more templates to contribute
  • 75. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 75 Workshop Time Let’s build the solution together …
  • 76. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Let’s Do it Together … 1. Create a Neo4j Graph instance via any of: a. Neo4j Aura i. You can spin up a Free aura instance here. If you already have one Aura Free db in use and don't want to clear it can use the following option for this workshop b. Neo4j Sandbox use a "Blank Sandbox" c. Neo4j Desktop i. If you are using Neo4j Desktop, you will need to ensure that APOC is added to any graph you create. Installation instructions can be found here. 2. Open the Github page at: https://github.com/kvegter/gsummit2024 a. Open up the file: cypher/load-all-data.cypher b. Copy and paste the file contents into your Neo4j browser. . https://console.neo4j.io/ 76
  • 77. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 © 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. 77 (Basic) Cypher Hands-On See cypher/all_queries.cypher for a cheat-sheet of all the queries used in this workshop.
  • 78. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Cypher: Powerful and Expressive Query Language MATCH (:Person { name:“Dan”} ) -[:LOVES]-> (:Person { name:“Ann”} ) LOVES Dan Ann NODE NODE LABEL PROPERTY LABEL PROPERTY CREATE RELATIONSHIP MATCH <PATTERN> RETURN <DATA> 78
  • 79. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // What is this Query Doing? MATCH (a:Person)-[:FRIEND_OF]->(b:Person)<-[:FRIEND_OF]-(c:Person) WHERE a.name = “Niels de Jong” AND c.name = “Marco De Luca“ RETURN b.name as Name, b.id as FriendID Cypher Check Up 79
  • 80. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s Cypher Hands-on Questions 80
  • 81. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s MATCH (op:OperationalPoint) RETURN op ORDER BY id(op) LIMIT 50; Cypher Hands-on Questions 81
  • 82. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s MATCH (op:OperationalPoint) RETURN op ORDER BY id(op) LIMIT 50; // Find All Operation Points Names in the city of Amsterdam Cypher Hands-on Questions 82
  • 83. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the 50 Operation Points, Ordered By Neo4j internal id’s MATCH (op:OperationalPoint) RETURN op ORDER BY id(op) LIMIT 50; // Find All Operation Points Names in the city of Amsterdam MATCH (op:OperationalPointName) WHERE op.name CONTAINS 'Amsterdam' RETURN op.name; Cypher Hands-on Questions 83
  • 84. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the Station id's for Berlin and Paris // HINT: Use the pattern (OperationalPointName)<-[:NAMED]-(Station) Cypher Hands-on Questions 84
  • 85. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the Station id's for Berlin and Amsterdam // HINT: Use the pattern (OperationalPointName)<-[:NAMED]-(Station) Cypher Hands-on Questions MATCH (n:OperationalPointName)<-[r:NAMED]-(station:Station) WHERE n.name STARTS WITH 'Berlin' RETURN n.name, station.id MATCH (n:OperationalPointName)<-[r:NAMED]-(station:Station) WHERE n.name STARTS WITH 'Amsterdam' RETURN n.name, station.id 85
  • 86. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the Shortest path between Frankfurt and Amsterdam (Frankfurt-id: DE000FF, Amsterdam-id: NLASD) TIP: use shortestPath Cypher Hands-on Questions MATCH (op1:OperationalPoint WHERE op1.id = 'NLASD') MATCH (op2:OperationalPoint WHERE op2.id = 'DE000FF') MATCH sp=shortestPath((op1)-[:SECTION*]-(op2)) RETURN sp; 86
  • 87. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 // Find the Shortest path between Amsterdam (POI) and Berlin (POI) Cypher Hands-on Questions MATCH(a:POI), (b:POI) WHERE toLower(a.city) CONTAINS "amsterdam" AND toLower(b.city) CONTAINS "berlin" WITH a, b MATCH p = shortestPath((a)-[*]-(b)) RETURN p 87
  • 88. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 © 2023 Neo4j, Inc. All rights reserved. 88 Build your own Graph Solution with NeoDash Go to the github page here and follow instructions:
  • 89. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 NeoDash Open http://neodash.graphapp.io/ when you have a local database Open https://neodash.graphapp.io/ when you have a sandbox or aura db Import the dashboard from GitHub 89
  • 90. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 How Could this “Mini Digital Twin” be Enhanced? Extending the Graph is easy, e.g. with further track information: - For example with possible pace on track, track quality metrics, mobile network coverage, etc. - Sensor information about switches to quickly find problems and re-route traffic - The more related information is added, the more use cases could benefit from the digital twin Going even further: - Additional information about trains running on the tracks enable additional benefit: - Track and schedule optimization - Simulation of new track (to grow traffic) 90
  • 91. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 91 Q & A
  • 92. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 92 Thanks for Graphing with me! Contact us: alfredo.rubin@neo4j.com
  • 93. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 93 Additional Information
  • 94. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Neo4j Graph Data Platform Overview Analytics Tooling Graph Transactions Data Integration Dev. & Admin Drivers & APIs Discovery & Visualization Graph Analytics & Data Science Developers Admins Applications Business Users Data Analysts Data Scientists Bloom 94
  • 95. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 Cypher MATCH (u:Customer {customer_id:'customer-one' })-[:BOUGHT]->(p:Product)<- [:BOUGHT]-(peer:Customer)-[:BOUGHT]->(reco:Product) WHERE not (u)-[:BOUGHT]->(reco) RETURN reco as Recommendation , count(*) as Frequency ORDER BY Frequency DESC LIMIT 5; SQL SELECT product.product_name AS Recommendation, count(1) AS Frequency FROM product, customer_product_mapping, (SELECT cpm3.product_id, cpm3.customer_id FROM Customer_product_mapping cpm, Customer_product_mapping cpm2, Customer_product_mapping cpm3 WHERE cpm.customer_id = ‘customer-one’ AND cpm.product_id = cpm2.product_id AND cpm2.customer_id != ‘customer-one’ AND cpm3.customer_id = cpm2.customer_id AND cpm3.product_id NOT IN (SELECT DISTINCT product_id FROM Customer_product_mapping cpm WHERE cpm.customer_id = ‘customer-one’) ) recommended_products WHERE customer_product_mapping.product_id = product.product_id AND customer_product_mapping.product_id IN recommended_products.product_id AND customer_product_mapping.customer_id = recommended_products.customer_id GROUP BY product.product_name ORDER BY Frequency DESC 95
  • 96. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 What Does the Sample Data Looks Like? ● Operation Points Data*: ● Tracks & Speed Data*: ● Point-of-Interest Data: ○ https://github.com/neo4j-field/gsummit2023/tree/main/data * Translation of Shortcuts and certain Operational Units into english done by the Neo4j team! Origin of data: ○ https://data-interop.era.europa.eu/search The data set is public available and can be used under the license and conditions mentioned by OpenDB. We have translated the data to make it better understandable to everyone outside Germany. 96
  • 97. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 97 Building Our Solution
  • 98. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 High Level Approach Building a Graph Solution 1. DOMAIN Understand the domain you try to model 5. First Data Model Build your first data model with all stakeholders involved and load sample data 2. Sample Data Get accurate sample data you understand 4.Identify entities & connections Find entities & connections that are part of your data model 3. Q & A from Business Define Questions & Answers the Business wants to understand Graph Solution - First Phase Go to next steps
  • 99. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 High Level Approach Building a Graph Solution 9. Interactive Components Build dashboards, Bloom perspectives, Jupyter NBs, or other interactive components to demonstrate your graph data. 8. Scalability If possible, test scalability. If not make sure your data model does scale. 7. Refine Data Model Refine your Data Model eventually, if it improves answers 6. Test questions Test your questions against your model and data by writing Cypher queries Graph Solution - Second Phase coming from prev. steps
  • 100. Neo4j Inc. All rights reserved 2024 100 Stakeholders Recommended to Build a Graph Solution ● Maintain / extend graph ● Help to precise data model objects like labels, relationships, etc. ● Build UIs, Dashboards, etc. ● Know what is missing today ● Build and operate data loading (ETL process) ● Provide answers and rating for results to above questions ● Build the graph ● Provide questions they want to ask ● Translate questions into queries / scripts ● Add domain knowledge Domain Experts Consultants / Developers