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Are you unconsciously
biased?
Why diversity matters
We live in a diverse world
•  In terms of gender, race, religion, sexual
orientation…
Yet, our power structures are
still fairly homogeneous
•  Mostly male, middle-aged, white, heterosexual,
and in many cases from Catholic upbringing
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
#MoreWomen	
  
Exhibit 4
Gender diversity of executive management team1
Percent of companies by percent race/ethnicity diversity
1
9
22
38
1613
21– 30%11– 20%1–10%0% 41– 50%31– 40%
01
7
16
31
16
30
> 50%41–50%31–40%21–30%11–20%1–10%0%
00
10
19
7
63
21– 30%11– 20%1–10%0% 41– 50%31– 40%
Population diversity
Percent, 2012
Women
50.9% Men49.1%
Women
50.8% Men49.2%
Women
50.8% 49.2% Men
Average percent
women in
executive team
12%
16%
6%
1 Number of companies = 107 for UK, 186 for US, 67 for Brazil
Women are still underrepresented at the top of corporations globally
SOURCE: US Census Bureau, McKinsey Diversity Database
SOURCE: US Census Bureau, McKinsey Diversity Database
Exhibit 5
Compared with other countries, the UK is doing a better job in racial
diversity, though it still faces challenges
You can’t be what you can’t
see
•  Difficult to be inspired when you don’t
belong, when you don’t fit the norm.
We need deeper understanding
and deeper cohesion
Being more aware of our
unconscious bias
•  Yale study:
–  All of the professors received the same one-page summary.
–  In half of the descriptions, the mythical applicant was named John and in
half the applicant was named Jennifer.
–  On a scale of 1 to 7, with 7 being highest, professors gave John an
average score of 4 for competence and Jennifer 3.3. 
–  John was also seen more favorably as someone they might hire for their
laboratories or would be willing to mentor.
–  Female professors were just as biased against women students as their
male colleagues.

	
  
	
  
Why diversity matters
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Unconsciously, we tend to like people
who look like us, think like us and come
from backgrounds similar to ours. 


•  Beliefs and values gained from family, culture and a
lifetime of experiences heavily influence how we view
and evaluate both others and ourselves.
•  These thought patterns, assumptions and
interpretations – or biases – we have built up over time
help us to process information quickly and efficiently.
•  Deep-in-the-brain automatic preferences
Implicit association test
Implicit association test
Male	
   Female	
  
Implicit association test
Liberal	
  Arts	
   Science	
  
Implicit association test
Female/	
  
Liberal	
  Arts	
  
Male/	
  
Science	
  
Implicit association test
Male/	
  
Liberal	
  Arts	
  
Female/	
  
Science	
  
Implicit association test
•  About 75% of people who have taken the
IAT online complete the test faster when
white faces are sorted alongside pleasant
words, when male words are sorted
alongside career terms and when women
are sorted with liberal arts studies, not
science and tech.
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Lessons from behavioural economics and social psychology
Recent developments in the fields of behavioural economics and social psychology help to explain why
diversity is lacking in organizations, and what methods can be used to increase it.
1. Underlying reasons for bias
A body of research in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics over the past 40 years has established
that human behaviour is heavily influenced by subconscious, instinctive, and emotional “System 1”
responses, rather than being under the exclusive control of rational, deliberate “System 2” thinking.* As a
result, behaviour and attitudes in the workplace are influenced by an array of cognitive biases that affect
decision making. The most relevant for diversity are:
ƒ Implicit stereotypes (sometimes referred to as “subconscious bias”): the association of groups of
people with certain traits or activities, such as men with science and mathematics and women with arts
and languages.†
Without our being aware of it, these associations can powerfully influence decisions such
as which candidate to hire.
ƒ Ingroup favouritism: a preference for people who are like us, so that an individual might choose to work
with someone of the same nationality, gender, and race.‡
ƒ Outgroup homogenity bias: the tendency for an individual to think that the group of people they belong
to (their “ingroup”) is more diverse, while their “outgroup” is more homogeneous, with members who
appear alike or even interchangeable.‡
22 Allen R. McConnell and Jill M. Leibold, “Relations among the implicit association test, discriminatory behavior,
and explicit measures of racial attitudes”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2001, volume 37,
pp. 435–442.
23 Boris Groysberg and Katherine Connolly, “Great leaders who make the mix work”, Harvard Business Review,
September 2013, pp. 68–76.
Source:	
  Diversity	
  ma<ers,	
  Mac	
  Kinsey	
  2015	
  
Why diversity matters
Gender inequity makes us
lose money and opportunities
Source:	
  Diversity	
  ma<ers,	
  Mac	
  Kinsey	
  2015	
  
Why diversity matters
Source:	
  Diversity	
  ma<ers,	
  Mac	
  Kinsey	
  2015	
  
Diversity and inclusion help
the bottomline 
•  Venture-backed companies led by a woman actually produce 12%
higher revenues and launch on a third less capital than their male
counterparts, as show studies by the Kauffman Foundation and
leading universities. They have a record of greater capital efficiency
and a lower failure rate than companies only run by men.
 
•  According to DELL study, companies with more women board
directors outperform those with the least by 66% ROI capital, 53%
return on equity and 42% return on sales.
THE ADVANTAGE IN TALENT RECRUITMENT
In the decade before the financial crisis, it became apparent that demographic pressures and economic
Exhibit 9
Diversity has a positive impact on many key aspects of organisational
performance
Rationale
Diversity manage-
ment helps to…
…enhance the
company's image
▪ Social responsibility is becoming increasingly important
▪ Many countries have legal requirements for diversity (e.g., UK Equality Act 2010)
…improve
decision making
▪ Diversity fosters innovation and creativity through a greater variety of problem-solving
approaches, perspectives, and ideas. Academic research has shown that diverse groups
often outperform experts.
…increase
employee
satisfaction
▪ Diversity increases employee satisfaction and reduces conflicts between groups,
improving collaboration and loyalty
…strengthen
customer
orientation
▪ Women and minority groups are key consumer decision makers: for example, women
make 80% of consumer purchases in the UK
▪ Gay men and women have average household incomes that are almost 80% higher than
average
…win the war for
talent
▪ A strong focus on women and ethnic minorities increases the sourcing talent pool, a
particular issue in Europe. In a 2012 survey, 40% of companies said skill shortages were
the top reason for vacancies in entry-level jobs
SOURCE: Women Matter, McKinsey & Company, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013; Thomas Barta, Markus Kleiner, and Tilo Neumann, “Is there a
payoff from top-team diversity?”, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012; Martin Dewhurst, Matthew Pettigrew, and Ramesh Srinivasan, “How
multinationals can attract the talent they need”, McKinsey Quarterly, June 2012; Diversity wins!, McKinsey & Company, November 2011;
McKinsey qualitative survey; The War for Diverse Talent, Green Park , September 2010; Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the power
of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies, Princeton University Press, 2007; McKinsey analysis
SOURCE: Women Matter, McKinsey & Company, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013; Thomas Barta, Markus Kleiner,
and Tilo Neumann, “Is there a payoff from top-team diversity?”, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012; Martin Dewhurst,
Matthew Pettigrew, and Ramesh Srinivasan, “How multinationals can attract the talent they need”, McKinsey
Quarterly, June 2012; Diversity wins!, McKinsey & Company, November 2011; McKinsey qualitative survey; The War
for Diverse Talent, Green Park, September 2010; Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the power of diversity creates
better groups, firms, schools, and societies, Princeton University Press, 2007; McKinsey analysis
Why diversity matters
Diversity and inclusion help
the bottomline 
•  “Having a more diverse set of employees means you have a more
diverse set of skills,” says Sara Ellison, an MIT economist, which
“could result in an office that functions better.”
•  Among other results, the economists found that shifting from an all-
male or all-female office to one split evenly along gender lines could
increase revenue by roughly 41 percent.
h<p://news.mit.edu/2014/workplace-­‐diversity-­‐can-­‐help-­‐bo<om-­‐line-­‐1007	
  
Diversity and inclusion help
the bottomline 
•  Companies With More Women Board Directors Experience Higher Financial
Performance.

•  Investments run by female hedge fund managers do 3 times as well as
those run by male managers over the past 5 years.
•  Venture capital firms that invest in women-led companies outperform those
that don’t, according to 
research from the Small Business Administration’s Office of Advocacy.

•  And venture-backed companies that include more women on their
executive management teams are more likely to succeed than companies
with men-only executive suites, according to 
Women at the Wheel: Do Female Executives Drive Start-up
Success, research conducted by Dow Jones.
Why diversity matters
Why diversity matters
Diversity and inclusion help
the bottomline 
•  Understand customer better: When teams had one or more
members who represented a target end-user, the entire team was
as much as 158% more likely to understand that target end-user
and innovate accordingly. (Apple)
•  If women’s paid employment rates were the same as men’s, the
USA’s GDP would increase by nine per cent, the Eurozone’s by 13
per cent and Japan’s by 16 per cent.”
Diversity makes us smarter
•  Being around people who are different
from us makes us more creative, more
diligent and harder-working.
“What would have happened if Lehman
Brothers had been Lehman Sisters?”

Even movies about women
make more money…
Ninety-­‐seven	
  of	
  the	
  133	
  movies	
  represented	
  in	
  this	
  selecQon	
  are	
  about	
  men.	
  Only	
  36	
  are	
  
about	
  women	
  —	
  the	
  people	
  who	
  are,	
  as	
  it	
  is	
  now	
  proven,	
  the	
  bigger	
  box	
  office	
  draw.	
  	
  
	
  
That's	
  not	
  just	
  poor	
  representa<on,	
  it's	
  also	
  bad	
  business.	
  
What can we do about it?
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Transparency is the first step
to changing this situation
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Google’s first set of diversity
statistics, released in May 2014
Why diversity matters
Why diversity matters
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Why diversity matters
Diversity programmes are in essence a form of change programme: they seek to alter the composition of
leadership teams or staff and to disrupt old habits and routines. However, research into change management
has found that change programmes have a high failure rate of about 70 percent.21
Most efforts stall because
those involved—management and employees—do not believe in them or make them a priority.
Successful diversity programmes have clear objectives and are led from the top (not just the CEO, but the
entire top team). They foster active involvement from the wider organization and require the infrastructure to
actively manage against targets (not quotas) to hold individuals accountable for outcomes. Exhibit 10 sets
out questions for leaders to ask when planning a change programme and suggestions to help organizations
reach their diversity goals.
Exhibit 10
Aspire
Where do we
want to go?
Assess
How ready are we
to go there?
Architect
What do we need
to do to get there?
Act
How do we man-
age the journey?
Advance
How do we keep
moving forward?
1
2
3
4
5
Key steps for successful diversity programmes
SOURCE: Scott Keller and Colin Price, Beyond Performance: How great organizations build ultimate competitive advantage, Wiley, 2011
Diversity
▪ Create a clear value proposition for having a diverse and
inclusive culture
▪ Set a few clear targets (not quotas) that balance complexity
with cohesiveness
Define a clear
value
proposition
Establish a fact
base
▪ Understand the current situation in terms of statistics and
mindsets and learn from external best practices.
Understand root causes and underlying mindsets
Create targeted
initiatives
▪ Differentiate initiatives by diversity group, for example,
gender initiatives do not always resonate with other
minorities. Lead from the top
Define the
governance
model
▪ Define the rollout strategy for all initiatives. Launch 1-2
highly visible flagship projects at the beginning of the
effort. Monitor rigorously
Build inclusion
▪ Continuously address potential mindset barriers through
systematic change management. Link diversity to other
change management efforts
SOURCE: Scott Keller and Colin Price, Beyond Performance: How great organizations build ultimate competitive
advantage, Wiley, 2011
Which are the best practices in
terms of diversity and inclusion?
2. Techniques for overcoming bias
Behavioural insights can be harnessed to increase diversity in three main ways: by training and educating
people to reduce personal biases, by changing organisational processes to take bias out of decision making;
and by incorporating behavioural principles in the design of programmes and communications to spur action.
Educating and training people to reduce personal biases
Key success factors for raising awareness and building capability include:
ƒ Tailoring delivery to the audience. For example, one engineering company used a computer simulation to
show how a systematic 1 percent bias against women in performance evaluation scores caused women
to be underrepresented in top positions.
ƒ Getting people to experience bias personally. At Google, for instance, staff are encouraged to take a test
that measures biases.
ƒ Reminding people about biases at key moments, such as before reviews.
ƒ Helping people to focus on differences to reduce homogeneity bias and stereotyping. In one experiment,
French students discriminated against potential employers who were Arabs, but stopped doing so if
asked to describe differences between their photos.‡
ƒ Fostering empathy training and taking the side of the target group—a practice proven to reduce prejudice
and discrimination. Simply asking “How would I feel in this situation?” can be enough to have a positive
effect.‡
Changing processes and structures to reduce bias in decision making
Another way to increase diversity is to introduce techniques to minimise the influence of individual biases on
key decisions. These techniques can take several forms:
ƒ Analytical. One approach to reduce bias in recruitment is to define scoring criteria for each candidate and
use an algorithm rather than human judgement to make decisions based on the criteria. Daniel Kahneman
Source:	
  Diversity	
  ma<ers,	
  Mac	
  Kinsey	
  2015	
  
ƒ Fostering empathy training and taking the side of the target group—a practice proven to reduce prejudice
and discrimination. Simply asking “How would I feel in this situation?” can be enough to have a positive
effect.‡
Changing processes and structures to reduce bias in decision making
Another way to increase diversity is to introduce techniques to minimise the influence of individual biases on
key decisions. These techniques can take several forms:
ƒ Analytical. One approach to reduce bias in recruitment is to define scoring criteria for each candidate and
use an algorithm rather than human judgement to make decisions based on the criteria. Daniel Kahneman
has applied this technique to improve the assessment of candidates for the Israeli army.* Modified
versions of the technique have been used by a variety of companies, including McKinsey.
ƒ Debate. One effective way to identify bias in decision making is to institute a “pre-mortem” by asking
people to imagine what could go wrong if a particular decision is taken.§
Another technique is to nominate
an individual to act as devil’s advocate and challenge assumptions behind decisions, such as implicit
stereotypes. A number of studies have shown that this approach leads to better decisions.
ƒ Organisational. Companies can, for example, create a decision challenge team.
Applying behavioural economics principles to diversity efforts
McKinsey has identified seven ways to apply behavioural principles: use information about peers, use
people’s natural reflexes, make sure information comes from a credible origin, provide strategic context,
trigger an emotional response, make information salient, and appeal to an individual’s self-image. Many of
these techniques can be used to enhance the effectiveness of diversity programmes; for instance:
Source:	
  Diversity	
  ma<ers,	
  Mac	
  Kinsey	
  2015	
  
ƒ Peers: highlight the positive achievements of peers. This has been shown to be one of the most
effective ways to influence people. For example, informing taxpayers that others pay their tax significantly
increased tax contributions, whereas reminders of prosecution or how tax is used did not.¶
A company
could use internal statistics from other departments or business units that are more advanced in achieving
diversity, as well as external data on highly regarded competitors. Telling employees about their peers’
contributions to diversity is another effective technique.
ƒ Reflexes: prime people with images and words that discourage biases. A striking example of the
effects of priming—or introducing subliminal clues—was provided by research that showed that when
Asian women were reminded about their gender, they performed significantly worse in a maths test than
when they were reminded about their ethnicity.** Companies can use priming techniques strategically to
reduce bias, for example by displaying pictures of well-known powerful women.
ƒ Origin: make sure that diversity messages come from trusted opinion leaders within the
organization, whether they are line workers or managers, rather than from a diversity group that may be
seen as an outsider.††
* Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Allen Lane, 2011.
† Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, and Antony G. Greenwald, “Math = male, me = female, therefore math ≠ me”,
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, volume 83, number 1, pp. 44-59.
‡ Scott Plous, editor, Understanding prejudice and discrimination, McGraw-Hill, 2003.
§ Gary Klein, “Performing a project pre-mortem”, Harvard Business Review, September 2007.
Ryan T. Hartwig, “Facilitating problem solving: A case study using the devil’s advocacy technique”, Group
Facilitation, number 10, 2010.
¶ Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness, Yale
University Press, 2008.
** Clayton M. Christensen, Stephen P. Kaufman, and Willy C. Shih, “Innovation killers: How financial tools destroy
Source:	
  Diversity	
  ma<ers,	
  Mac	
  Kinsey	
  2015	
  
The good news is: we can
rewire our brains!
So what can YOU do to shift your biases?
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Source:	
  Unconscious	
  Bias	
  @	
  Work	
  |	
  Google	
  Ventures	
  
Why diversity matters
ANNEX
Examples of best practices
DELOITTE
•  Average annual turnover rate among female managers was huge : 33%.
•  Why ? Male-dominated culture. Not a confortable place to work in.
•  Change : accountability of women recruited and retained, networking
events and career-planning programs especially for women. Change in the
requirements for travel. Flexible work arrangements, which wouldn’t hinder
one’s professional advancement within the organization. Dramatic increase
of the use of these program by men and women.
•   
•  Deloitte number of female partners tripled, from 5 to 14% and saved USD
250 million in hiring and training costs.
•  So investing in women, rather than costing money is actually saving
millions of dollars and stopped hemorrhaging talented people.
Sthree
•  Identity initially focused on empowering women within the company and creating a
supportive environment in which they can succeed. The programme has provided
tools and information, developed a support network, highlighted successful role
models and held forums to share ideas. We have also been engaging with our clients
and candidates on gender diversity and supporting women in the community, for
example, working with female students to raise career aspirations.
•  Our maternity buddy scheme has played an integral role in 83% of employees
returning to work after maternity leave. For employees expecting a baby our buddy
scheme provides support for the duration of the pregnancy, maternity leave and
return to work.
h<ps://www.sthreecareers.com/en/diversity-­‐
inclusion	
  
American Express
•  “You can have as many diverse employees as possible, but if we
don’t have a culture where employees feel that they can speak up
and their voices are heard, you’re not going to really take advantage
of that.”
•  The groups provide mentoring, “speed networking,” and other
opportunities to connect with like-minded colleagues.
•  Helps with recruitment and retention of talent
Best practices
•  Diversity needs to be made a clear priority at
companies. That happens when diversity moves out of
workshops and becomes factored into the hiring
managers' bottom lines.
•  Managers at Chevron, for example, are rated in their
performance evaluations on their ability to reach
diversity goals.
•  At Procter & Gamble, managers’ stock options are tied
to diversity goal
Workshops to create
awareness
Teaching	
  about	
  all	
  forms	
  of	
  discriminaQon	
  and	
  
implemenQng	
  lessons	
  into	
  workplace	
  decisions	
  
can	
  mediate	
  prejudice,	
  both	
  blatant	
  and	
  
subtle.	
  
Judith	
  Williams,	
  the	
  Global	
  Diversity	
  and	
  Talent	
  
Programs	
  manager	
  at	
  Google,	
  leads	
  the	
  
unconscious	
  bias	
  workshops	
  designed	
  to	
  
inform	
  employees	
  about	
  the	
  science	
  of	
  
subconscious	
  decision-­‐making.	
  
Sthree 
•  “I think three things need to happen,” she says. “Firstly,
there needs to be an HR policy in place - it has to be
supported at a corporate level. Secondly, it needs to be
top-down with senior level sponsors promoting the
initiatives. And thirdly, tactically, you need a bottom up
approach too, you need local champions.”
h<ps://www.sthreecareers.com/en/sthree-­‐blog/why-­‐workplace-­‐diversity-­‐is-­‐good-­‐for-­‐
the-­‐bo<om-­‐line	
  
Increasing attention of tech
companies on diversity challenges
•  Industry giants Apple and Twitter have published diversity audits
and pledged to do more to increase diversity in their workforce.
•  Janet Van Huysse, Twitter’s Vice President, Diversity and Inclusion
put it simply: “As we look ahead, we see opportunity rather than a
challenge.”
•  Companies currently looking to appoint Heads of Diversity include
Airbnb, Asana and Dropbox. Those recognised by Diversity Inc. as
making the most effort to increase diversity this year include
Novartis, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Procter & Gamble.
•  This has become a mainstream issue, a competitive business
imperative.
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
APPLE
•  we continue hiring talented people from groups that are currently
underrepresented in our industry. 
•  We’re supporting education with programs like the Thurgood
Marshall College Fund to help students at historically black colleges
and universities find opportunities in technology. 
•  ConnectED is bringing our technology to some of the most
economically disadvantaged schools and communities in the
United States, so more people have the opportunity to pursue their
dreams. 
•  We’re also hosting hundreds of students at our annual developer
conference, and we’re setting up new programs to help students
learn to code.
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
APPLE
•  Building a vibrant community to support women in tech.
•  We launched our Supplier Diversity Program in 1988
•  We’re also working with a variety of STEM (science,
technology, engineering, and math) organizations that
offer scholarships to developers from different
backgrounds.
•  We partner with groups like the Human Rights
Campaign (HRC), which is the largest LGBT civil rights
organization in the United States.
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Why diversity matters
APPLE
•  To encourage women to be part of the tech industry, we’ve
developed a strong partnership with the National Center for Women
& Information Technology (NCWIT). We’ve been working together
for over a decade. We’re proud to be their first-ever Lifetime
Partner, and we’re dedicated to supporting all aspects of their
organization.
•  As part of our partnership, we’re helping NCWIT expand the only
national talent development initiative for women in tech —
Aspirations in Computing. Through this program, NCWIT and its
partners give support, scholarships, and career opportunities to
young women.
Source:	
  Apple	
  diversity	
  website	
  
Why diversity matters
Why diversity matters
And yet, it is still a boy’s club
And the numbers are
dropping!
•  Women make up a tiny fraction, roughly 15%, of people
working in technical roles in the tech industry. And
amazingly, that percentage is dropping, not rising.
•  Multiple studies have found that the proportion of
women in the tech workforce peaked in about 1989 and
has been steadily dropping ever since.
Source:	
  American	
  AssociaQon	
  of	
  University	
  Women	
  
Source:	
  American	
  AssociaQon	
  of	
  University	
  Women	
  
Source:	
  Apple	
  Diversity	
  
Why?
•  Most have very few female role models and colleagues.
•  Surveys find 23% to 66% report experiencing sexual harassment
or seeing it happen to others. 
•  Half the respondents to my survey said they've been treated in a
way they find hostile, demeaning or condescending, and a third
said their bosses are friendlier and more supportive with their male
colleagues. 
•  Women report being encouraged to move out of pure tech into
support functions, which offer less pay, are less prestigious and
have limited upward mobility. 
•  A 2014 Glassdoor analysis concluded that women in tech are paid
less than their male colleagues, with another 2014 study putting the
salary gap at 12%.
The Athena Factor
•  After 10 years of work experience, “The Athena
Factor” found, 41% of women in tech leave the
industry, compared with 17% of men.
Forty-­‐one	
  percent	
  of	
  highly	
  qualified	
  scienQsts,	
  engineers,	
  and	
  technologists	
  on	
  the	
  lower	
  rungs	
  of	
  
corporate	
  career	
  ladders	
  are	
  female.	
  But	
  more	
  than	
  half	
  (52%)	
  drop	
  out.	
  	
  
	
  
Why?	
  To	
  be<er	
  understand	
  the	
  scope	
  and	
  shape	
  of	
  female	
  talent,	
  the	
  Athena	
  Factor	
  research	
  project	
  
studied	
  the	
  career	
  trajectories	
  of	
  women	
  with	
  SET	
  credenQals	
  in	
  the	
  private	
  sector.	
  
	
  It	
  found	
  5	
  powerful	
  "an<gens"	
  in	
  corporate	
  cultures.	
  	
  
•  Women	
  in	
  SET	
  are	
  marginalized	
  by	
  hosQle	
  macho	
  cultures.	
  Being	
  the	
  sole	
  woman	
  on	
  a	
  team	
  or	
  at	
  a	
  
site	
  can	
  create	
  isolaQon.	
  
•  Many	
  women	
  report	
  mysterious	
  career	
  paths:	
  fully	
  40%	
  feel	
  stalled.	
  	
  
•  Systems	
  of	
  risk	
  and	
  reward	
  in	
  SET	
  cultures	
  can	
  disadvantage	
  women,	
  who	
  tend	
  to	
  be	
  risk	
  averse.	
  
•  Finally,	
  SET	
  jobs	
  include	
  extreme	
  work	
  pressures:	
  they	
  are	
  unusually	
  Qme	
  intensive.	
  
•  Moreover,	
  female	
  a<riQon	
  rates	
  spike	
  10	
  years	
  into	
  a	
  career.	
  Women	
  experience	
  a	
  perfect	
  storm	
  in	
  
their	
  mid-­‐	
  to	
  late	
  thirQes:	
  They	
  hit	
  serious	
  career	
  hurdles	
  precisely	
  when	
  family	
  pressures	
  intensify.	
  
Companies	
  that	
  step	
  in	
  with	
  targeted	
  support	
  before	
  this	
  "fight	
  or	
  flight	
  moment"	
  may	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  
lower	
  the	
  female	
  a<riQon	
  rate	
  significantly.	
  	
  
•  This	
  study	
  features	
  13	
  company	
  iniQaQves	
  that	
  address	
  this	
  female	
  brain	
  drain.	
  Some,	
  for	
  example,	
  
are	
  designed	
  to	
  break	
  down	
  female	
  isolaQon;	
  others	
  create	
  on-­‐ramps	
  for	
  women	
  who	
  want	
  to	
  return	
  
to	
  work.	
  These	
  iniQaQves	
  are	
  likely	
  to	
  be	
  "game	
  changers":	
  They	
  will	
  allow	
  many	
  more	
  women	
  to	
  stay	
  
on	
  track	
  in	
  SET	
  careers.	
  

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Why diversity matters

  • 2. We live in a diverse world •  In terms of gender, race, religion, sexual orientation…
  • 3. Yet, our power structures are still fairly homogeneous •  Mostly male, middle-aged, white, heterosexual, and in many cases from Catholic upbringing
  • 12. Exhibit 4 Gender diversity of executive management team1 Percent of companies by percent race/ethnicity diversity 1 9 22 38 1613 21– 30%11– 20%1–10%0% 41– 50%31– 40% 01 7 16 31 16 30 > 50%41–50%31–40%21–30%11–20%1–10%0% 00 10 19 7 63 21– 30%11– 20%1–10%0% 41– 50%31– 40% Population diversity Percent, 2012 Women 50.9% Men49.1% Women 50.8% Men49.2% Women 50.8% 49.2% Men Average percent women in executive team 12% 16% 6% 1 Number of companies = 107 for UK, 186 for US, 67 for Brazil Women are still underrepresented at the top of corporations globally SOURCE: US Census Bureau, McKinsey Diversity Database SOURCE: US Census Bureau, McKinsey Diversity Database Exhibit 5 Compared with other countries, the UK is doing a better job in racial diversity, though it still faces challenges
  • 13. You can’t be what you can’t see •  Difficult to be inspired when you don’t belong, when you don’t fit the norm.
  • 14. We need deeper understanding and deeper cohesion
  • 15. Being more aware of our unconscious bias •  Yale study: –  All of the professors received the same one-page summary. –  In half of the descriptions, the mythical applicant was named John and in half the applicant was named Jennifer. –  On a scale of 1 to 7, with 7 being highest, professors gave John an average score of 4 for competence and Jennifer 3.3. –  John was also seen more favorably as someone they might hire for their laboratories or would be willing to mentor. –  Female professors were just as biased against women students as their male colleagues.    
  • 17. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 18. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 19. Unconsciously, we tend to like people who look like us, think like us and come from backgrounds similar to ours. 
 •  Beliefs and values gained from family, culture and a lifetime of experiences heavily influence how we view and evaluate both others and ourselves. •  These thought patterns, assumptions and interpretations – or biases – we have built up over time help us to process information quickly and efficiently. •  Deep-in-the-brain automatic preferences
  • 22. Implicit association test Liberal  Arts   Science  
  • 23. Implicit association test Female/   Liberal  Arts   Male/   Science  
  • 24. Implicit association test Male/   Liberal  Arts   Female/   Science  
  • 25. Implicit association test •  About 75% of people who have taken the IAT online complete the test faster when white faces are sorted alongside pleasant words, when male words are sorted alongside career terms and when women are sorted with liberal arts studies, not science and tech.
  • 26. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 27. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 28. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 29. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 30. Lessons from behavioural economics and social psychology Recent developments in the fields of behavioural economics and social psychology help to explain why diversity is lacking in organizations, and what methods can be used to increase it. 1. Underlying reasons for bias A body of research in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics over the past 40 years has established that human behaviour is heavily influenced by subconscious, instinctive, and emotional “System 1” responses, rather than being under the exclusive control of rational, deliberate “System 2” thinking.* As a result, behaviour and attitudes in the workplace are influenced by an array of cognitive biases that affect decision making. The most relevant for diversity are: ƒ Implicit stereotypes (sometimes referred to as “subconscious bias”): the association of groups of people with certain traits or activities, such as men with science and mathematics and women with arts and languages.† Without our being aware of it, these associations can powerfully influence decisions such as which candidate to hire. ƒ Ingroup favouritism: a preference for people who are like us, so that an individual might choose to work with someone of the same nationality, gender, and race.‡ ƒ Outgroup homogenity bias: the tendency for an individual to think that the group of people they belong to (their “ingroup”) is more diverse, while their “outgroup” is more homogeneous, with members who appear alike or even interchangeable.‡ 22 Allen R. McConnell and Jill M. Leibold, “Relations among the implicit association test, discriminatory behavior, and explicit measures of racial attitudes”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2001, volume 37, pp. 435–442. 23 Boris Groysberg and Katherine Connolly, “Great leaders who make the mix work”, Harvard Business Review, September 2013, pp. 68–76. Source:  Diversity  ma<ers,  Mac  Kinsey  2015  
  • 32. Gender inequity makes us lose money and opportunities Source:  Diversity  ma<ers,  Mac  Kinsey  2015  
  • 34. Source:  Diversity  ma<ers,  Mac  Kinsey  2015  
  • 35. Diversity and inclusion help the bottomline •  Venture-backed companies led by a woman actually produce 12% higher revenues and launch on a third less capital than their male counterparts, as show studies by the Kauffman Foundation and leading universities. They have a record of greater capital efficiency and a lower failure rate than companies only run by men.   •  According to DELL study, companies with more women board directors outperform those with the least by 66% ROI capital, 53% return on equity and 42% return on sales.
  • 36. THE ADVANTAGE IN TALENT RECRUITMENT In the decade before the financial crisis, it became apparent that demographic pressures and economic Exhibit 9 Diversity has a positive impact on many key aspects of organisational performance Rationale Diversity manage- ment helps to… …enhance the company's image ▪ Social responsibility is becoming increasingly important ▪ Many countries have legal requirements for diversity (e.g., UK Equality Act 2010) …improve decision making ▪ Diversity fosters innovation and creativity through a greater variety of problem-solving approaches, perspectives, and ideas. Academic research has shown that diverse groups often outperform experts. …increase employee satisfaction ▪ Diversity increases employee satisfaction and reduces conflicts between groups, improving collaboration and loyalty …strengthen customer orientation ▪ Women and minority groups are key consumer decision makers: for example, women make 80% of consumer purchases in the UK ▪ Gay men and women have average household incomes that are almost 80% higher than average …win the war for talent ▪ A strong focus on women and ethnic minorities increases the sourcing talent pool, a particular issue in Europe. In a 2012 survey, 40% of companies said skill shortages were the top reason for vacancies in entry-level jobs SOURCE: Women Matter, McKinsey & Company, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013; Thomas Barta, Markus Kleiner, and Tilo Neumann, “Is there a payoff from top-team diversity?”, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012; Martin Dewhurst, Matthew Pettigrew, and Ramesh Srinivasan, “How multinationals can attract the talent they need”, McKinsey Quarterly, June 2012; Diversity wins!, McKinsey & Company, November 2011; McKinsey qualitative survey; The War for Diverse Talent, Green Park , September 2010; Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies, Princeton University Press, 2007; McKinsey analysis SOURCE: Women Matter, McKinsey & Company, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013; Thomas Barta, Markus Kleiner, and Tilo Neumann, “Is there a payoff from top-team diversity?”, McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012; Martin Dewhurst, Matthew Pettigrew, and Ramesh Srinivasan, “How multinationals can attract the talent they need”, McKinsey Quarterly, June 2012; Diversity wins!, McKinsey & Company, November 2011; McKinsey qualitative survey; The War for Diverse Talent, Green Park, September 2010; Scott E. Page, The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies, Princeton University Press, 2007; McKinsey analysis
  • 38. Diversity and inclusion help the bottomline •  “Having a more diverse set of employees means you have a more diverse set of skills,” says Sara Ellison, an MIT economist, which “could result in an office that functions better.” •  Among other results, the economists found that shifting from an all- male or all-female office to one split evenly along gender lines could increase revenue by roughly 41 percent. h<p://news.mit.edu/2014/workplace-­‐diversity-­‐can-­‐help-­‐bo<om-­‐line-­‐1007  
  • 39. Diversity and inclusion help the bottomline •  Companies With More Women Board Directors Experience Higher Financial Performance. •  Investments run by female hedge fund managers do 3 times as well as those run by male managers over the past 5 years. •  Venture capital firms that invest in women-led companies outperform those that don’t, according to  research from the Small Business Administration’s Office of Advocacy. •  And venture-backed companies that include more women on their executive management teams are more likely to succeed than companies with men-only executive suites, according to  Women at the Wheel: Do Female Executives Drive Start-up Success, research conducted by Dow Jones.
  • 42. Diversity and inclusion help the bottomline •  Understand customer better: When teams had one or more members who represented a target end-user, the entire team was as much as 158% more likely to understand that target end-user and innovate accordingly. (Apple) •  If women’s paid employment rates were the same as men’s, the USA’s GDP would increase by nine per cent, the Eurozone’s by 13 per cent and Japan’s by 16 per cent.”
  • 43. Diversity makes us smarter •  Being around people who are different from us makes us more creative, more diligent and harder-working.
  • 44. “What would have happened if Lehman Brothers had been Lehman Sisters?”

  • 45. Even movies about women make more money…
  • 46. Ninety-­‐seven  of  the  133  movies  represented  in  this  selecQon  are  about  men.  Only  36  are   about  women  —  the  people  who  are,  as  it  is  now  proven,  the  bigger  box  office  draw.       That's  not  just  poor  representa<on,  it's  also  bad  business.  
  • 47. What can we do about it?
  • 48. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 49. Transparency is the first step to changing this situation
  • 50. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 51. Google’s first set of diversity statistics, released in May 2014
  • 57. Diversity programmes are in essence a form of change programme: they seek to alter the composition of leadership teams or staff and to disrupt old habits and routines. However, research into change management has found that change programmes have a high failure rate of about 70 percent.21 Most efforts stall because those involved—management and employees—do not believe in them or make them a priority. Successful diversity programmes have clear objectives and are led from the top (not just the CEO, but the entire top team). They foster active involvement from the wider organization and require the infrastructure to actively manage against targets (not quotas) to hold individuals accountable for outcomes. Exhibit 10 sets out questions for leaders to ask when planning a change programme and suggestions to help organizations reach their diversity goals. Exhibit 10 Aspire Where do we want to go? Assess How ready are we to go there? Architect What do we need to do to get there? Act How do we man- age the journey? Advance How do we keep moving forward? 1 2 3 4 5 Key steps for successful diversity programmes SOURCE: Scott Keller and Colin Price, Beyond Performance: How great organizations build ultimate competitive advantage, Wiley, 2011 Diversity ▪ Create a clear value proposition for having a diverse and inclusive culture ▪ Set a few clear targets (not quotas) that balance complexity with cohesiveness Define a clear value proposition Establish a fact base ▪ Understand the current situation in terms of statistics and mindsets and learn from external best practices. Understand root causes and underlying mindsets Create targeted initiatives ▪ Differentiate initiatives by diversity group, for example, gender initiatives do not always resonate with other minorities. Lead from the top Define the governance model ▪ Define the rollout strategy for all initiatives. Launch 1-2 highly visible flagship projects at the beginning of the effort. Monitor rigorously Build inclusion ▪ Continuously address potential mindset barriers through systematic change management. Link diversity to other change management efforts SOURCE: Scott Keller and Colin Price, Beyond Performance: How great organizations build ultimate competitive advantage, Wiley, 2011 Which are the best practices in terms of diversity and inclusion?
  • 58. 2. Techniques for overcoming bias Behavioural insights can be harnessed to increase diversity in three main ways: by training and educating people to reduce personal biases, by changing organisational processes to take bias out of decision making; and by incorporating behavioural principles in the design of programmes and communications to spur action. Educating and training people to reduce personal biases Key success factors for raising awareness and building capability include: ƒ Tailoring delivery to the audience. For example, one engineering company used a computer simulation to show how a systematic 1 percent bias against women in performance evaluation scores caused women to be underrepresented in top positions. ƒ Getting people to experience bias personally. At Google, for instance, staff are encouraged to take a test that measures biases. ƒ Reminding people about biases at key moments, such as before reviews. ƒ Helping people to focus on differences to reduce homogeneity bias and stereotyping. In one experiment, French students discriminated against potential employers who were Arabs, but stopped doing so if asked to describe differences between their photos.‡ ƒ Fostering empathy training and taking the side of the target group—a practice proven to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Simply asking “How would I feel in this situation?” can be enough to have a positive effect.‡ Changing processes and structures to reduce bias in decision making Another way to increase diversity is to introduce techniques to minimise the influence of individual biases on key decisions. These techniques can take several forms: ƒ Analytical. One approach to reduce bias in recruitment is to define scoring criteria for each candidate and use an algorithm rather than human judgement to make decisions based on the criteria. Daniel Kahneman Source:  Diversity  ma<ers,  Mac  Kinsey  2015  
  • 59. ƒ Fostering empathy training and taking the side of the target group—a practice proven to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Simply asking “How would I feel in this situation?” can be enough to have a positive effect.‡ Changing processes and structures to reduce bias in decision making Another way to increase diversity is to introduce techniques to minimise the influence of individual biases on key decisions. These techniques can take several forms: ƒ Analytical. One approach to reduce bias in recruitment is to define scoring criteria for each candidate and use an algorithm rather than human judgement to make decisions based on the criteria. Daniel Kahneman has applied this technique to improve the assessment of candidates for the Israeli army.* Modified versions of the technique have been used by a variety of companies, including McKinsey. ƒ Debate. One effective way to identify bias in decision making is to institute a “pre-mortem” by asking people to imagine what could go wrong if a particular decision is taken.§ Another technique is to nominate an individual to act as devil’s advocate and challenge assumptions behind decisions, such as implicit stereotypes. A number of studies have shown that this approach leads to better decisions. ƒ Organisational. Companies can, for example, create a decision challenge team. Applying behavioural economics principles to diversity efforts McKinsey has identified seven ways to apply behavioural principles: use information about peers, use people’s natural reflexes, make sure information comes from a credible origin, provide strategic context, trigger an emotional response, make information salient, and appeal to an individual’s self-image. Many of these techniques can be used to enhance the effectiveness of diversity programmes; for instance: Source:  Diversity  ma<ers,  Mac  Kinsey  2015  
  • 60. ƒ Peers: highlight the positive achievements of peers. This has been shown to be one of the most effective ways to influence people. For example, informing taxpayers that others pay their tax significantly increased tax contributions, whereas reminders of prosecution or how tax is used did not.¶ A company could use internal statistics from other departments or business units that are more advanced in achieving diversity, as well as external data on highly regarded competitors. Telling employees about their peers’ contributions to diversity is another effective technique. ƒ Reflexes: prime people with images and words that discourage biases. A striking example of the effects of priming—or introducing subliminal clues—was provided by research that showed that when Asian women were reminded about their gender, they performed significantly worse in a maths test than when they were reminded about their ethnicity.** Companies can use priming techniques strategically to reduce bias, for example by displaying pictures of well-known powerful women. ƒ Origin: make sure that diversity messages come from trusted opinion leaders within the organization, whether they are line workers or managers, rather than from a diversity group that may be seen as an outsider.†† * Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, Allen Lane, 2011. † Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, and Antony G. Greenwald, “Math = male, me = female, therefore math ≠ me”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, volume 83, number 1, pp. 44-59. ‡ Scott Plous, editor, Understanding prejudice and discrimination, McGraw-Hill, 2003. § Gary Klein, “Performing a project pre-mortem”, Harvard Business Review, September 2007. Ryan T. Hartwig, “Facilitating problem solving: A case study using the devil’s advocacy technique”, Group Facilitation, number 10, 2010. ¶ Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness, Yale University Press, 2008. ** Clayton M. Christensen, Stephen P. Kaufman, and Willy C. Shih, “Innovation killers: How financial tools destroy Source:  Diversity  ma<ers,  Mac  Kinsey  2015  
  • 61. The good news is: we can rewire our brains! So what can YOU do to shift your biases?
  • 62. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 63. Source:  Unconscious  Bias  @  Work  |  Google  Ventures  
  • 66. DELOITTE •  Average annual turnover rate among female managers was huge : 33%. •  Why ? Male-dominated culture. Not a confortable place to work in. •  Change : accountability of women recruited and retained, networking events and career-planning programs especially for women. Change in the requirements for travel. Flexible work arrangements, which wouldn’t hinder one’s professional advancement within the organization. Dramatic increase of the use of these program by men and women. •    •  Deloitte number of female partners tripled, from 5 to 14% and saved USD 250 million in hiring and training costs. •  So investing in women, rather than costing money is actually saving millions of dollars and stopped hemorrhaging talented people.
  • 67. Sthree •  Identity initially focused on empowering women within the company and creating a supportive environment in which they can succeed. The programme has provided tools and information, developed a support network, highlighted successful role models and held forums to share ideas. We have also been engaging with our clients and candidates on gender diversity and supporting women in the community, for example, working with female students to raise career aspirations. •  Our maternity buddy scheme has played an integral role in 83% of employees returning to work after maternity leave. For employees expecting a baby our buddy scheme provides support for the duration of the pregnancy, maternity leave and return to work. h<ps://www.sthreecareers.com/en/diversity-­‐ inclusion  
  • 68. American Express •  “You can have as many diverse employees as possible, but if we don’t have a culture where employees feel that they can speak up and their voices are heard, you’re not going to really take advantage of that.” •  The groups provide mentoring, “speed networking,” and other opportunities to connect with like-minded colleagues. •  Helps with recruitment and retention of talent
  • 69. Best practices •  Diversity needs to be made a clear priority at companies. That happens when diversity moves out of workshops and becomes factored into the hiring managers' bottom lines. •  Managers at Chevron, for example, are rated in their performance evaluations on their ability to reach diversity goals. •  At Procter & Gamble, managers’ stock options are tied to diversity goal
  • 70. Workshops to create awareness Teaching  about  all  forms  of  discriminaQon  and   implemenQng  lessons  into  workplace  decisions   can  mediate  prejudice,  both  blatant  and   subtle.   Judith  Williams,  the  Global  Diversity  and  Talent   Programs  manager  at  Google,  leads  the   unconscious  bias  workshops  designed  to   inform  employees  about  the  science  of   subconscious  decision-­‐making.  
  • 71. Sthree •  “I think three things need to happen,” she says. “Firstly, there needs to be an HR policy in place - it has to be supported at a corporate level. Secondly, it needs to be top-down with senior level sponsors promoting the initiatives. And thirdly, tactically, you need a bottom up approach too, you need local champions.” h<ps://www.sthreecareers.com/en/sthree-­‐blog/why-­‐workplace-­‐diversity-­‐is-­‐good-­‐for-­‐ the-­‐bo<om-­‐line  
  • 72. Increasing attention of tech companies on diversity challenges •  Industry giants Apple and Twitter have published diversity audits and pledged to do more to increase diversity in their workforce. •  Janet Van Huysse, Twitter’s Vice President, Diversity and Inclusion put it simply: “As we look ahead, we see opportunity rather than a challenge.” •  Companies currently looking to appoint Heads of Diversity include Airbnb, Asana and Dropbox. Those recognised by Diversity Inc. as making the most effort to increase diversity this year include Novartis, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Procter & Gamble. •  This has become a mainstream issue, a competitive business imperative.
  • 76. APPLE •  we continue hiring talented people from groups that are currently underrepresented in our industry. •  We’re supporting education with programs like the Thurgood Marshall College Fund to help students at historically black colleges and universities find opportunities in technology. •  ConnectED is bringing our technology to some of the most economically disadvantaged schools and communities in the United States, so more people have the opportunity to pursue their dreams. •  We’re also hosting hundreds of students at our annual developer conference, and we’re setting up new programs to help students learn to code. Source:  Apple  diversity  website  
  • 78. APPLE •  Building a vibrant community to support women in tech. •  We launched our Supplier Diversity Program in 1988 •  We’re also working with a variety of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) organizations that offer scholarships to developers from different backgrounds. •  We partner with groups like the Human Rights Campaign (HRC), which is the largest LGBT civil rights organization in the United States. Source:  Apple  diversity  website  
  • 80. APPLE •  To encourage women to be part of the tech industry, we’ve developed a strong partnership with the National Center for Women & Information Technology (NCWIT). We’ve been working together for over a decade. We’re proud to be their first-ever Lifetime Partner, and we’re dedicated to supporting all aspects of their organization. •  As part of our partnership, we’re helping NCWIT expand the only national talent development initiative for women in tech — Aspirations in Computing. Through this program, NCWIT and its partners give support, scholarships, and career opportunities to young women. Source:  Apple  diversity  website  
  • 83. And yet, it is still a boy’s club
  • 84. And the numbers are dropping! •  Women make up a tiny fraction, roughly 15%, of people working in technical roles in the tech industry. And amazingly, that percentage is dropping, not rising. •  Multiple studies have found that the proportion of women in the tech workforce peaked in about 1989 and has been steadily dropping ever since. Source:  American  AssociaQon  of  University  Women  
  • 85. Source:  American  AssociaQon  of  University  Women   Source:  Apple  Diversity  
  • 86. Why? •  Most have very few female role models and colleagues. •  Surveys find 23% to 66% report experiencing sexual harassment or seeing it happen to others. •  Half the respondents to my survey said they've been treated in a way they find hostile, demeaning or condescending, and a third said their bosses are friendlier and more supportive with their male colleagues. •  Women report being encouraged to move out of pure tech into support functions, which offer less pay, are less prestigious and have limited upward mobility. •  A 2014 Glassdoor analysis concluded that women in tech are paid less than their male colleagues, with another 2014 study putting the salary gap at 12%.
  • 87. The Athena Factor •  After 10 years of work experience, “The Athena Factor” found, 41% of women in tech leave the industry, compared with 17% of men.
  • 88. Forty-­‐one  percent  of  highly  qualified  scienQsts,  engineers,  and  technologists  on  the  lower  rungs  of   corporate  career  ladders  are  female.  But  more  than  half  (52%)  drop  out.       Why?  To  be<er  understand  the  scope  and  shape  of  female  talent,  the  Athena  Factor  research  project   studied  the  career  trajectories  of  women  with  SET  credenQals  in  the  private  sector.    It  found  5  powerful  "an<gens"  in  corporate  cultures.     •  Women  in  SET  are  marginalized  by  hosQle  macho  cultures.  Being  the  sole  woman  on  a  team  or  at  a   site  can  create  isolaQon.   •  Many  women  report  mysterious  career  paths:  fully  40%  feel  stalled.     •  Systems  of  risk  and  reward  in  SET  cultures  can  disadvantage  women,  who  tend  to  be  risk  averse.   •  Finally,  SET  jobs  include  extreme  work  pressures:  they  are  unusually  Qme  intensive.   •  Moreover,  female  a<riQon  rates  spike  10  years  into  a  career.  Women  experience  a  perfect  storm  in   their  mid-­‐  to  late  thirQes:  They  hit  serious  career  hurdles  precisely  when  family  pressures  intensify.   Companies  that  step  in  with  targeted  support  before  this  "fight  or  flight  moment"  may  be  able  to   lower  the  female  a<riQon  rate  significantly.     •  This  study  features  13  company  iniQaQves  that  address  this  female  brain  drain.  Some,  for  example,   are  designed  to  break  down  female  isolaQon;  others  create  on-­‐ramps  for  women  who  want  to  return   to  work.  These  iniQaQves  are  likely  to  be  "game  changers":  They  will  allow  many  more  women  to  stay   on  track  in  SET  careers.