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■ EARLY MODERN
■ CONTEMPORARY
■ HISTORY EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
■ RECENT THEMES,
EARLY MODERN
EARLY MODERN
■ The study of history changed during
the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
François-Marie Arouet was a French
Enlightenment writer, historian, and
philosopher.
Voltaire is known for his influence in his
beliefs on freedom and reason to what
ultimately led to the French Revolution,
the United States Bill of Rights, and the
decrease in the power of the Catholic
Church,
“ The right to free speech is more important than
the content of the speech”
“ Those who can make you believe absurdities,
can make you commit atrocities”
VOLTAIRE
VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN
■ Voltaire in the 18th century attempted to
revolutionize the study of world history.
■ Voltaire concluded that the traditional study of
history was flawed.
1. eliminating the theological framework
2. emphasizing economics, culture and political
history.
VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN
■ Voltaire broke from the tradition of narrating
diplomatic and military events, and emphasized
customs, social history and achievements in arts
and sciences.
■ He emphasized the debt of the medieval culture to
the Middle Eastern Civilization, and consistently
exposed the intolerance and frauds of churches over
the age.
VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN
■ Voltaire, when writing History of Charles XII (1731)
and The Age of Louis XIV (1751), choose to focus on
economics, politics, and culture.
VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN
■ Above all else, Voltaire regarded truth as the most
essential part of recording world history.
Nationalism and religion only subtracted from
objective truth.
GIAMBATTISTA VICO
■ was an Italian philosopher, rhetorician,
historian, and jurist during the Italian
Enlightenment.
■ Born: June 23, 1668, Naples, Italy
■ Died: January 23, 1744, Naples, Italy
■ Full name: Giovan Battista Vico
■ Influenced by: Plato, Dante
Alighieri, Thomas Hobbes
■ Children: Gennaro Vico
■ Education: University of Naples Federico
II (1689–1694)
GIAMBATTISTA VICO
■ Wrote the Scienza Nuova seconda (The New Science) in 1725,
which argued history as the expression of human will and deeds.
He thought that men are historical entities and that human nature
changes over time.
GIAMBATTISTA VICO & THE NEW SCIENCE.
■ The new science is the Philosophy of History.
■ Here, Vico presents the principles of humanity
and gives account of the stages common to
the development of all societies in their
historical life.
- Each epoch of human events should be seen as a
whole in which all aspects of culture—art, religion,
philosophy, politics, and economics—are interrelated
GIAMBATTISTA VICO
- Vico showed that myth, poetry, and art are entry
points to discovering the true spirit of a culture.
- Vico outlined a conception of historical
development in which great cultures, like Rome,
undergo cycles of growth and decline
GIAMBATTISTA VICO
■ His ideas were out of fashion during the
Enlightenment but influenced the Romantic
historians after 1800.
■ His insights were generated from his study of law,
legal theory, language and above all, history.
GIAMBATTISTA VICO
■ Vico showed that the economic and class structure of
society was crucially relevant to the formation of dominant
ideologies .
■ Lastly, Vico showed that the past should be understood
sympathetically -- the historian should not judge the past
according to present standards and values.
■ The past ought to be examined in light of its historical
context (the "pastness of the past").
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German
Philopsher. He was born on August 27,1770.
He is considered one of the most founding
figures of modern Western Philosophy.
His main interest are
G.W.F HEGEL
•Metaphysics
•Philosophy of art
•Philosophy of history
•Political philosophy
•Philosophy of religion
•History of philosophy
The 3 lenses of history.
1. ORIGINAL HISTORY
includes journal entries and contractual agreements.
(Primary sources in modern historians)
2. Reflective History
Documents written with some temporal distance
separating the event which is discussed in academic writing.
The 3 lenses of history.
■ Philosophical History
To view history through this lens, one must
analyze events, civilizations, and periods objectively.
When done in this fashion, the historian can then
extract the prevailing theme from their studies.
What is the importance of the 3
lenses in viewing history?
■ World History can be a broad topic, so focusing on extracting
the most valuable information from certain periods may be the
most beneficial approach
ADAM FERGUSON
- Ferguson's main contribution
to the study of world history was
his An Essay on the History of Civil
Society (1767).According to
Ferguson, world history was a
combination of two forms of history.
ADAM FERGUSON
■ One was natural history; the aspects of our world which
God created
■ The other, which was more revolutionary, was social
history. For him, social history was the progress humans
made towards fulfilling God's plan for humanity.
■ Ferguson viewed world history as humanity's struggle to
reach an ideal society.
Henry Home
■ was a philosopher during
the Enlightenment and
contributed to the study of
world history. In his major
historical work, Sketches on
the History of Man, Home's
outlined the four stages of
human history which he
observed.
STAGES OF HUMAN HISTORY
■ PRIMITIVE STAGE/ FIRST STAGE – HUNTER GATHERER GROUPS
■ SECOND STAGE- DOMISTICATION OF ANIMALS
■ THIRD STAGE- DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
■ FOUTH STAGE/ FINAL STAGE- FORMS OF LABOR AROUSE IN A
SOCIETY.
KARL MARX
■ The Marxist theory of historical
materialism claims the history of the
world is fundamentally determined
by the material conditions.
■ Overall, Marx and Engels claimed to have identified
five successive stages of the development of these
material conditions in Western Europe. The theory
divides the history of the world into the following
periods: Primitive communism; Slave society;
Feudalism; Capitalism; and Socialism.
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
■ In the 1920s, several best-sellers dealt with the history of
the world, including surveys The Story of Mankind (1921)
by Hendrik Willem van Loon and The Outline of
History (1918) by H. G. Wells.
■ Influential writers who have reached wide audiences
include H. G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J.
Toynbee, Pitirim Sorokin, Carroll Quigley, Christopher
Dawson, and Lewis Mumford. Scholars working the field
include Eric Voegelin, William Hardy McNeill and Michael
Mann.
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
■ With evolving technologies such as dating methods and
surveying laser technology called LiDAR, contemporary
historians have access to new information which changes
how past civilizations are studied
light detection and ranging" or "laser
imaging, detection, and ranging".
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
■ Spengler's Decline of the West (2 vol 1919–1922) compared nine
organic cultures: Egyptian (3400–1200 BC), Indian (1500–1100 BC),
Chinese (1300 BC–AD 200), Classical (1100–400 BC), Byzantine (AD
300–1100), Aztec (AD 1300–1500), Arabian (AD 300–1250), Mayan
(AD 600–960), and Western (AD 900–1900).
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
■ Toynbee's ten-volume A Study of History came out in three
separate installments. He followed Spengler in taking a
comparative topical approach to independent civilizations.
Toynbee said they displayed striking parallels in their
origin, growth, and decay.
■ Toynbee rejected Spengler's biological model of
civilizations as organisms with a typical life span of 1,000
years. Toynbee explained decline as due to their moral
failure.
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
■ McNeill wrote The Rise of the West (1963) to improve upon Toynbee
by showing how the separate civilizations of Eurasia interacted from
the very beginning of their history, borrowing critical skills from one
another,
■ McNeill took a broad approach organized around the interactions of
peoples across the Earth. Such interactions have become both more
numerous and more continual and substantial in recent times.
UNITED STATES
■ As early as 1884, the American Historical Association advocated the
study of the past on a world scale
■ T. Walter Wallbank and Alastair M. Taylor co-authored Civilization
Past & Present, the first world-history textbook published in the
United States (1942)
– ongoing objective of Civilization Past & Present "was to present a
survey of world cultural history, treating the development and
growth of civilization not as a unique European experience but as
a global one through which all the great culture systems have
interacted to produce the present-day world. It attempted to
include all the elements of history – social, economic, political,
religious, aesthetic, legal, and technological( example WWI)
UNITED STATES
■ In related disciplines, such as art history and
architectural history, global perspectives have been
promoted as well.
■ In the architectural school in the US the National
Architectural Accrediting Board now requires that
schools teach history that includes a non-west or
global perspective.
RECENT THEMES
■ World Connections highlights five themes in
world history: cultural interaction, political
structures, economic structures, social
structures, and human-environment
interaction.
THANK YOU

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the historian of the world history ppt

  • 1.
  • 2. ■ EARLY MODERN ■ CONTEMPORARY ■ HISTORY EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES ■ RECENT THEMES,
  • 4. EARLY MODERN ■ The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism.
  • 5. François-Marie Arouet was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher. Voltaire is known for his influence in his beliefs on freedom and reason to what ultimately led to the French Revolution, the United States Bill of Rights, and the decrease in the power of the Catholic Church, “ The right to free speech is more important than the content of the speech” “ Those who can make you believe absurdities, can make you commit atrocities” VOLTAIRE
  • 6. VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN ■ Voltaire in the 18th century attempted to revolutionize the study of world history. ■ Voltaire concluded that the traditional study of history was flawed. 1. eliminating the theological framework 2. emphasizing economics, culture and political history.
  • 7. VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN ■ Voltaire broke from the tradition of narrating diplomatic and military events, and emphasized customs, social history and achievements in arts and sciences. ■ He emphasized the debt of the medieval culture to the Middle Eastern Civilization, and consistently exposed the intolerance and frauds of churches over the age.
  • 8. VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN ■ Voltaire, when writing History of Charles XII (1731) and The Age of Louis XIV (1751), choose to focus on economics, politics, and culture.
  • 9. VOLTAIRE AS A HISTORIAN ■ Above all else, Voltaire regarded truth as the most essential part of recording world history. Nationalism and religion only subtracted from objective truth.
  • 10. GIAMBATTISTA VICO ■ was an Italian philosopher, rhetorician, historian, and jurist during the Italian Enlightenment. ■ Born: June 23, 1668, Naples, Italy ■ Died: January 23, 1744, Naples, Italy ■ Full name: Giovan Battista Vico ■ Influenced by: Plato, Dante Alighieri, Thomas Hobbes ■ Children: Gennaro Vico ■ Education: University of Naples Federico II (1689–1694)
  • 11. GIAMBATTISTA VICO ■ Wrote the Scienza Nuova seconda (The New Science) in 1725, which argued history as the expression of human will and deeds. He thought that men are historical entities and that human nature changes over time.
  • 12. GIAMBATTISTA VICO & THE NEW SCIENCE. ■ The new science is the Philosophy of History. ■ Here, Vico presents the principles of humanity and gives account of the stages common to the development of all societies in their historical life. - Each epoch of human events should be seen as a whole in which all aspects of culture—art, religion, philosophy, politics, and economics—are interrelated
  • 13. GIAMBATTISTA VICO - Vico showed that myth, poetry, and art are entry points to discovering the true spirit of a culture. - Vico outlined a conception of historical development in which great cultures, like Rome, undergo cycles of growth and decline
  • 14. GIAMBATTISTA VICO ■ His ideas were out of fashion during the Enlightenment but influenced the Romantic historians after 1800. ■ His insights were generated from his study of law, legal theory, language and above all, history.
  • 15. GIAMBATTISTA VICO ■ Vico showed that the economic and class structure of society was crucially relevant to the formation of dominant ideologies . ■ Lastly, Vico showed that the past should be understood sympathetically -- the historian should not judge the past according to present standards and values. ■ The past ought to be examined in light of its historical context (the "pastness of the past").
  • 16. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German Philopsher. He was born on August 27,1770. He is considered one of the most founding figures of modern Western Philosophy. His main interest are G.W.F HEGEL •Metaphysics •Philosophy of art •Philosophy of history •Political philosophy •Philosophy of religion •History of philosophy
  • 17. The 3 lenses of history. 1. ORIGINAL HISTORY includes journal entries and contractual agreements. (Primary sources in modern historians) 2. Reflective History Documents written with some temporal distance separating the event which is discussed in academic writing.
  • 18. The 3 lenses of history. ■ Philosophical History To view history through this lens, one must analyze events, civilizations, and periods objectively. When done in this fashion, the historian can then extract the prevailing theme from their studies.
  • 19. What is the importance of the 3 lenses in viewing history? ■ World History can be a broad topic, so focusing on extracting the most valuable information from certain periods may be the most beneficial approach
  • 20. ADAM FERGUSON - Ferguson's main contribution to the study of world history was his An Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767).According to Ferguson, world history was a combination of two forms of history.
  • 21. ADAM FERGUSON ■ One was natural history; the aspects of our world which God created ■ The other, which was more revolutionary, was social history. For him, social history was the progress humans made towards fulfilling God's plan for humanity. ■ Ferguson viewed world history as humanity's struggle to reach an ideal society.
  • 22. Henry Home ■ was a philosopher during the Enlightenment and contributed to the study of world history. In his major historical work, Sketches on the History of Man, Home's outlined the four stages of human history which he observed.
  • 23. STAGES OF HUMAN HISTORY ■ PRIMITIVE STAGE/ FIRST STAGE – HUNTER GATHERER GROUPS ■ SECOND STAGE- DOMISTICATION OF ANIMALS ■ THIRD STAGE- DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE ■ FOUTH STAGE/ FINAL STAGE- FORMS OF LABOR AROUSE IN A SOCIETY.
  • 24. KARL MARX ■ The Marxist theory of historical materialism claims the history of the world is fundamentally determined by the material conditions.
  • 25. ■ Overall, Marx and Engels claimed to have identified five successive stages of the development of these material conditions in Western Europe. The theory divides the history of the world into the following periods: Primitive communism; Slave society; Feudalism; Capitalism; and Socialism.
  • 26.
  • 27. CONTEMPORARY HISTORY ■ In the 1920s, several best-sellers dealt with the history of the world, including surveys The Story of Mankind (1921) by Hendrik Willem van Loon and The Outline of History (1918) by H. G. Wells. ■ Influential writers who have reached wide audiences include H. G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Pitirim Sorokin, Carroll Quigley, Christopher Dawson, and Lewis Mumford. Scholars working the field include Eric Voegelin, William Hardy McNeill and Michael Mann.
  • 28. CONTEMPORARY HISTORY ■ With evolving technologies such as dating methods and surveying laser technology called LiDAR, contemporary historians have access to new information which changes how past civilizations are studied light detection and ranging" or "laser imaging, detection, and ranging".
  • 29. CONTEMPORARY HISTORY ■ Spengler's Decline of the West (2 vol 1919–1922) compared nine organic cultures: Egyptian (3400–1200 BC), Indian (1500–1100 BC), Chinese (1300 BC–AD 200), Classical (1100–400 BC), Byzantine (AD 300–1100), Aztec (AD 1300–1500), Arabian (AD 300–1250), Mayan (AD 600–960), and Western (AD 900–1900).
  • 30. CONTEMPORARY HISTORY ■ Toynbee's ten-volume A Study of History came out in three separate installments. He followed Spengler in taking a comparative topical approach to independent civilizations. Toynbee said they displayed striking parallels in their origin, growth, and decay. ■ Toynbee rejected Spengler's biological model of civilizations as organisms with a typical life span of 1,000 years. Toynbee explained decline as due to their moral failure.
  • 31. CONTEMPORARY HISTORY ■ McNeill wrote The Rise of the West (1963) to improve upon Toynbee by showing how the separate civilizations of Eurasia interacted from the very beginning of their history, borrowing critical skills from one another, ■ McNeill took a broad approach organized around the interactions of peoples across the Earth. Such interactions have become both more numerous and more continual and substantial in recent times.
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  • 33. UNITED STATES ■ As early as 1884, the American Historical Association advocated the study of the past on a world scale ■ T. Walter Wallbank and Alastair M. Taylor co-authored Civilization Past & Present, the first world-history textbook published in the United States (1942) – ongoing objective of Civilization Past & Present "was to present a survey of world cultural history, treating the development and growth of civilization not as a unique European experience but as a global one through which all the great culture systems have interacted to produce the present-day world. It attempted to include all the elements of history – social, economic, political, religious, aesthetic, legal, and technological( example WWI)
  • 34. UNITED STATES ■ In related disciplines, such as art history and architectural history, global perspectives have been promoted as well. ■ In the architectural school in the US the National Architectural Accrediting Board now requires that schools teach history that includes a non-west or global perspective.
  • 35. RECENT THEMES ■ World Connections highlights five themes in world history: cultural interaction, political structures, economic structures, social structures, and human-environment interaction.