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TWENTIETH CENTURY MUSIC
“At the beginning of the 20th century, the ambition of the great
painters was to make paintings that were like music, which was then
considered as the noblest art.”
---------Brian Eno
Content:
• 1.What is twentieth Century Music?
• 2.Influences on Music in this time.
• 3.Some music types of twentieth century
• 4.Styles of twentieth century music
• 5.Elements of twentieth century music
• 6.Instruments types of twentieth century music
• 7.Popular composers of twentieth century music
• 8.American & Bangladeshi music of twentieth century
• 9.Charecteristics of twentieth century music:
• 10.conclusion
1
1.What is twentieth Century Music?
• Twentiethcenturymusic broughtfreedom,wideexperimentationanddevelopment ofadvancetechnologywith new musical
stylesandformsthatchanged theacceptedrulesofearlier period.It is aproductof moderntechnology(liketheuseof synthesizers
,amplifiersandrecorders).The 20thcenturycomposersexperimented with differentsounds, instrumentsandtechniques.New
freedomsin harmonyandrhythmenabledcomposerstoputmusic togetherin unusual combination.That’swhytwentiethcentury
music isalso calledcontemporarymusic.
• 20thCenturymusic era (1900-Present).Bytheend ofthe Romanticperiod,classical musichadreachedsomething ofaturning
point.Composersbegan toreject thesetraditionsin differentwaysin the20thCentury,creating a broadrange oftotallynew and
oftenradicalmusic. As aresult, thereis no recognisable unifiedsoundtothe music ofthis period,andit is,in general,much more
stylisticallydivergent thanthe preceding erasofWesternartmusic.
2
2.Influences on Music in this time:
Music was greatly influenced by the enormous ways which shook Europe in the middle of the 20th Century.In particular, was
persecuted by the Soviet regime when his music was thought to be too ‘modern’, meaning he was forced to write in two styles -
symphonies for the authorities, and smaller works such as string quartets which were true to his own voice.
during the 20th century there was a large increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass
market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done)..
Relevant historical events Political influences Social influences Cultural influences
During the first world war,
sound was introduced to
cinema and musicals were
very popular.
World War II was the first
conflict to take place in the
age of electronically mass
distributed music.
Cold War music spans a
number of styles and genres:
from whimsical country and
western songs in the 1950s,
to the folk-protest music of
the Woodstock era, to songs
about the revived nuclear
paranoia of the 1980s.
Songs can be used to portray
a specific political message.
However, there may be
barriers to the transmission of
such messages; even overtly
political songs are often
shaped by and reference their
contemporary political
context, making an
understanding of the history
and events that inspired the
music necessary in order to
fully comprehend the
message
Music has long been used by
movements seeking social
change. In the 1950s and '60s,
this was particularly true, as
successful black and white
musicians openly addressed
the issues of the day.
The relationship between
music and social has existed
for centuries, sometimes
harmoniously, and other
times not as much.
The concept of cultural
influence was fundamental to
the foundation of academic
musicology
and the subfield of
comparative musicology, but
largely disappeared from
discussion after
World War II despite a recent
resurgence of interest in
cultural evolution in other
fields.
3
3.Some music types of twentieth century:
The Roaring 1920s: Radio versus Records : For most of the 20th century, gramophone records were the primary
medium used for commercial music reproduction.
The 1930s: The Rise of Jazz and Blues: The 1920s through the 1950s is considered the golden age of radio.
The introduction of radio broadcasting provided a valuable link between urban city centres and small, rural towns.
The 1960s: Rock and Roll Branches Out From R&B: Elvis Presley brought the style of R&B bluesmen to mainstream
audiences in the 1950s.
The 1970s: From Glam Rock to Punk :Rising out of a more electronic sound, disco also emerged in the 1970s.
The 1980s: The Hip-Hop Generation : many British youths expressed their displeasure
through punk music, many
disenfranchised black American youths in the 1980s turned to hip-hop.
The 1990s: New Developments in Hip-Hop, Rock, and Pop : Along with hip-hop
and gangster rap, alternative rock
came to the forefront in the 1990s with grunge.
The 2000s: Pop Stays Strong as Hip-Hop Overtakes Rock in Popularity : While
rock music started the decade strong, by the end of the 2000s, rock’s presence in
mainstream music had waned, with a few exceptions such as Nickelback , Linkin Park,
and Green Day.
4
Jazz and Blues
Rock and Roll
4.Styles OF 20th Century Music:
1.Impressionism
2.Expressonism
3.Neo-classicism
4.Avant-garde
5.Modern nationalism
6.Electronic music
7.Chance music.
Impressionism:
It was influenced by the Impression French movement. Many of the composer influenced by the
nature of the paintings. A prominent composer in this style is French composer (Claudy Debussy)
Impressionism music creates a soft, subtle almost dream like effect. This music has a colorful
texture and usage unusual scales. Designed to create a mode or atmosphere.
The most prominent feature in musical impressionism is the use of "color", or in musical
terms, timbre which can be achieved through orchestration harmonic usage, texture, etc. Most of the
impressionist works centered on nature and its beauty, lightness and brilliance.
characteristics:
#vague melody, short repeated melody in different context give different mood
#use of whole tone scale
#harmonic vagueness
began with Monet’s painting: Impression, Sunrise.
5
EXPRESSIONISM
(1905-1940):influenced by modernist movement ,inspired by symbolism.
The style of art inspired music composer such as SCHOENBERG.
Expressionism music is opposite of the beautiful sweet harmonies heard in
impressionism.
The term expressionism was originally borrowed from visual art and literature.
Expressionism is extremely emotionally driven. It acts as reaction to the composer's
subconscious mind. The music is very expressive, similar to the romantic periods.
Often the depiction of fear and nightmarish condition was at the expressionist song.
abstract painting by wassily kandisky
.
Characteristics:
#extreme dynamics.
#distorted melody
#use of retrograde
#Use of 12 tone scale
#evident of atonality
6
NEO CLASSICISM:
Neo means new . “Classicism” means the revival of a classical
style or treatment in art, literature, architecture, or music.
Neo-classicism in music-was a twentieth century development,
particularly popular in the period between the two World
Wars, in which composers drew inspiration from music of the
eighteenth century. Neo- classicism was a moderating
factor between the emotional excesses of the Romantic
period and the violent impulses of the soul in
expressionism. Characteristic features include balance,
objectivity, economy, and clarity. In spite of its obvious intent
of classical parody, with frequent musical quotation, Neo-
classic music still sounds fresh and new, never relying on exact
mimicry of older styles. Neo- classicism was once considered
the pre- eminent 20th century style (prior to 1950), and there
were many composers who wrote music under its influence.
Characteristics:
#partial return to traditional way of writing
#use of 7 tone diatonic scale
#fusion of expressionism and romantic style
COMPOSER OF NEO CLASSICISM IGOR STAVINSKY
7
AVANT GARDE:
describes movements or individuals at the forefront of innovation and experimentation in their
fields.
Famous Composers, George Gershwin, John Cage, Leonard Bernstein, Philip Glass
Avant-garde in music can refer to any form of music working within traditional
structures while seeking to breach boundaries in some manner. The term is used loosely to
describe the work of any musicians who radically depart from tradition altogether.. The Avant
grade style exhibited a new attitude toward musical mobility, whereby the order
of note groups could be varied so that musical continuity could be altered. Improvisation was a
necessity in this style, for the musical scores were not necessarily followed as written.
Avant grade was originally used to describe serialism.Serialism is a method or technique of
composition that uses a series of values to manipulate different musical elements. Serialism
began primarily with Arnold Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique.
Characteristics:
#associated with electronic music
#space sound parameter.
Modern nationalism:
A looser form of 20th century music developed focus
on nationalist composers and musical
innovators who sought to combine modern
techniques with folk materials.
It can be also referring to musical ideas or motifs that are
identified with a specific country, region or ethnicity
such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms and
harmonies inspired by them.
Characteristics:
#combination of modern techniques
and folk materials.
Richard Strauss
COMPOSER
8
Electronic music:
Music Since 1950
Electric Music Technological advances in the 20th century enabled composers to use electronic means of producing sound. After the
Second World War, magnetic tape became available for the creation of music by recording sounds and then manipulating them
in some way.
Music concrete is one of its features.is a type of music composition that utilizes recorded sound as raw material or composer record
different sounds that are heard in the environment such as the bustle of traffic ,the sound of the wind, the barking of dogs or the cry of
infant. These sounds are arranged by the composer in different ways like by playing the tape recorder in its fastest mode or in its inverse.
The term Electroacoustic music was later coined to include all forms of music involving magnetic tape, computers,
synthesizers, multimedia, and other electronic devices and techniques. The presence of those electronic
machine that is useful in creating music was taken advantage by some musical composer and create a new distinctive style.
Chance music:
Chance music refers to a style wherein the piece always sounds different at every performance because of the
random techniques of production, including the use of ring modulators or natural elements that
become a part of the music. Most of the sounds emanate from the surroundings, both natural and
man-made, such as honking cars, rustling leaves, blowing wind, dripping water, or a ringing phone. As such, the
combination of external sounds cannot be duplicated as each happens by chance.
Characteristics:
#use of unique concrete.
#use of tape recorders, amplifiers and synthesizers.
Characteristics:
#use random techniques in creating music
#use of ring modulators or natural sounds in creating music.
9
5.ELEMENTS OF 20TH CENTURY MUSIC:
RHYTHM MELODY HARMONY TEXTURE TIMBRE/TONE COLOR
1,become much more developed
in the 20th century.
1,Become of secondary
importance.
1. Harmony is often experimental
and dissonant.
Use of bitonality( use of 2 keys)
1. Polyphonic texture are often
used
(12 tone music often uses
homophonic texture)
1. Timbre was explored in further
depth.
2,complex,irregular,individuals'
rhythms are used.
2,Melodies are often fragmented,
dissonant, and experimental.
2. Use of poly tonality
(2 or more keys at a time)
2. music such as impressionism or
aleatory music experiment with
new textures using layers of
different sounds.
2. New playing techniques were
developed on traditional
instruments-whice expanded their
tonal range.
3,new rhythms and meters are
common such as, poly rhythms
and poly meters.
(Poly-rhythms-use 2 or more
contrasting and independent
rhythm at the same time.)
3,Depending on the form or style
used,
4. Melodies could be based on
scales from nonwestern
countries.
3. Use of tone cluster(produced of
a piano by striking a group of
adjacent keys
4. Use of 4th chord
3. New electronic instrument
were created that were unique to
ethnic music.
4,used to generate power drive
and excitement.
(example: ritual of abduction by
Stravinsky)
5. Chromatic scales /wide variety
of scales
5. Use of poly chord.
(poly chored- 2 chored heared at
athe same time.)
4. There is less emphasis on
blended sound
5,beats are grouped irregularly,
and the accented beat comes at
an equal time interval.
6. 12 tone
rows(chromatic)without a tonal
center or micro tonal scale.
6. Instead of all harmony being
used of the interval of a third.
(tetian harmony used in much of
western tonal music)
5. percussion plays a major roll.
6.One of the most striking
element.
7. Rhythm were quite
unpredictable with wide leaps.
8. Irregular rhythm and
unexpected phrases.
7. Atonality-(meaning an absence
of tonality)
8. 12 tonecomposition presence
in music.
6. Individual tone color is clearly
heard.
10
6.Instrument types of twentieth century music:
Twentieth-century orchestras generally including a string section, woodwinds, brass instruments, percussion, piano,
celeste, harps, with other instruments called for occasionally, such as electric guitar and electric bass.
String section
Woodwinds
Harp 11
String section: The string section is composed of bowed instruments
belonging to the violin family. It normally consists of first and second violins,
violas, cellos, and double basses.
• String section developed with electronic
media.
Woodwinds: Common examples
include flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon,
and saxophone.
Harp : The harp is a stringed musical
instrument that has a number of individual
strings running at an angle to its
soundboard; the strings are plucked with
the fingers.
12
Percussion instrument :Percussion instruments are instruments
which are played by shaking or hitting. Untuned percussion
instruments include: bass drum, side drum (snare drum),
maracas, castanets, cymbals, tambourine, claves and many
more.
Brass instrument :A brass instrument is a musical instrument
that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a
tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the
player's lips.
Piano : A piano usually has a protective wooden
case surrounding the soundboard and metal
strings, which are strung under great tension on a
heavy metal frame.
Brass instrument
Percussion instrument
Piano
7.Popular composers of twentieth century music:
Claude Debussy With early influences including Russian and Far Eastern music, Debussy developed his own style
of harmony and orchestral colouring. His style was Impressionism . He was influenced by musical literacy.
Best composed work : "Arabesque No. 1"
Igor Stravinsky composers thought about rhythmic structure and musical revolutionary of the boundaries of
musical design .His style was rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas out of a few two- or
three-note cells, and clarity of form and instrumentation.
Best composed work : "Sacrificial Dance" from Rite of Spring
Arnold Schoenberg ,He is widely considered one of the most influential composers of the 20th century.
He developed the dominance of a centralized melodic idea, Isomorphic partitioning, Harmony and Meter.
Best composed work : The string sextet Verklarte Nacht (“Transfigured Night”)
Dmitri Shostakovich was a Soviet composer and pianist. with a unique harmonic language and a historic
importance,, create "patterns of contrast, repetition, exaggeration" that gave his music large-scale structure.
Best composed work : "Waltz No. 2"
Claude Debussy
Igor Stravinsky
Arnold Schoenberg
Dmitri Shostakovich
13
8.American Music:
American music styles that are native to the
United States or that developed here out of
foreign traditions to such a degree that
something distinctly new emerged.
8.Bangladeshi music:
Bengali music spans a wide variety of styles. Music has served the purpose of documenting the lives
of the people and was widely patronized by the rulers. It comprises a long tradition of religious and
regular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium.
"Roots Music": Various types of "folk" music (in
America, these became the basis for later
American styles such as such as rock and roll,
rhythm and blues, jazz, country-rock, folk-rock ,
etc.)
Folk music can be classified into several subgenres:
Baul: mainly inspired by Lalon and almost exclusively performed by Baul mystics.
Bhatiali: Music of fishermen and boatman, almost always tied by a common
ragas sung solo.
Bhawaiya: Song of bullock-cart drivers of the North (Rangpur).
Ghazal: Popular folk music of Sufi genres, introduced from philosophy and
religion in music practiced mainly by Bengali Muslims.
Jari: songs involving musical battle between two groups.
"Popular Music": music conceived and
performed as a commercial commodity for
mainstream audiences.
Popular song:
1973 Uccharon Pop/Rock
1976 Feedback Rock music
1978 Miles Pop/Rock
1980 Nagar Baul Hard rock, psychedelic rock
"Classical Music": Art-music intended for a
concert hall or theatrical performance, or music
that is highly experimental including
Some musics ”Bethenal” and “Maple of rag”.
Classical music:
Ragapradhan Gaan:Bangladeshi classical music is based on modes
called ragas. ragas have been used in Bengali music. Jaydev’s
Gitagovindam, Padavali Kirtan, Mangal Giti, Shyamasangit, Tappa,
Brahma Sangeet and Tagore songs have been inspired by Ragas.
Folk music:
Folk has come to occupy the lives of Bangladeshis almost more than
any other genre of Bengali music.
14
15
• Music was Inspired from art.
• Dramatic innovations in musical forms and styles.
• Music was Developed by new instruments and medium.
• Modification of most old music's was happened.
• Traditional factors played a major role.
• Large increasement in the variety of music.
• World war also helped to inspire people in music.
• Sound recording was also a major influence on the
development of popular music.
• Spread out by media.
• Music performances became increasingly visual.
• A revolution occurred in twentieth century music listening as
the radio gained popularity worldwide.
9.Characteristics of twentieth century music:
World war
Gramophone
Used for recording
Music performances
10.Conclusion:
Twentieth century music has brought a revolutionary change to world music. Along with different
instruments ,different medium the style elements of music have been cut and moved to the new
modernism trend. After the previous romantic period , The music of the century was started to change.
The twentieth century music has been changed in Indian sub-continent music from all over Europe
and America.
A new trend of the twentieth century has started with the combination of new music composers and
new music style. Some old music was rediscovered. This change in music and this genre is still
prevalent. Nowadays, along with the previous music, the new modern music is known to everyone
together. Current music composers present new genres of music along with the old genres of music at
the same time through new music . The new music created a positive vibe on people . People started
to use newly coming mediums day by day for listening the new songs which were discovering
continuously.
16
17
References:
Introduction to music appreciation
American Music in the 20th Century by Dr. Daniel Jacobson
A Study of Its Elements and Structure “Music of the Twentieth Century” by TON DE LEEUW
Music Appreciation(http://cnx.org/content/col11640/1.1)
www.ukessays.com
www.violinonline.com
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Bangladesh
https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20141015-20th-centurys-10-best-composers

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Twentieth Century Music

  • 1. TWENTIETH CENTURY MUSIC “At the beginning of the 20th century, the ambition of the great painters was to make paintings that were like music, which was then considered as the noblest art.” ---------Brian Eno
  • 2. Content: • 1.What is twentieth Century Music? • 2.Influences on Music in this time. • 3.Some music types of twentieth century • 4.Styles of twentieth century music • 5.Elements of twentieth century music • 6.Instruments types of twentieth century music • 7.Popular composers of twentieth century music • 8.American & Bangladeshi music of twentieth century • 9.Charecteristics of twentieth century music: • 10.conclusion 1
  • 3. 1.What is twentieth Century Music? • Twentiethcenturymusic broughtfreedom,wideexperimentationanddevelopment ofadvancetechnologywith new musical stylesandformsthatchanged theacceptedrulesofearlier period.It is aproductof moderntechnology(liketheuseof synthesizers ,amplifiersandrecorders).The 20thcenturycomposersexperimented with differentsounds, instrumentsandtechniques.New freedomsin harmonyandrhythmenabledcomposerstoputmusic togetherin unusual combination.That’swhytwentiethcentury music isalso calledcontemporarymusic. • 20thCenturymusic era (1900-Present).Bytheend ofthe Romanticperiod,classical musichadreachedsomething ofaturning point.Composersbegan toreject thesetraditionsin differentwaysin the20thCentury,creating a broadrange oftotallynew and oftenradicalmusic. As aresult, thereis no recognisable unifiedsoundtothe music ofthis period,andit is,in general,much more stylisticallydivergent thanthe preceding erasofWesternartmusic. 2
  • 4. 2.Influences on Music in this time: Music was greatly influenced by the enormous ways which shook Europe in the middle of the 20th Century.In particular, was persecuted by the Soviet regime when his music was thought to be too ‘modern’, meaning he was forced to write in two styles - symphonies for the authorities, and smaller works such as string quartets which were true to his own voice. during the 20th century there was a large increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done).. Relevant historical events Political influences Social influences Cultural influences During the first world war, sound was introduced to cinema and musicals were very popular. World War II was the first conflict to take place in the age of electronically mass distributed music. Cold War music spans a number of styles and genres: from whimsical country and western songs in the 1950s, to the folk-protest music of the Woodstock era, to songs about the revived nuclear paranoia of the 1980s. Songs can be used to portray a specific political message. However, there may be barriers to the transmission of such messages; even overtly political songs are often shaped by and reference their contemporary political context, making an understanding of the history and events that inspired the music necessary in order to fully comprehend the message Music has long been used by movements seeking social change. In the 1950s and '60s, this was particularly true, as successful black and white musicians openly addressed the issues of the day. The relationship between music and social has existed for centuries, sometimes harmoniously, and other times not as much. The concept of cultural influence was fundamental to the foundation of academic musicology and the subfield of comparative musicology, but largely disappeared from discussion after World War II despite a recent resurgence of interest in cultural evolution in other fields. 3
  • 5. 3.Some music types of twentieth century: The Roaring 1920s: Radio versus Records : For most of the 20th century, gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction. The 1930s: The Rise of Jazz and Blues: The 1920s through the 1950s is considered the golden age of radio. The introduction of radio broadcasting provided a valuable link between urban city centres and small, rural towns. The 1960s: Rock and Roll Branches Out From R&B: Elvis Presley brought the style of R&B bluesmen to mainstream audiences in the 1950s. The 1970s: From Glam Rock to Punk :Rising out of a more electronic sound, disco also emerged in the 1970s. The 1980s: The Hip-Hop Generation : many British youths expressed their displeasure through punk music, many disenfranchised black American youths in the 1980s turned to hip-hop. The 1990s: New Developments in Hip-Hop, Rock, and Pop : Along with hip-hop and gangster rap, alternative rock came to the forefront in the 1990s with grunge. The 2000s: Pop Stays Strong as Hip-Hop Overtakes Rock in Popularity : While rock music started the decade strong, by the end of the 2000s, rock’s presence in mainstream music had waned, with a few exceptions such as Nickelback , Linkin Park, and Green Day. 4 Jazz and Blues Rock and Roll
  • 6. 4.Styles OF 20th Century Music: 1.Impressionism 2.Expressonism 3.Neo-classicism 4.Avant-garde 5.Modern nationalism 6.Electronic music 7.Chance music. Impressionism: It was influenced by the Impression French movement. Many of the composer influenced by the nature of the paintings. A prominent composer in this style is French composer (Claudy Debussy) Impressionism music creates a soft, subtle almost dream like effect. This music has a colorful texture and usage unusual scales. Designed to create a mode or atmosphere. The most prominent feature in musical impressionism is the use of "color", or in musical terms, timbre which can be achieved through orchestration harmonic usage, texture, etc. Most of the impressionist works centered on nature and its beauty, lightness and brilliance. characteristics: #vague melody, short repeated melody in different context give different mood #use of whole tone scale #harmonic vagueness began with Monet’s painting: Impression, Sunrise. 5
  • 7. EXPRESSIONISM (1905-1940):influenced by modernist movement ,inspired by symbolism. The style of art inspired music composer such as SCHOENBERG. Expressionism music is opposite of the beautiful sweet harmonies heard in impressionism. The term expressionism was originally borrowed from visual art and literature. Expressionism is extremely emotionally driven. It acts as reaction to the composer's subconscious mind. The music is very expressive, similar to the romantic periods. Often the depiction of fear and nightmarish condition was at the expressionist song. abstract painting by wassily kandisky . Characteristics: #extreme dynamics. #distorted melody #use of retrograde #Use of 12 tone scale #evident of atonality 6
  • 8. NEO CLASSICISM: Neo means new . “Classicism” means the revival of a classical style or treatment in art, literature, architecture, or music. Neo-classicism in music-was a twentieth century development, particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers drew inspiration from music of the eighteenth century. Neo- classicism was a moderating factor between the emotional excesses of the Romantic period and the violent impulses of the soul in expressionism. Characteristic features include balance, objectivity, economy, and clarity. In spite of its obvious intent of classical parody, with frequent musical quotation, Neo- classic music still sounds fresh and new, never relying on exact mimicry of older styles. Neo- classicism was once considered the pre- eminent 20th century style (prior to 1950), and there were many composers who wrote music under its influence. Characteristics: #partial return to traditional way of writing #use of 7 tone diatonic scale #fusion of expressionism and romantic style COMPOSER OF NEO CLASSICISM IGOR STAVINSKY 7
  • 9. AVANT GARDE: describes movements or individuals at the forefront of innovation and experimentation in their fields. Famous Composers, George Gershwin, John Cage, Leonard Bernstein, Philip Glass Avant-garde in music can refer to any form of music working within traditional structures while seeking to breach boundaries in some manner. The term is used loosely to describe the work of any musicians who radically depart from tradition altogether.. The Avant grade style exhibited a new attitude toward musical mobility, whereby the order of note groups could be varied so that musical continuity could be altered. Improvisation was a necessity in this style, for the musical scores were not necessarily followed as written. Avant grade was originally used to describe serialism.Serialism is a method or technique of composition that uses a series of values to manipulate different musical elements. Serialism began primarily with Arnold Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique. Characteristics: #associated with electronic music #space sound parameter. Modern nationalism: A looser form of 20th century music developed focus on nationalist composers and musical innovators who sought to combine modern techniques with folk materials. It can be also referring to musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region or ethnicity such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms and harmonies inspired by them. Characteristics: #combination of modern techniques and folk materials. Richard Strauss COMPOSER 8
  • 10. Electronic music: Music Since 1950 Electric Music Technological advances in the 20th century enabled composers to use electronic means of producing sound. After the Second World War, magnetic tape became available for the creation of music by recording sounds and then manipulating them in some way. Music concrete is one of its features.is a type of music composition that utilizes recorded sound as raw material or composer record different sounds that are heard in the environment such as the bustle of traffic ,the sound of the wind, the barking of dogs or the cry of infant. These sounds are arranged by the composer in different ways like by playing the tape recorder in its fastest mode or in its inverse. The term Electroacoustic music was later coined to include all forms of music involving magnetic tape, computers, synthesizers, multimedia, and other electronic devices and techniques. The presence of those electronic machine that is useful in creating music was taken advantage by some musical composer and create a new distinctive style. Chance music: Chance music refers to a style wherein the piece always sounds different at every performance because of the random techniques of production, including the use of ring modulators or natural elements that become a part of the music. Most of the sounds emanate from the surroundings, both natural and man-made, such as honking cars, rustling leaves, blowing wind, dripping water, or a ringing phone. As such, the combination of external sounds cannot be duplicated as each happens by chance. Characteristics: #use of unique concrete. #use of tape recorders, amplifiers and synthesizers. Characteristics: #use random techniques in creating music #use of ring modulators or natural sounds in creating music. 9
  • 11. 5.ELEMENTS OF 20TH CENTURY MUSIC: RHYTHM MELODY HARMONY TEXTURE TIMBRE/TONE COLOR 1,become much more developed in the 20th century. 1,Become of secondary importance. 1. Harmony is often experimental and dissonant. Use of bitonality( use of 2 keys) 1. Polyphonic texture are often used (12 tone music often uses homophonic texture) 1. Timbre was explored in further depth. 2,complex,irregular,individuals' rhythms are used. 2,Melodies are often fragmented, dissonant, and experimental. 2. Use of poly tonality (2 or more keys at a time) 2. music such as impressionism or aleatory music experiment with new textures using layers of different sounds. 2. New playing techniques were developed on traditional instruments-whice expanded their tonal range. 3,new rhythms and meters are common such as, poly rhythms and poly meters. (Poly-rhythms-use 2 or more contrasting and independent rhythm at the same time.) 3,Depending on the form or style used, 4. Melodies could be based on scales from nonwestern countries. 3. Use of tone cluster(produced of a piano by striking a group of adjacent keys 4. Use of 4th chord 3. New electronic instrument were created that were unique to ethnic music. 4,used to generate power drive and excitement. (example: ritual of abduction by Stravinsky) 5. Chromatic scales /wide variety of scales 5. Use of poly chord. (poly chored- 2 chored heared at athe same time.) 4. There is less emphasis on blended sound 5,beats are grouped irregularly, and the accented beat comes at an equal time interval. 6. 12 tone rows(chromatic)without a tonal center or micro tonal scale. 6. Instead of all harmony being used of the interval of a third. (tetian harmony used in much of western tonal music) 5. percussion plays a major roll. 6.One of the most striking element. 7. Rhythm were quite unpredictable with wide leaps. 8. Irregular rhythm and unexpected phrases. 7. Atonality-(meaning an absence of tonality) 8. 12 tonecomposition presence in music. 6. Individual tone color is clearly heard. 10
  • 12. 6.Instrument types of twentieth century music: Twentieth-century orchestras generally including a string section, woodwinds, brass instruments, percussion, piano, celeste, harps, with other instruments called for occasionally, such as electric guitar and electric bass. String section Woodwinds Harp 11 String section: The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family. It normally consists of first and second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses. • String section developed with electronic media. Woodwinds: Common examples include flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, and saxophone. Harp : The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
  • 13. 12 Percussion instrument :Percussion instruments are instruments which are played by shaking or hitting. Untuned percussion instruments include: bass drum, side drum (snare drum), maracas, castanets, cymbals, tambourine, claves and many more. Brass instrument :A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips. Piano : A piano usually has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Brass instrument Percussion instrument Piano
  • 14. 7.Popular composers of twentieth century music: Claude Debussy With early influences including Russian and Far Eastern music, Debussy developed his own style of harmony and orchestral colouring. His style was Impressionism . He was influenced by musical literacy. Best composed work : "Arabesque No. 1" Igor Stravinsky composers thought about rhythmic structure and musical revolutionary of the boundaries of musical design .His style was rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas out of a few two- or three-note cells, and clarity of form and instrumentation. Best composed work : "Sacrificial Dance" from Rite of Spring Arnold Schoenberg ,He is widely considered one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. He developed the dominance of a centralized melodic idea, Isomorphic partitioning, Harmony and Meter. Best composed work : The string sextet Verklarte Nacht (“Transfigured Night”) Dmitri Shostakovich was a Soviet composer and pianist. with a unique harmonic language and a historic importance,, create "patterns of contrast, repetition, exaggeration" that gave his music large-scale structure. Best composed work : "Waltz No. 2" Claude Debussy Igor Stravinsky Arnold Schoenberg Dmitri Shostakovich 13
  • 15. 8.American Music: American music styles that are native to the United States or that developed here out of foreign traditions to such a degree that something distinctly new emerged. 8.Bangladeshi music: Bengali music spans a wide variety of styles. Music has served the purpose of documenting the lives of the people and was widely patronized by the rulers. It comprises a long tradition of religious and regular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium. "Roots Music": Various types of "folk" music (in America, these became the basis for later American styles such as such as rock and roll, rhythm and blues, jazz, country-rock, folk-rock , etc.) Folk music can be classified into several subgenres: Baul: mainly inspired by Lalon and almost exclusively performed by Baul mystics. Bhatiali: Music of fishermen and boatman, almost always tied by a common ragas sung solo. Bhawaiya: Song of bullock-cart drivers of the North (Rangpur). Ghazal: Popular folk music of Sufi genres, introduced from philosophy and religion in music practiced mainly by Bengali Muslims. Jari: songs involving musical battle between two groups. "Popular Music": music conceived and performed as a commercial commodity for mainstream audiences. Popular song: 1973 Uccharon Pop/Rock 1976 Feedback Rock music 1978 Miles Pop/Rock 1980 Nagar Baul Hard rock, psychedelic rock "Classical Music": Art-music intended for a concert hall or theatrical performance, or music that is highly experimental including Some musics ”Bethenal” and “Maple of rag”. Classical music: Ragapradhan Gaan:Bangladeshi classical music is based on modes called ragas. ragas have been used in Bengali music. Jaydev’s Gitagovindam, Padavali Kirtan, Mangal Giti, Shyamasangit, Tappa, Brahma Sangeet and Tagore songs have been inspired by Ragas. Folk music: Folk has come to occupy the lives of Bangladeshis almost more than any other genre of Bengali music. 14
  • 16. 15 • Music was Inspired from art. • Dramatic innovations in musical forms and styles. • Music was Developed by new instruments and medium. • Modification of most old music's was happened. • Traditional factors played a major role. • Large increasement in the variety of music. • World war also helped to inspire people in music. • Sound recording was also a major influence on the development of popular music. • Spread out by media. • Music performances became increasingly visual. • A revolution occurred in twentieth century music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide. 9.Characteristics of twentieth century music: World war Gramophone Used for recording Music performances
  • 17. 10.Conclusion: Twentieth century music has brought a revolutionary change to world music. Along with different instruments ,different medium the style elements of music have been cut and moved to the new modernism trend. After the previous romantic period , The music of the century was started to change. The twentieth century music has been changed in Indian sub-continent music from all over Europe and America. A new trend of the twentieth century has started with the combination of new music composers and new music style. Some old music was rediscovered. This change in music and this genre is still prevalent. Nowadays, along with the previous music, the new modern music is known to everyone together. Current music composers present new genres of music along with the old genres of music at the same time through new music . The new music created a positive vibe on people . People started to use newly coming mediums day by day for listening the new songs which were discovering continuously. 16
  • 18. 17 References: Introduction to music appreciation American Music in the 20th Century by Dr. Daniel Jacobson A Study of Its Elements and Structure “Music of the Twentieth Century” by TON DE LEEUW Music Appreciation(http://cnx.org/content/col11640/1.1) www.ukessays.com www.violinonline.com https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Bangladesh https://www.bbc.com/culture/article/20141015-20th-centurys-10-best-composers