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GL39 – Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria
for New Veterinary Drug Substances and New
Medicinal Products: Chemical Substances
2
Disclaimer
> These slides have been provided for training
purposes only. The presenter has made every
attempt to ensure that they are consistent with
relevant VICH guideline(s).
> As always, the original Guideline(s) should be
used as the primary source of information for
working with regulators.
3
Table of contents
Setting the scene:
General introduction; GL Lifecycle
Chapter 1. Introduction
• Objectives of the GL; background; scope of the GL
Chapter 2. General concepts
• Definition of each concept and indication of the circumstances of their applicability
Chapter 3. Guidelines
• Specifications: definition and justification; Universal tests / Criteria; Specific tests / Criteria
Chapter 4. Glossary: not included in this presentation, please refer to the guideline
Chapter 5. References: not included in this presentation, please refer to the guideline
Chapter 6. Decision trees 1 to 8: not included in this presentation, please refer to the attachment to GL39
4
Quality Guidelines on specifications – General
introduction
GL39 is part of the specifications group of guidelines:
> GL39 – Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Veterinary
Drug Substances and New Medicinal Products: Chemical substances
• Attachment to GL39 – Decision trees 1 to 8
> GL40 - Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New
Biotechnological/Biological Veterinary Medicinal Products
5
• Add specific tests to DS/DP
• Define the acceptance criteria
• Think about alternative analytical
procedure
• Consider evolving technology
How to set the specifications? – GL Lifecycle
When you read this GL, imagine your specification as the life cycle of a butterfly: starting
with an egg…
Specifications « Chrysalis stage »
• Consider GL39; regional Pharmacopoeia, regional GL
• Define in-process control
• Decide if parametric testing is possible
• Propose provisory specification, perhaps release = End of Shelf Life
Scale-up
Formulation
development
Validation
Start of project
Life cycle
Change control
Routine
Specifications
« Larva stage »
Specifications « Egg stage »
• Drug substance (DS): universal tests (including
pharmacopeia if it exists)
• Drug product (DP): universal test according to pharma
forms (+ impact of DS or DP for related substances)
Specifications
« Adult butterfly stage »
• Accepted by Authorities but potentially
with differences between regions
In case of changes
GL/Pharmacopeia,
or from the
applicant -> study
of impact on DS
and DP
Specifications for registration
• Fix the final set of tests for
registration
• Periodic/skip testing proposal
• In-process controls fixed
• Release potentially ≠ as End of Shelf
Life
• Stick to guidelines or scientifically
justify
6
Objective
Establish a single set of global [USA, Europe and Japan] specifications for new veterinary
drug substances and new medicinal products.
The specifications are designed to ensure product quality and consistency
Background
Chapter I: Introduction
To be justified
by the
applicant and
approved by
Authorities
Specifications
= List of tests + references to analytical procedures + appropriate
acceptance criteria (numerical limits, ranges or other criteria for the
test described)
= Critical quality standards proposed and justified by the
manufacturer and approved by regulatory authorities
= The chosen characteristics should focus on quality attributes found to be
useful to ensure safety and efficacy of the drug substance and medicinal
product
7
Chapter I: Scope – What is quality?
8
Chapter I: Scope
In scope:
> This guideline addresses specifications, chosen to confirm the quality of the new drug product (DP)
(including combination product) and where applicable new drug substances (DS)
[“New” means not previously registered in the region or Member State]
> This guideline may be applicable to synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics and synthetic peptides of
low molecular weight
> Dosage forms addressed in this guideline include solid oral dosage forms, powders, liquid oral dosage
forms, and parenterals (small and large volume) however this is not meant to be an exhaustive list, or to
limit the number of dosage forms
Not in scope:
> This guideline does not apply to DPs during clinical research or development
> Higher molecular weight peptides and polypeptides
> Biotechnological/biological products
> Radiopharmaceuticals, products of fermentation, oligonucleotides, herbal products and crude
products of animal or plant origin
9
Chapter II: General concepts (1/4)
The following concepts should be considered to set specifications:
> Periodic or skip testing: limited possibility not to perform a specified test on every batch. Justification
based on data and an associated low risk of out of specifications. E.g. Residual solvents, microbiological
testing for solid oral forms.
> Release vs. Shelf-life acceptance criteria (medicinal products only):
Release criteria more restrictive than shelf-life criteria.
E.g. assay and impurity (degradation product) levels
> In-process tests: tests performed during manufacture: to guide manufacturing, e.g. machine
adjustment, or to follow the process, e.g. pH measurement
> Design and development consideration: experience gained during development should form the
basis for the setting of specifications, and can also provide the rational to exclude or replace certain
tests. Examples are given in the GL.
> Limited data available at filing: it is understandable that initially approved tests and acceptance
criteria shoud be reviewed as more information is collected. E.g. total impurities: after industrial scale-up
and stability study results, the limits could be tightened or widened.
The guideline refers to the authorities
10
Chapter II: General concepts (2/4)
The following concepts should be considered to set specifications:
> Parametric release: Parametric release can be used as an operational alternative to routine
release testing for the medicinal product in certain cases when approved by the regulatory authority.
When parametric release is performed, the attribute (e.g., sterility) is indirectly controlled by
monitoring specific parameters (e.g., temperature, pressure, and time during the terminal
sterilization phase(s)).
Check regional requirements: e.g. EMA guideline CVMP/QWP/339588/2005 on parametric release.
> Alternative procedures: may be used if comparable or superior to the official procedure (subject
to validation).
> Pharmacopoeial tests and acceptance criteria: some harmonised (or considered as
equivalent) tests are agreed between USA, Europe and Japan. The list of harmonised tests is on the
EDQM website.
• E.g. the Ph. Eur sterility test can be used and is accepted in USA and Japan.
For non-harmonised tests, the regional Pharmacopoeia should be followed, unless the equivalence
of using an alternative Pharmacopoeia can be justified and agreed with the competent authority.
11
Chapter II: General concepts (3/4)
The following concepts should be considered to set specifications:
> Evolving technologies: when offering additional assurance of quality, new technologies have to be
taken into consideration.
> Impact of drug substance on Medicinal Products Specifications: it is normally not considered
necessary to test the medicinal product for process related impurities which are controlled in the drug
substance and are not degradation products. However those process related impurities that are also
degradation products have to be controlled.
> Reference standard: A reference standard, or reference material, is a substance prepared for use as
the standard in an assay, identification, or purity test. It should have a quality appropriate to its use.
Impurities from drug substances Drug substance Drug product
Imp K (synthesis by-product)
Imp G (synthesis and degradation)
≤ 0,5 %
≤ 0,5 %*
Not to be followed
≤ 1,0 % *(followed because degradation product)
* VICH limits
12
Chapter II: General concepts (4/4)
Example to illustrate the general concepts:
List of tests Reference to analytical
procedures
Acceptance
criteria
Comments
Microbiological quality* Ph. Eur. 2.6.12
Harmonised text with
USP <61>, Japan Ph.
Ph. Eur. 5.1.4
USP <1111>
* Periodic-Skip testing: One batch every 10
batches based on development results and
because the dosage form is tablets.
Related substances
- Specified known
impurity
HPLC method
in-house xxxx
R : 1.2 %
EoSL: 1.8 %
Different limits Release vs end of SL: limit
above qualification threshold based on
toxicological qualification report (up to 2 %).
Hardness (IPC results)
Resistance to crushing
Ph. Eur. 2.9.8 50 N to 90 N In process control result reported in the
specifications. Limits determined based on
development considerations.
Example for a drug
substance
Ph. Eur. Monograph: thin
layer chromatography.
HPLC proposed by the
applicant.
Imp. x ≤ 0,5
%
Alternative procedure, and evolving
technologies. Conditions: HPLC better and
validated.
13
> Universal tests / criteria
Some tests and acceptance criteria are considered generally applicable to all new drug substances
and finished products.
Note: do not forget to consider the mandatory Regional Pharmacopoeia
E.g. Ph. Eur: Substances for pharmaceutical use (2034), Ph Eur: for pharmaceutical forms (e.g. tablets)
VICH Guidelines to consider: “validation of analytical procedures: definition and terminology” and
“validation of analytical procedures: methodology”.
> Specific tests / criteria
For drug substance and/or for drug product, some tests and acceptance criteria may be added to the
universal ones, this is case by case, when the tests have an impact on the quality for batch control.
Note: do not forget to consider the mandatory Regional Pharmacopoeia, as well as specific
guidelines (e.g. in EU: EMA/CVMP specific GL).
Chapter III: Guidelines (1/7)
14
Chapter III: Guidelines (2/7)
> Universal tests / criteria
Tests New Drug substances New Drug Products Comments
Description
(qualitative)
For state: solid/liquid state,
colour.
Example: Size, shape, colour. Evolution of colour over time
=> investigation/action;
propose quantitative testing.
Identification Specific: IR; in case of LC (not
considered specific), the use of 2
chromatographic methods e.g. LC
retention time + LC-UV spectrum
is generally accepted.
Salt has to be identified.
Chirality has to be considered.
Specific: IR;
In case of LC (not considered
specific), the use of 2
chromatographic methods e.g.
LC retention time + LC-UV
spectrum is generally accepted.
Identification is not
necessary during stability
studies (unless stability
indicating). Identity should
however remain part of the
shelf life specification.
Assay Specific and stability-indicating.
If not specific (titration), add a
specific test for impurities.
Specific and stability-indicating.
If not specific (titration), add a
specific test for impurities.
The same method is possible
for substance/product, in
particular for impurities.
Impurities Organic, inorganic and residual
solvents.
Refer to decision tree #1.
Residual solvents should be
discussed. Degradation products
(organic impurities) should be
monitored. See VICH guidelines
Refer to decision tree #2.
If limited data available do
not establish acceptance
criteria which tightly
encompass the batch data at
the time of filing.
15
Chapter III: Guidelines (3/7)
GL 39 Decision trees are proposed for specified impurity, particle size distribution, polymorphism, chirality and
microbiological quality attributes given a clear way of proceeding.
Tests New Drug substances Comments
Physicochemical
properties
Melting point, refractive index.
Example: pH (in solution).
Tip: The use of the drug substance and the type
of drug product should be considered.
Particle size Potentially affects bioavailability.
Refer to decision tree #3.
When drug product is solid or suspension.
Tip: The use of the drug substance and the type
of drug product should be considered.
Polymorphic forms Potentially affects bioavailability.
Refer to decision trees #4.
Tip: The use of the drug substance and the type
of drug product should be considered.
Water content When water is impacting the quality of the
substance.
Prefer Karl Fischer titration (KF).
Do not forget to validate the KF method
(Ph.Eur).
Elemental
impurities
Catalysts, sulfated ash/residue on ignition. According to development data and
manufacturing process. Discuss with the drug
substance manufacturer.
Microbial limits Necessary if not sterile substance.
Decision tree #6.
Refer to Ph.Eur procedures and limits.
16
Chapter III: Guidelines (4/7)
> Specific tests / criteria for drug product
> GL39 Decision trees are proposed for degradation product, polymorphism, chirality, dissolution and
microbiological quality attributes given a clear way of proceeding.
> The specific tests are listed hereafter for specific dosage forms: solid oral, liquid oral, parenterals.
 application of the concepts contained in this guideline to other dosage forms is encouraged.
17
> Specific tests / criteria for drug product
Chapter III: Guidelines (5/7)
Tests New Drug product : solid oral (coated
and uncoated tablets; hard capsules)
Comments
Dissolution Please refer to the decision trees 7(1),
7(2) and 7(3).
Pay attention to this test because if there is
a link between dissolution and bioavailability, this
should be considered a critical attribute.
Pharmacopoeial methods should be considered.
Partially harmonised (US/JP/EU).
Disintegration Could replace dissolution (see decision
tree 7(1)).
Refer to Pharmacopoeia for limits. It is listed in
harmonised test (US/JP/EU).
Hardness/friability In-process controls. Normally not necessary to include them in the
specification but should be included if critical
impact on quality. Check impact of hardness
evolution on dissolution rate.
Uniformity of
dosage units
Means uniformity of mass of the drug
product or of content of the drug
substance in the drug product
depending on the active content.
Uniformity of dosage unit is listed in harmonised
test (US/JP/EU).
Water content Prefer KF but Loss on drying may be an
alternative.
Appropriate if negative impact of hydration or
hydroscopic product.
Microbial limits Refer to decison tree 8. Harmonised test (US/JP/EU).
18
Chapter III: Guidelines (6/7)
Tests New Drug Product: oral liquid and powder
intended for reconstitution as oral liquid
Comments
Uniformity of dosage
units
Means uniformity of mass of the drug product or of
content of the drug substance in the drug product
depending on the active content
In case of multidose with measuring device, unif. of
mass of delivered dose is applied.
pH Range has to be proposed and justified. Appropriate when ionic medium.
Microbial limits Follow decision tree 8. Harmonised test (US/JP/EU).
Antimicrobial
preservative content
Limits for assay should be included in the
specifications for shelf life (SL).
Effectiveness of the preservative should be
demonstrated during development at the lower limit
for the duration of SL and in-use SL
Antioxidant
preservative content
Normally performed at release but omission can be
justified. When an in-process test, the acceptance
criteria to remain part of the release specification
If changes in manufacturing or packaging occur, levels
throughout SL should be re-evaluated.
Extractables Please refer to regional GL on extractables. Commonly not in routine testing.
Dissolution Should be considered for oral suspensions and dry
powder products for resuspension.
Particle size distribution should also be considered
when evaluating the need for dissolution testing
Particle size
distribution
Should be considered for oral suspensions. Dissolution should also be considered when evaluating
the need for particle size distribution testing
Redispersibility May be appropriate and time required to achieve
resuspension should be specified
A simple test such as shaking may be sufficient
Rheological
properties
Viscosity/specific gravity for viscous
solution/suspension.
-
Reconstitution time Acceptance criteria should be provided for dry
powder products which require reconstitution.
Skip lot testing or elimination of this attribute from the
specification possible if justified.
Water content For oral products requiring reconstitution, a test and
acceptance criterion should be proposed if appropr.
-
19
Chapter III: Guidelines (7/7)
Tests New Drug product: Parenterals Comments
Uniformity of dosage units Same definition as previous slides Refer to solid oral.
pH Range has to be proposed and justified. Appropriate when ionic medium.
Sterility Test procedure and acceptance criteria necessary. Parametric release possible. Harmonised text
(US/JP/EU).
Endotoxins/pyrogens Endotoxins should be included in accordance with
regional requirements (Pharmacopoeia).
Pyrogenicity may be an alternative.
Particulate matter Includes clarity, visible and sub-visible particulates. In accordance with regional Pharmacopoeia.
Water content For non-aqueous or for product for reconstitution. -
Antimicrobial preservative
content
limits for assay should be included Effectiveness of the preservative should be
demonstrated during development at the lower limit
for the duration of shelf life and in-use shelf life
Antioxidant preservative
content
Normally performed at release but omission can be
justified. If an in-process test, the acceptance
criteria to remain part of the release specification
If changes in manufacturing or packaging occur,
levels throughout shelf life should be re-evaluated
Extractables Please refer to regional GL on extractables. Significantly critical.
Functionality testing of
delivery systems
Test to verify if prefilled syringe, autoinjector
cartridges are functioning correctly.
Skip testing or absence may be justified based on
stability data
Osmolarity Appropriate when tonicity is declared on labelling. Commonly absent on label.
Particle size distribution Should be considered for oral suspensions. Dissolution should also be considered when
evaluating the need for particle size distribution test
Redispersibility Appropriate for suspension and time required to
achieve resuspension should be specified
A simple test such as shaking may be sufficient
Reconstitution time Acceptance criteria to be provided for all
parenteral products which require reconstitution.
For rapidly dissolving products: Skip lot testing or
elimination of this attribute possible if justified
20

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VICH GL39 Specifications-pharmaceuticals..pptx

  • 1. GL39 – Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Veterinary Drug Substances and New Medicinal Products: Chemical Substances
  • 2. 2 Disclaimer > These slides have been provided for training purposes only. The presenter has made every attempt to ensure that they are consistent with relevant VICH guideline(s). > As always, the original Guideline(s) should be used as the primary source of information for working with regulators.
  • 3. 3 Table of contents Setting the scene: General introduction; GL Lifecycle Chapter 1. Introduction • Objectives of the GL; background; scope of the GL Chapter 2. General concepts • Definition of each concept and indication of the circumstances of their applicability Chapter 3. Guidelines • Specifications: definition and justification; Universal tests / Criteria; Specific tests / Criteria Chapter 4. Glossary: not included in this presentation, please refer to the guideline Chapter 5. References: not included in this presentation, please refer to the guideline Chapter 6. Decision trees 1 to 8: not included in this presentation, please refer to the attachment to GL39
  • 4. 4 Quality Guidelines on specifications – General introduction GL39 is part of the specifications group of guidelines: > GL39 – Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Veterinary Drug Substances and New Medicinal Products: Chemical substances • Attachment to GL39 – Decision trees 1 to 8 > GL40 - Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Biotechnological/Biological Veterinary Medicinal Products
  • 5. 5 • Add specific tests to DS/DP • Define the acceptance criteria • Think about alternative analytical procedure • Consider evolving technology How to set the specifications? – GL Lifecycle When you read this GL, imagine your specification as the life cycle of a butterfly: starting with an egg… Specifications « Chrysalis stage » • Consider GL39; regional Pharmacopoeia, regional GL • Define in-process control • Decide if parametric testing is possible • Propose provisory specification, perhaps release = End of Shelf Life Scale-up Formulation development Validation Start of project Life cycle Change control Routine Specifications « Larva stage » Specifications « Egg stage » • Drug substance (DS): universal tests (including pharmacopeia if it exists) • Drug product (DP): universal test according to pharma forms (+ impact of DS or DP for related substances) Specifications « Adult butterfly stage » • Accepted by Authorities but potentially with differences between regions In case of changes GL/Pharmacopeia, or from the applicant -> study of impact on DS and DP Specifications for registration • Fix the final set of tests for registration • Periodic/skip testing proposal • In-process controls fixed • Release potentially ≠ as End of Shelf Life • Stick to guidelines or scientifically justify
  • 6. 6 Objective Establish a single set of global [USA, Europe and Japan] specifications for new veterinary drug substances and new medicinal products. The specifications are designed to ensure product quality and consistency Background Chapter I: Introduction To be justified by the applicant and approved by Authorities Specifications = List of tests + references to analytical procedures + appropriate acceptance criteria (numerical limits, ranges or other criteria for the test described) = Critical quality standards proposed and justified by the manufacturer and approved by regulatory authorities = The chosen characteristics should focus on quality attributes found to be useful to ensure safety and efficacy of the drug substance and medicinal product
  • 7. 7 Chapter I: Scope – What is quality?
  • 8. 8 Chapter I: Scope In scope: > This guideline addresses specifications, chosen to confirm the quality of the new drug product (DP) (including combination product) and where applicable new drug substances (DS) [“New” means not previously registered in the region or Member State] > This guideline may be applicable to synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics and synthetic peptides of low molecular weight > Dosage forms addressed in this guideline include solid oral dosage forms, powders, liquid oral dosage forms, and parenterals (small and large volume) however this is not meant to be an exhaustive list, or to limit the number of dosage forms Not in scope: > This guideline does not apply to DPs during clinical research or development > Higher molecular weight peptides and polypeptides > Biotechnological/biological products > Radiopharmaceuticals, products of fermentation, oligonucleotides, herbal products and crude products of animal or plant origin
  • 9. 9 Chapter II: General concepts (1/4) The following concepts should be considered to set specifications: > Periodic or skip testing: limited possibility not to perform a specified test on every batch. Justification based on data and an associated low risk of out of specifications. E.g. Residual solvents, microbiological testing for solid oral forms. > Release vs. Shelf-life acceptance criteria (medicinal products only): Release criteria more restrictive than shelf-life criteria. E.g. assay and impurity (degradation product) levels > In-process tests: tests performed during manufacture: to guide manufacturing, e.g. machine adjustment, or to follow the process, e.g. pH measurement > Design and development consideration: experience gained during development should form the basis for the setting of specifications, and can also provide the rational to exclude or replace certain tests. Examples are given in the GL. > Limited data available at filing: it is understandable that initially approved tests and acceptance criteria shoud be reviewed as more information is collected. E.g. total impurities: after industrial scale-up and stability study results, the limits could be tightened or widened. The guideline refers to the authorities
  • 10. 10 Chapter II: General concepts (2/4) The following concepts should be considered to set specifications: > Parametric release: Parametric release can be used as an operational alternative to routine release testing for the medicinal product in certain cases when approved by the regulatory authority. When parametric release is performed, the attribute (e.g., sterility) is indirectly controlled by monitoring specific parameters (e.g., temperature, pressure, and time during the terminal sterilization phase(s)). Check regional requirements: e.g. EMA guideline CVMP/QWP/339588/2005 on parametric release. > Alternative procedures: may be used if comparable or superior to the official procedure (subject to validation). > Pharmacopoeial tests and acceptance criteria: some harmonised (or considered as equivalent) tests are agreed between USA, Europe and Japan. The list of harmonised tests is on the EDQM website. • E.g. the Ph. Eur sterility test can be used and is accepted in USA and Japan. For non-harmonised tests, the regional Pharmacopoeia should be followed, unless the equivalence of using an alternative Pharmacopoeia can be justified and agreed with the competent authority.
  • 11. 11 Chapter II: General concepts (3/4) The following concepts should be considered to set specifications: > Evolving technologies: when offering additional assurance of quality, new technologies have to be taken into consideration. > Impact of drug substance on Medicinal Products Specifications: it is normally not considered necessary to test the medicinal product for process related impurities which are controlled in the drug substance and are not degradation products. However those process related impurities that are also degradation products have to be controlled. > Reference standard: A reference standard, or reference material, is a substance prepared for use as the standard in an assay, identification, or purity test. It should have a quality appropriate to its use. Impurities from drug substances Drug substance Drug product Imp K (synthesis by-product) Imp G (synthesis and degradation) ≤ 0,5 % ≤ 0,5 %* Not to be followed ≤ 1,0 % *(followed because degradation product) * VICH limits
  • 12. 12 Chapter II: General concepts (4/4) Example to illustrate the general concepts: List of tests Reference to analytical procedures Acceptance criteria Comments Microbiological quality* Ph. Eur. 2.6.12 Harmonised text with USP <61>, Japan Ph. Ph. Eur. 5.1.4 USP <1111> * Periodic-Skip testing: One batch every 10 batches based on development results and because the dosage form is tablets. Related substances - Specified known impurity HPLC method in-house xxxx R : 1.2 % EoSL: 1.8 % Different limits Release vs end of SL: limit above qualification threshold based on toxicological qualification report (up to 2 %). Hardness (IPC results) Resistance to crushing Ph. Eur. 2.9.8 50 N to 90 N In process control result reported in the specifications. Limits determined based on development considerations. Example for a drug substance Ph. Eur. Monograph: thin layer chromatography. HPLC proposed by the applicant. Imp. x ≤ 0,5 % Alternative procedure, and evolving technologies. Conditions: HPLC better and validated.
  • 13. 13 > Universal tests / criteria Some tests and acceptance criteria are considered generally applicable to all new drug substances and finished products. Note: do not forget to consider the mandatory Regional Pharmacopoeia E.g. Ph. Eur: Substances for pharmaceutical use (2034), Ph Eur: for pharmaceutical forms (e.g. tablets) VICH Guidelines to consider: “validation of analytical procedures: definition and terminology” and “validation of analytical procedures: methodology”. > Specific tests / criteria For drug substance and/or for drug product, some tests and acceptance criteria may be added to the universal ones, this is case by case, when the tests have an impact on the quality for batch control. Note: do not forget to consider the mandatory Regional Pharmacopoeia, as well as specific guidelines (e.g. in EU: EMA/CVMP specific GL). Chapter III: Guidelines (1/7)
  • 14. 14 Chapter III: Guidelines (2/7) > Universal tests / criteria Tests New Drug substances New Drug Products Comments Description (qualitative) For state: solid/liquid state, colour. Example: Size, shape, colour. Evolution of colour over time => investigation/action; propose quantitative testing. Identification Specific: IR; in case of LC (not considered specific), the use of 2 chromatographic methods e.g. LC retention time + LC-UV spectrum is generally accepted. Salt has to be identified. Chirality has to be considered. Specific: IR; In case of LC (not considered specific), the use of 2 chromatographic methods e.g. LC retention time + LC-UV spectrum is generally accepted. Identification is not necessary during stability studies (unless stability indicating). Identity should however remain part of the shelf life specification. Assay Specific and stability-indicating. If not specific (titration), add a specific test for impurities. Specific and stability-indicating. If not specific (titration), add a specific test for impurities. The same method is possible for substance/product, in particular for impurities. Impurities Organic, inorganic and residual solvents. Refer to decision tree #1. Residual solvents should be discussed. Degradation products (organic impurities) should be monitored. See VICH guidelines Refer to decision tree #2. If limited data available do not establish acceptance criteria which tightly encompass the batch data at the time of filing.
  • 15. 15 Chapter III: Guidelines (3/7) GL 39 Decision trees are proposed for specified impurity, particle size distribution, polymorphism, chirality and microbiological quality attributes given a clear way of proceeding. Tests New Drug substances Comments Physicochemical properties Melting point, refractive index. Example: pH (in solution). Tip: The use of the drug substance and the type of drug product should be considered. Particle size Potentially affects bioavailability. Refer to decision tree #3. When drug product is solid or suspension. Tip: The use of the drug substance and the type of drug product should be considered. Polymorphic forms Potentially affects bioavailability. Refer to decision trees #4. Tip: The use of the drug substance and the type of drug product should be considered. Water content When water is impacting the quality of the substance. Prefer Karl Fischer titration (KF). Do not forget to validate the KF method (Ph.Eur). Elemental impurities Catalysts, sulfated ash/residue on ignition. According to development data and manufacturing process. Discuss with the drug substance manufacturer. Microbial limits Necessary if not sterile substance. Decision tree #6. Refer to Ph.Eur procedures and limits.
  • 16. 16 Chapter III: Guidelines (4/7) > Specific tests / criteria for drug product > GL39 Decision trees are proposed for degradation product, polymorphism, chirality, dissolution and microbiological quality attributes given a clear way of proceeding. > The specific tests are listed hereafter for specific dosage forms: solid oral, liquid oral, parenterals.  application of the concepts contained in this guideline to other dosage forms is encouraged.
  • 17. 17 > Specific tests / criteria for drug product Chapter III: Guidelines (5/7) Tests New Drug product : solid oral (coated and uncoated tablets; hard capsules) Comments Dissolution Please refer to the decision trees 7(1), 7(2) and 7(3). Pay attention to this test because if there is a link between dissolution and bioavailability, this should be considered a critical attribute. Pharmacopoeial methods should be considered. Partially harmonised (US/JP/EU). Disintegration Could replace dissolution (see decision tree 7(1)). Refer to Pharmacopoeia for limits. It is listed in harmonised test (US/JP/EU). Hardness/friability In-process controls. Normally not necessary to include them in the specification but should be included if critical impact on quality. Check impact of hardness evolution on dissolution rate. Uniformity of dosage units Means uniformity of mass of the drug product or of content of the drug substance in the drug product depending on the active content. Uniformity of dosage unit is listed in harmonised test (US/JP/EU). Water content Prefer KF but Loss on drying may be an alternative. Appropriate if negative impact of hydration or hydroscopic product. Microbial limits Refer to decison tree 8. Harmonised test (US/JP/EU).
  • 18. 18 Chapter III: Guidelines (6/7) Tests New Drug Product: oral liquid and powder intended for reconstitution as oral liquid Comments Uniformity of dosage units Means uniformity of mass of the drug product or of content of the drug substance in the drug product depending on the active content In case of multidose with measuring device, unif. of mass of delivered dose is applied. pH Range has to be proposed and justified. Appropriate when ionic medium. Microbial limits Follow decision tree 8. Harmonised test (US/JP/EU). Antimicrobial preservative content Limits for assay should be included in the specifications for shelf life (SL). Effectiveness of the preservative should be demonstrated during development at the lower limit for the duration of SL and in-use SL Antioxidant preservative content Normally performed at release but omission can be justified. When an in-process test, the acceptance criteria to remain part of the release specification If changes in manufacturing or packaging occur, levels throughout SL should be re-evaluated. Extractables Please refer to regional GL on extractables. Commonly not in routine testing. Dissolution Should be considered for oral suspensions and dry powder products for resuspension. Particle size distribution should also be considered when evaluating the need for dissolution testing Particle size distribution Should be considered for oral suspensions. Dissolution should also be considered when evaluating the need for particle size distribution testing Redispersibility May be appropriate and time required to achieve resuspension should be specified A simple test such as shaking may be sufficient Rheological properties Viscosity/specific gravity for viscous solution/suspension. - Reconstitution time Acceptance criteria should be provided for dry powder products which require reconstitution. Skip lot testing or elimination of this attribute from the specification possible if justified. Water content For oral products requiring reconstitution, a test and acceptance criterion should be proposed if appropr. -
  • 19. 19 Chapter III: Guidelines (7/7) Tests New Drug product: Parenterals Comments Uniformity of dosage units Same definition as previous slides Refer to solid oral. pH Range has to be proposed and justified. Appropriate when ionic medium. Sterility Test procedure and acceptance criteria necessary. Parametric release possible. Harmonised text (US/JP/EU). Endotoxins/pyrogens Endotoxins should be included in accordance with regional requirements (Pharmacopoeia). Pyrogenicity may be an alternative. Particulate matter Includes clarity, visible and sub-visible particulates. In accordance with regional Pharmacopoeia. Water content For non-aqueous or for product for reconstitution. - Antimicrobial preservative content limits for assay should be included Effectiveness of the preservative should be demonstrated during development at the lower limit for the duration of shelf life and in-use shelf life Antioxidant preservative content Normally performed at release but omission can be justified. If an in-process test, the acceptance criteria to remain part of the release specification If changes in manufacturing or packaging occur, levels throughout shelf life should be re-evaluated Extractables Please refer to regional GL on extractables. Significantly critical. Functionality testing of delivery systems Test to verify if prefilled syringe, autoinjector cartridges are functioning correctly. Skip testing or absence may be justified based on stability data Osmolarity Appropriate when tonicity is declared on labelling. Commonly absent on label. Particle size distribution Should be considered for oral suspensions. Dissolution should also be considered when evaluating the need for particle size distribution test Redispersibility Appropriate for suspension and time required to achieve resuspension should be specified A simple test such as shaking may be sufficient Reconstitution time Acceptance criteria to be provided for all parenteral products which require reconstitution. For rapidly dissolving products: Skip lot testing or elimination of this attribute possible if justified
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