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Updated history of the arts

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History of the Arts

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Updated history of the arts

  1. 1. HISTORY OF THE ARTS: RENAISSANCE PERIOD Learning Team A MTE/534 January 9, 2016 Dr. J. Hannigan-Green
  2. 2. WHAT IS THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD? • The Renaissance Period was the period of time from 1400 to 1600 CE, and was the transition or bridge “from the middle ages to the modern world”. • The Renaissance was marked by huge changes for people living in Europe. • This period was influenced by Greece and Rome. (People wanted to explore the ancient culture.) • The Renaissance was a “rebirth” of education, science, art, literature, music, and a better life for people. • The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy and spread to other city-states in Italy. • It began in Italy was because of the history of Rome and the Roman Empire, along with the idea that Italy had become very wealthy and the wealthy were willing to spend their money supporting artists and geniuses. • There was an emergence of “popular freedom” that gave the ability to explore the arts in every way possible.
  3. 3. RENAISSANCE ARTS •Visual Art •Music •Dance •Drama
  4. 4. DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VISUAL ARTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD • Realism • Influenced by Greek and Roman Art • Linear Perspective • Foreshortening • Quadratura • Sfumato – oil painting • Focus on Christian religious imagery
  5. 5. SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ARTISTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD Painters: • Piero della Francesca (c.1412-1492), linear perspective • Andrea Mantegna (c.1431-1506) foreshortening and linear perspective, Lamentation Over The Dead Christ, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan (1490) • Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Mona Lisa oil painting technique (known as sfumato), created by Leonardo allowing him to execute a subtle atmospheric shading which was impossible to produce with the egg-based tempera paint. • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) painter, Sistine Chapel • Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530) fresco painting and altarpiece art, Madonna of the Harpies (1517) • Correggio (1494-1534) pioneer of illusionistic painting and sfumato. The Assumption of the Virgin, Ceiling Fresco (1526-30) Cathedral of Parma, Italy. • Achieving the best possible expression of lightness and grace, he used tone and colour to counterbalance his line and forms, thus creating new and unusual effects of light and shadow. His use of foreshortening and overlapping made him a master of three-dimensionality. • Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) painter, Wedding Feast of Cana (1563) Louvre, Paris • A great colourists and master of easel and mural painting, he is best known for monumental banquet scenes and illusionistic fresco paintings.
  6. 6. SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ARTISTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD Sculptors: • Jacopo della Quercia (c.1374-1438), sculptor, The Temptation (1425-8) • Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), sculptor, designer, goldsmith, Jacob & Esau Relief (1425-52) • Donatello (1386-1466), sculptor, David (1435-53) • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) sculptor, Statue of David (1501-4)
  7. 7. SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ARTISTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD Architects: • Andrea Palladio (1508-80) architect, best known for villas, pallaces, and churches; His style of architecture - a blend of Greek, Roman and Renaissance Art, later known as Palladianism - accorded the greatest priority to maintaining symmetry, perspective and overall harmony. • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) architect, Dome of St Peter's Basilica (1557-61) Vatican, Rome. • Donato Bramante (1444-1514), architect, Tempietto Iseo (1502)
  8. 8. ORIGINATION OF VISUAL ART The Renaissance Period spans from c. 1400-1600. During this time, Italy was a major trading nation and blessed with “a huge repository of classical ruins and artifacts (Italian Renaissance Art, n.d.).” With the decline of Constantinople, many Greek scholars emigrated to Italy bringing with them important texts and knowledge of classical Greek civilization. Scholars and artists saw themselves as reawakening to the ideals and achievements of classical Roman and Greek culture. • Popes, covenants, monasteries were typical patrons of the arts at the time; however, works of art were becoming commissioned more and more by civil governments, courts, and wealthy individuals. • The Medici family was a wealthy merchant family in Florence that commissioned much of the art in the Renaissance period, due to their support of the arts.
  9. 9. HOW SOCIETY WAS INVOLVED IN THE VISUAL ARTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD • Increased prosperity – financial support for growing number of art commissions • Weakness of the church – allowed the spread of Humanism, which promoted greater realism and attention to detail and focus on individual figures. With humanism came an increased interest for individuals to travel and the pursuit of knowledge. • An age of exploration – society demonstrated a desire to explore nature and the world, as artists demonstrated a desire for new methods and knowledge • Realism sparked the study of the human body in greater detail, in effect, more nude works of art were created.
  10. 10. DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSIC DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD Music of the Renaissance was referred to as the “Golden Age.” There were three types of music: Sacred, Secular and Instrumental. Sacred music had to do with the church. Secular music, was considered non-religious and Instrumental music came in many forms: dance, vocal, existing melodies, variation sets, abstract works and free form.
  11. 11. SIGNIFICANT MUSICIANS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD Claudio Monteverde (1567 – 1643: Italy) He wrote the first Opera, Orfeo •Vespers Gregorio Allegri (1582- 1652: Italy) He produced a large number of motets and sacred mus •Miserere
  12. 12. SIGNIFICANT MUSICIANS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD Thomas Tallis (c.1505-1585: England) He was a church musician whose works were used by choirs. •Spem In Alium William Byrd (1543-1623: England) He used a piano and a keyboard to compose. •Justorum Animae
  13. 13. RELEVANT TIMEFRAME OF MUSIC DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD The Renaissance was a time of revival of classical learning and wisdom after a period of “cultural decline and stagnation.” • Followed the Middle Ages. • The discovery and exploration of new continents. • Decline of the feudal system. • Growth of commerce. • Time of invention (paper, printing, the compass and gunpowder). • The separation from the church began It is for all these reasons and more that music composers began to experiment with different types of music. They felt more freedom in their writing.
  14. 14. WHERE THE MUSIC MOVEMENT ORIGINATED
  15. 15. HOW SOCIETY WAS INVOLVED IN THE POPULARITY OF MUSIC DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD During the time of the Renaissance many of the nations were mentally stuck in the “decay of the Roman Empire.” The Italian society was able to easily influence this era. It was time where humanistic thoughts had risen, people were interested in recovering their artistic heritage. Italy had the following attributes: •Language •Favorable climate •Political Freedom •Commercial Prosperity There was also a great deal of wealth, due to wealthy merchants in Florence. Competition developed and more and more, society was becoming aware of all the arts had to offer. Much of the music at this time was “influenced by political, social and economic events.”
  16. 16. DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF DANCE DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD The two main types of dance during this time were • Court dances (Formal dances that were typically performed by professional dancers.) • Country dances (Dances that were performed by anyone, including the general public.) Renaissance dance steps: • Reverence - This was a step where the dancers would face and greet each other. They would bend both knees to bow to the other dancer. • Saltarello - This is an energetic dance step where the dancer would take three steps forward and then hop. • Pavane - A slow dance that allowed dancers to show off their fancy clothes and gowns. It was usually the first dance of the night. • Italian Double or Doppio - A step where the dancers would take two elegant steps forward and then rise up on their toes. (Renaissance Dance and Music, 2017) (Renaissance Dance, 2017)
  17. 17. SIGNIFICANT DANCE ARTISTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD The most prominent dance masters of the Renaissance Period are: • Jehan Tabourot (Thoinot Arbeau) • Fabritio Caroso • Cesare Negri All three artists wrote detailed manuals on social dance that described the popular social dances of the time period. (Renaissance Dance, n.d.) (The Late Renaissance c1535 – c1620, n.d.)
  18. 18. RELEVANT TIMEFRAME OF THE RENAISSANCE • Renaissance Dance becomes part of daily life (Jan 1, 1500) • Masquerades become popular (Feb 2, 1500) • Renaissance court dancing begins to shift new styles of dance (Jan 1, 1550) • The first Ballet: Comique de la Reine (Jan 1, 1581) (Dance: 1500-1950, 2007-2017) (Magx, n.d.)
  19. 19. Where the Movement Originated Renaissance dance originated in Italy and later moved to France. How Society Was Involved Society was able to enjoy social events by dancing. Upper-class began to go to see professionals dance in shows. The dance movement spread and influenced dance all over the world. (Renaissance Dance, 2017)
  20. 20. DRAMA DURING THE RENAISSANCE • Renaissance theatre developed from medieval theatre traditions such as mystery plays and morality plays. These stories depicted were stories from the Bible. • Renaissance or the rebirth of classical artworks helps the art form of drama to flourish. • Drama became more oriented towards the tastes and values of an upper-class audience. • This rebirth travels from Rome to Europe in a short period of time. • All social classes were able to enjoy performances. • Types of drama include: tragedy, comedy and pastoral (love stories).
  21. 21. PLAYHOUSES Public Playhouses • Large outdoor theatres with a stage in the center and a three-sided audience. • Plays were performed during daylight hours. • Patrons stood or paid extra to sit on benches. • Little or no scenery was used. • Performances were between May and October. Private Playhouses • Long, rectangular indoor halls with a stage on one end. • Plays were performed using candlelight. • Seating was provided for all audience members. • Smaller than outdoor theatres.
  22. 22. PERMANENT PLAYHOUSES The Theatre • The Theatre in London was built in 1576. • This was the first permanent theatre in London. • This public theatre was the first place that William Shakespeare’s plays were performed. • It was a polygonal design with a center stage that reached out into the audience. • It was three stories high. The Globe • The Globe is the most famous theatre in English history. • The Globe opened in 1599 in London, England. • Patrons paid one penny to view the plays.
  23. 23. SIGNIFICANT ARTISTS—NO WOMEN ALLOWED! • William Shakespeare: English playwright • Richard Burbage: English actor • Edward Alleyn: English actor • Will Kempe: English actor • Christopher Marlowe: English playwright • Ben Johnson: English playwright • Pierre Corneille: French playwright • Jean Racine: French playwright
  24. 24. END OF THE RENAISSANCE • English Renaissance theatre is written between the Reformation (1590) and the closure of the theatres in 1642 when Puritans forced the English Parliament to issue an ordinance suppressing all stage plays. • Playhouses had become a place for gambling and animal fighting. • The end of the Renaissance for theatre is the result.
  25. 25. IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD 1558 – Queen Elizabeth I is crowned 1570 – The Catholic Church excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I 1574 – The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre takes place in England, on which Marlowe based his play The Massacre at Paris 1577 – Raphael Holinshed publishes his Holinsheds Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, the primary source text for most of Shakespeare’s history plays 1580 – Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the globe 1585-1604 – England is at war with Spain 1586 – The Babington Plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and place Mary Queen of Scots on the throne is discovered 1587 – Mary Queen of Scots is executed at the Tower of London and theatre impresario Phillip Henslowe builds The Rose theatre (O’Connor, 2012)
  26. 26. REFERENCES: Burkholder, J. P. (2014). History of music. Retrieved from http://courses.music.indiana.edu/m401/RenInstrum.html Dance: 1500-1950. (2007-2017). Retrieved from Timetoast Timelines: https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/dance- 1500-1950 Drama masks, 2017. Shutterstock. Retrieved from: http://www.freepik.com/free-icon/drama-masks_887900.htm Elizabethan Globe Theatre, 2017. The Old Globe Theatre history. Retrieved from: http://www.william- shakespeare.info/william-shakespeare-globe-theatre.htm Encyclopedia of Art. (2016). Renaissance Art in Italy (c.1400-1600). Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts- cork.com/renaissance-art.htm Guisepe, R.A. (n.d.). Beginning and history of the renaissance. Retrieved from http://history- world.org/renaissance.htm History World, 2017. History of theatre. Retrieved from: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=81&HistoryID=ab35&gtrack=pthc History.com. (2016). Renaissance Art. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/renaissance-art
  27. 27. REFERENCES: History.com, (2017). William Shakespeare. [image file]. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/british- history/william-shakespeare Humanities I, (2017). The complete works of Christopher Marlowe. [image file]. Retrieved from: http://www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/lectures/hum1/031201/031201hum.htm ItalianRenaissance.org . (2015). Michelangelo’s Painting of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Retrieved from http://www.italianrenaissance.org/a-closer-look-michelangelos-painting-of-the- sistine-chapel-ceiling/ Luminarium.org., (2017). Renaissance English drama: Elizabethan playhouses [image file]. Retrieved from: http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/dramavenues.htm Magx. (n.d.). Retrieved from Ballet was a Renaissance Dance: http://www.magx.com/lifestyle/ballet-was-a-renaissance-dance.html New World Encyclopedia, 2013. English Renaissance theatre. Retrieved from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/English_Renaissance_theatre
  28. 28. REFERENCES: O'Connor, K. (2012, August 9). English Renaissance Timeline: Some Historical and Cultural Dates. Retrieved from Great Writers Inspire: https://writersinspire.wordpress.com/2012/08/09/english-renaissance-timeline-some- historical-and-cultural-dates/ Renaissance. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.rpfuller.com/gcse/music/renaissance.html Renaissance Dance. (n.d.). Retrieved from Memory.loc.gov: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/dihtml/diessay2.html Renaissance Dance. (2017). Retrieved from Wikispaces: https://bridgeport-music.wikispaces.com/Dances Renaissance Dance and Music. (2017, January). Retrieved from Ducksters: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance/music_and_dance.php Renaissance for Kids. (2017, January). Retrieved from Ducksters: http://www.ducksters.com/history/renaissance.php Renaissance Music. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.classicfm.com/search/?q=Renaissance+Music The Late Renaissance c1535 – c1620. (n.d.). Retrieved from Early Dance Circle: http://www.earlydancecircle.co.uk/resources/dance-through-history/the-late-renaissance-c-1535-c- 1620/

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