Linear perspective is a linear system of spatial alignment that creates an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional flat surface. Linear perspective identifies objects that appear closer as larger and objects in the distance as appearing smaller.Foreshortened refers to how the artists creates depth in a pictureQuadratura is a former of illusionistic mural painting where images are painted onto walls or ceilings creating an illusion that the architecture extends beyond the actual wall or ceiling.Sfumato is a type of oil painting in which the artist blends colors or tones in a subtle manner, and no transitions, lines, or edges are perceived.
In addition, some more characteristics were as follows: •Music based on modes. •Richer texture. •Blending rather than contrasting strands in the musical texture. •Harmony. Greater concern with the flow and progression of chords. •Some pieces were intended for 'a cappella' performance. Mainly contrapuntal. Lots of imitation. •There was lots of vocal pieces and dances, and lots of instrumental pieces (However a lot of the instrumentals were in a vocal style, but sonic were suited to instruments. Vocal music was by far the more important.) •The characteristic “timbres of Renaissance musical instruments.” •Different musical styles were introduced “masses, motets, madrigals, chansons, accompanied songs and instrumental dances.”
The Renaissance Period was a time when the arts flourished. There were many “advances in musical notation and composition.” The musicians of this era wanted to be something other than traditional and opened the door for a new way to musically express themselves.
The Renaissance movement originated during the 14th century in Italy. It was influenced by Greece and Rome. People wanted to explore their ancient culture. This time period was known as the “revival of learning.” It was the “transition from the middle ages to the modern world.” Some referred to these times as a “bridge.” There was an emergence of “popular freedom” that gave the ability to explore the arts in every way possible. Music was increasingly freer with the ability to be more creative. More and more was permitted. Music became a way to express oneself in a personal way.
With the advent of paper and musical publications, composers had a much wider influence. These composers were viewed with dignity in these times and were recognized by many in the community. This allowed music to be published and so the ability for people to study music became available. Buying and selling music became more common. “The demand for music as entertainment and as a leisure activity for educated amateurs increased with the bourgeois class.”
During the Renaissance Period, the Arts began to flourish at a more increased rate. The ballet was introduced during the Italian Renaissance. It became extremely popular when Catherine De Medici became queen. (Renaissance Dance and Music, 2017)
The rebirth of interest in classical artwork helps to fuel interest in drama and plays during the Renaissance period. Art is a large part of the Renaissance Era. Murals were often painted on the ceilings of private playhouses to simulate the night sky. This interest travels quickly from Rome to Europe. Society is ready for something new to interest them. Three types of dramas emerge during the Renaissance: tragedy, comedy and pastoral. Image retrieved from: http://www.freepik.com/free-icon/drama-masks_887900.htm
Before permanent theatres were built in England, plays were performed outside. The outdoor theatres were dependent upon weather conditions so they were used from May to October. The performances were only during daylight hours because of the lack of electricity to light the stage. Most patrons stood but some were able to pay extra to sit on benches to watch the performance. There were no scene breaks and little scenery was used during the play. The wood structures were susceptible to fires and were often destroyed. Private indoor playhouses used candlelight to illuminate the actors on the stage. Seating was provided for all audience members though the capacity was smaller than the outdoor theatres.
The first public permanent theatre structure in London was simply called The Theatre. It was built in 1576. It was built by James Burbage. James Burbage’s son, Richard Burbage was a close friend of William Shakespeare and starred in many of his plays. The theatre is a place for every class of society. The Globe photo was retrieved from: http://www.william-shakespeare.info/william-shakespeare-globe-theatre.htm Patrons paid one penny to watch the performances. Additional pennies were paid if the patron wanted to sit in a gallery.
Some playwrights and actors achieved fame and fortune during the Renaissance period. The most famous of these artists was William Shakespeare. Richard Burbage, Edward Alleyn and Will Kempe were actors in Shakespeare’s plays. These artists wrote plays for the actors to perform for the patrons. Women actors were not allowed so the parts were all portrayed by men in various costumes. The roles of women were performed by young men who also served as apprentices and understudies for the main actors. Leicester’s Men, The Admiral’s Men, and Lord Chamberlain’s Men were the three main acting troupes that performed.
Playhouses became a place for indecent behavior and blasphemous activity as determined by the Puritans. Pressure was placed on Parliament to close all theatres in 1642.
Updated history of the arts
HISTORY OF THE ARTS:
Learning Team A
January 9, 2016
Dr. J. Hannigan-Green
WHAT IS THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD?
• The Renaissance Period was the period of time from 1400 to 1600 CE, and was the transition or bridge
“from the middle ages to the modern world”.
• The Renaissance was marked by huge changes for people living in Europe.
• This period was influenced by Greece and Rome. (People wanted to explore the ancient culture.)
• The Renaissance was a “rebirth” of education, science, art, literature, music, and a better life for people.
• The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy and spread to other city-states in Italy.
• It began in Italy was because of the history of Rome and the Roman Empire, along with the idea that
Italy had become very wealthy and the wealthy were willing to spend their money supporting artists and
• There was an emergence of “popular freedom” that gave the ability to explore the arts in every way
DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VISUAL
ARTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD
• Influenced by Greek and Roman Art
• Linear Perspective
• Sfumato – oil painting
• Focus on Christian religious imagery
SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ARTISTS DURING THE
• Piero della Francesca (c.1412-1492), linear perspective
• Andrea Mantegna (c.1431-1506) foreshortening and linear perspective, Lamentation Over The Dead Christ, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan (1490)
• Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Mona Lisa oil painting technique (known as sfumato), created by Leonardo allowing him to execute a subtle atmospheric
shading which was impossible to produce with the egg-based tempera paint.
• Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) painter, Sistine Chapel
• Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530) fresco painting and altarpiece art, Madonna of the Harpies (1517)
• Correggio (1494-1534) pioneer of illusionistic painting and sfumato. The Assumption of the Virgin,
Ceiling Fresco (1526-30) Cathedral of Parma, Italy.
• Achieving the best possible expression of lightness and grace, he used tone and colour to counterbalance his line and forms, thus creating new and unusual effects of light and shadow.
His use of foreshortening and overlapping made him a master of three-dimensionality.
• Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) painter, Wedding Feast of Cana (1563) Louvre, Paris
• A great colourists and master of easel and mural painting, he is best known for monumental banquet scenes and illusionistic fresco paintings.
SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ARTISTS DURING THE
• Jacopo della Quercia (c.1374-1438), sculptor, The Temptation (1425-8)
• Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), sculptor, designer, goldsmith, Jacob & Esau Relief (1425-52)
• Donatello (1386-1466), sculptor, David (1435-53)
• Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) sculptor, Statue of David (1501-4)
SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ARTISTS DURING THE
• Andrea Palladio (1508-80) architect, best known for villas, pallaces, and churches;
His style of architecture - a blend of Greek, Roman and Renaissance Art, later known
as Palladianism - accorded the greatest priority to maintaining symmetry, perspective
and overall harmony.
• Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) architect, Dome of St Peter's Basilica (1557-61)
• Donato Bramante (1444-1514), architect, Tempietto Iseo (1502)
ORIGINATION OF VISUAL ART
The Renaissance Period spans from c. 1400-1600. During this time, Italy was
a major trading nation and blessed with “a huge repository of classical ruins
and artifacts (Italian Renaissance Art, n.d.).” With the decline of
Constantinople, many Greek scholars emigrated to Italy bringing with them
important texts and knowledge of classical Greek civilization. Scholars and
artists saw themselves as reawakening to the ideals and achievements of
classical Roman and Greek culture.
• Popes, covenants, monasteries were typical patrons of the arts at the
time; however, works of art were becoming commissioned more and
more by civil governments, courts, and wealthy individuals.
• The Medici family was a wealthy merchant family in Florence that
commissioned much of the art in the Renaissance period, due to
their support of the arts.
HOW SOCIETY WAS INVOLVED IN THE VISUAL
ARTS DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD
• Increased prosperity – financial support for growing number of art commissions
• Weakness of the church – allowed the spread of Humanism, which promoted
greater realism and attention to detail and focus on individual figures. With
humanism came an increased interest for individuals to travel and the pursuit of
• An age of exploration – society demonstrated a desire to explore nature and the
world, as artists demonstrated a desire for new methods and knowledge
• Realism sparked the study of the human body in greater detail, in effect, more
nude works of art were created.
DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSIC
DURING THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD
Music of the Renaissance was referred to as the “Golden Age.” There were three types of
music: Sacred, Secular and Instrumental. Sacred music had to do with the church.
Secular music, was considered non-religious and Instrumental music came in many
forms: dance, vocal, existing melodies, variation sets, abstract works and free form.
SIGNIFICANT MUSICIANS DURING THE
Claudio Monteverde (1567 – 1643: Italy)
He wrote the first Opera, Orfeo
Gregorio Allegri (1582- 1652: Italy) He produced a
large number of motets and sacred mus
SIGNIFICANT MUSICIANS DURING THE
Thomas Tallis (c.1505-1585: England)
He was a church musician whose works
were used by choirs.
•Spem In Alium
William Byrd (1543-1623: England) He used a
piano and a keyboard to compose.
OF MUSIC DURING THE
The Renaissance was a time of revival of classical
learning and wisdom after a period of “cultural decline
• Followed the Middle Ages.
• The discovery and exploration of new
• Decline of the feudal system.
• Growth of commerce.
• Time of invention (paper, printing, the compass
• The separation from the church began
It is for all these reasons and more that music
composers began to experiment with different types of
music. They felt more freedom in their writing.
HOW SOCIETY WAS INVOLVED IN THE
POPULARITY OF MUSIC DURING THE
During the time of the Renaissance many of the nations were mentally stuck in the “decay of the Roman Empire.”
The Italian society was able to easily influence this era. It was time where humanistic thoughts had risen, people
were interested in recovering their artistic heritage.
Italy had the following attributes:
There was also a great deal of wealth, due to wealthy merchants in Florence. Competition developed and more and
more, society was becoming aware of all the arts had to offer. Much of the music at this time was “influenced by
political, social and economic events.”
DANCE DURING THE
The two main types of dance during this time were
• Court dances (Formal dances that were typically performed
by professional dancers.)
• Country dances (Dances that were performed by anyone,
including the general public.)
Renaissance dance steps:
• Reverence - This was a step where the dancers would face
and greet each other. They would bend both knees to bow to
the other dancer.
• Saltarello - This is an energetic dance step where the dancer
would take three steps forward and then hop.
• Pavane - A slow dance that allowed dancers to show off their
fancy clothes and gowns. It was usually the first dance of the
• Italian Double or Doppio - A step where the dancers would
take two elegant steps forward and then rise up on their toes.
(Renaissance Dance and Music, 2017)
(Renaissance Dance, 2017)
SIGNIFICANT DANCE ARTISTS DURING THE
The most prominent dance masters of
the Renaissance Period are:
• Jehan Tabourot (Thoinot Arbeau)
• Fabritio Caroso
• Cesare Negri
All three artists wrote detailed manuals
on social dance that described the
popular social dances of the time period.
(Renaissance Dance, n.d.)
(The Late Renaissance c1535 – c1620, n.d.)
RELEVANT TIMEFRAME OF THE
• Renaissance Dance becomes part of daily life (Jan 1, 1500)
• Masquerades become popular (Feb 2, 1500)
• Renaissance court dancing begins to shift new styles of dance (Jan 1, 1550)
• The first Ballet: Comique de la Reine (Jan 1, 1581)
(Dance: 1500-1950, 2007-2017)
Where the Movement
Renaissance dance originated in Italy and
later moved to France.
How Society Was
Society was able to enjoy social events by
dancing. Upper-class began to go to see
professionals dance in shows. The dance
movement spread and influenced dance
all over the world.
(Renaissance Dance, 2017)
DRAMA DURING THE RENAISSANCE
• Renaissance theatre developed from medieval theatre traditions such as mystery plays
and morality plays. These stories depicted were stories from the Bible.
• Renaissance or the rebirth of classical artworks helps the art form of drama to flourish.
• Drama became more oriented towards the tastes and values of an upper-class audience.
• This rebirth travels from Rome to Europe in a short period of time.
• All social classes were able to enjoy performances.
• Types of drama include: tragedy, comedy and pastoral (love stories).
• Large outdoor theatres with a stage in the
center and a three-sided audience.
• Plays were performed during daylight hours.
• Patrons stood or paid extra to sit on benches.
• Little or no scenery was used.
• Performances were between May and October.
• Long, rectangular indoor halls with a
stage on one end.
• Plays were performed using
• Seating was provided for all audience
• Smaller than outdoor theatres.
• The Theatre in London was built in 1576.
• This was the first permanent theatre in
• This public theatre was the first place that
William Shakespeare’s plays were performed.
• It was a polygonal design with a center stage
that reached out into the audience.
• It was three stories high.
• The Globe is the most famous theatre
in English history.
• The Globe opened in 1599 in London,
• Patrons paid one penny to view the
SIGNIFICANT ARTISTS—NO WOMEN
• William Shakespeare: English
• Richard Burbage: English actor
• Edward Alleyn: English actor
• Will Kempe: English actor
• Christopher Marlowe: English
• Ben Johnson: English playwright
• Pierre Corneille: French playwright
• Jean Racine: French playwright
END OF THE RENAISSANCE
• English Renaissance theatre is written between the Reformation (1590) and the
closure of the theatres in 1642 when Puritans forced the English Parliament to issue
an ordinance suppressing all stage plays.
• Playhouses had become a place for gambling and animal fighting.
• The end of the Renaissance for theatre is the result.
IMPORTANT HISTORICAL EVENTS DURING
THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD
1558 – Queen Elizabeth I is crowned
1570 – The Catholic Church excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I
1574 – The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre takes place in England, on which Marlowe based his
play The Massacre at Paris
1577 – Raphael Holinshed publishes his Holinsheds Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland,
the primary source text for most of Shakespeare’s history plays
1580 – Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the globe
1585-1604 – England is at war with Spain
1586 – The Babington Plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and place Mary Queen of Scots on the
throne is discovered
1587 – Mary Queen of Scots is executed at the Tower of London and theatre impresario Phillip
Henslowe builds The Rose theatre (O’Connor, 2012)
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