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Tania Cantrell Rosas-Moreno, Ph.D.
Loyola University Maryland
Department of Communication
4501 North Charles St.
Baltimore, MD 21210
Email: tcrosasmoreno@loyola.edu
Political Atmosphere
Sixth election since 1985 move to democracy
Constitutionally, Lula not able to run for third term
Dilma was Minister of Energy; not seasoned
politician
José Serra, was governor of São Paulo and a
former congressman
No absolute majority during first round of elections
So, run-off election Oct. 31, 2010
f
Feminist movement
Female political
participation
Js as Framers & News Framing
Journalists are powerful social actors (Carragee &
Roefs, 2004) through their privileged opportunity to
transmit facts and ideas
Journalists (sub)consciously create, structure,
and/or reproduce ideologies within at least
cultural, political, social and historical contexts
Frames “…are organizing principles that are
socially shared and persistent over time, that work
symbolically to meaningfully structure the social
world” (Reese 2003, p. 11)
Manifest and latent content
Verbal and visual messages can merge, changing
audiences’ perceptions of issues (Coleman, 2010)
Ideologies tend to disappear into the taken-for-
granted world of common sense (Hall, 2003)
“We all
know what
we mean”
Research Questions
RQ1: What news frames emerge from the Brazilian
national online news coverage of Dilma Rousseff
during her campaign for president?
RQ2: What might the verbal and visual news
frames indicate about the state of journalism and
the current levels of democracy within Brazil?
Media & Method
 O Folha de São Paulo
 Brazil’s newspaper of record
 Readership is 45 percent upper middle class
 Readership is 54 percent male
 Jornal do Brasil
 Third-oldest daily
 1st online newspaper and 1st digital-only medium
 Educated and elite readership/viewership
 2.5 million unique visitors
 Valor Econômico
 Premier business newspaper
 Readership of C-level business executives
 Readership is 81 percent male
Media & Method
Three constructed weeks
 Beginning July 19
 Including post election day coverage
News article = verbal unit of analysis
Visual aid = visual unit of analysis
Comparative narrative analysis (Berger, 2005,
1997)
Media & Method
Media & Method
NFO: The Lula blessing
Dilma was manifestly and latently framed as Lula’s
successor
Manifest:
 The candidate chosen to succeed President Luiz Inácio
Lula da Silva four years ago, Dilma Rousseff assumed the
presidency of the Republic January 1 with the challenge
to prove to allies and the opposition that she’ll create a
government with her own mark. (Valor, 1 November
2010, italics added)
 The PSDB felt in its skin what “the Lula factor” means in a
presidential campaign. (Folha, 1 November 2010)
 Dilma’s platform will give emphasis just to the
continuation of the Lula government. (Jornal, 4 August
2010)
NFO: The Lula blessing
Dilma was manifestly and latently framed as Lula’s
successor
Latent (paternalism and patrimonialism):
 Elected to work and thanks to the godfather, Dilma
Rousseff inherits this complex and delicate
arrangement that sustains Lulaism. (Folha, 1 November
2010, italics added)
 These actions [of having Lula join Dilma in her
presidential campaign] follow the strategy… of
pasting the image of Lula—whose government has
achieved a 79 percent approval rating—to his
candidate. (Folha, 31 August 2010)
“keeping things as they are” = “marca de
continuidade”
Buffering of campaign flack
NF2: The softer side of politics
Demonstrates female empowerment and call for
female political involvement
Latent (above the mud):
 The objective is to combat what Dilma classified as
“campaign performed above calumnies and
defamations.” (Valor, 5 October 2010 italics added)
 When commenting on the attacks that she was
suffering from her principal opponent in the election
campaign, Dilma Rousseff said that her campaign
would be run until its completion by “tolerance.” “My
campaign will be marked by tolerance. I will not enter
into hate. I will win with love.” (Valor, 24 September
2010, italics added)
Different from Mr. Serra, who used fear tactics
NF2: The softer side of politics
Demonstrates female empowerment and call for
female political involvement
Latent (strong, innovative and fresh tactics):
 In electoral advertisements, the PT [Workers’ Party,
Dilma’s party] deviated from the “Little Dilma peace
and love” of the first [election] phase and thickened
the direct vote climate of the dispute. (Folha, 13
October 2010, italics added)
 [After delivering a] positive agenda…, the female
candidate innovated by opening the meeting to
discussion and granted interviews with general ideas
about education… In another innovation, Dilma left to
speak with reporters from the mounted pulpit in the
garden of her office. (Folha, 4 August 2010)
 Dilma affirms that she is not “aggressive, but rather
“assertive…” (Folha, 13 October 2010)
NF3: A new hope
Ms. Rousseff latently framed as a success story for
women, minorities and democracy
Latent (poised for power):
 …[T]he challenges ahead are enormous and the next
government can count on an external scene that may
not be too favorable. “Dilma, however, has full capacity
to administer and overcome the difficulties so that Brazil
will continue to grow.” (Valor, 1 November 2010)
Latent (gender as a delayed issue):
 Dilma’s advantage continues anchored in the masculine
electorate… (Folha, 29 October 2010, italics added)
NF3: A new hope
Ms. Rousseff latently framed as a success story for
women, minorities and democracy
Latent (pan-Dilma/women):
 “To try to taint, with lies and defamations, a woman of
Dilma Rousseff’s quality is to practice a crime against
Brazil. And, in particular, against the Brazilian woman,”
said Lula. (Folha, 8 September 2010)
 In the part [of her acceptance speech] of
acknowledgements, Dilma adopted Barack Obama’s
slogan, “Yes, we can.” “I would very much like that the
mothers and fathers of little girls look today in their
eyes and say to them: ‘Yes, a woman can.’” (Folha, 1
November 2010, italics added)
 To the president of Bolivia, the victory of the PT female
candidate represents a celebration of democracy.
“It’s a triumph of Latin-American democracy,” said
Morales. (Valor, 1 November 2010)
Final comments
RQ1: What news frames emerge from the Brazilian
national online news coverage of Dilma Rousseff
during her campaign for president?
Lula’s blessing; The softer side of politics; A new hope
Three news frames served as organizing principles
that seemed socially shared and persistent, at least
during the election time period, and worked
symbolically to meaningfully structure at minimum
Dilma’s presidential victory
Final comments
RQ2: What might the verbal and visual news frames
indicate about the state of journalism and the
current levels of democracy within Brazil?
Dilma’s policy of openness with regard to the press
Moving away from patrimonial and patriarchal
society through elected female leadership
The governmental denotation of “democracy” is
increased through Brazil’s continued practice of
democratic elections, and the social connotation of
“racial democracy” is expanded through her win
Additional questions
How does Brazil’s election of a female for its head of
state connect it with other Latin American nations?
What might investigating alternative media venues
in conjunction with or apart from mainstream media
(Lawrence, 2010, p. 268) reveal about the state of
politics and social justice issues within Brazil?
Thank you!
Tania Cantrell Rosas-Moreno, Ph.D.
Loyola University Maryland
Department of Communication
4501 North Charles St.
Baltimore, MD 21210
Email: tcrosasmoreno@loyola.edu

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Tania

  • 1. Tania Cantrell Rosas-Moreno, Ph.D. Loyola University Maryland Department of Communication 4501 North Charles St. Baltimore, MD 21210 Email: tcrosasmoreno@loyola.edu
  • 2. Political Atmosphere Sixth election since 1985 move to democracy Constitutionally, Lula not able to run for third term Dilma was Minister of Energy; not seasoned politician José Serra, was governor of São Paulo and a former congressman No absolute majority during first round of elections So, run-off election Oct. 31, 2010 f Feminist movement Female political participation
  • 3. Js as Framers & News Framing Journalists are powerful social actors (Carragee & Roefs, 2004) through their privileged opportunity to transmit facts and ideas Journalists (sub)consciously create, structure, and/or reproduce ideologies within at least cultural, political, social and historical contexts Frames “…are organizing principles that are socially shared and persistent over time, that work symbolically to meaningfully structure the social world” (Reese 2003, p. 11) Manifest and latent content Verbal and visual messages can merge, changing audiences’ perceptions of issues (Coleman, 2010) Ideologies tend to disappear into the taken-for- granted world of common sense (Hall, 2003) “We all know what we mean”
  • 4. Research Questions RQ1: What news frames emerge from the Brazilian national online news coverage of Dilma Rousseff during her campaign for president? RQ2: What might the verbal and visual news frames indicate about the state of journalism and the current levels of democracy within Brazil?
  • 5. Media & Method  O Folha de São Paulo  Brazil’s newspaper of record  Readership is 45 percent upper middle class  Readership is 54 percent male  Jornal do Brasil  Third-oldest daily  1st online newspaper and 1st digital-only medium  Educated and elite readership/viewership  2.5 million unique visitors  Valor Econômico  Premier business newspaper  Readership of C-level business executives  Readership is 81 percent male
  • 6. Media & Method Three constructed weeks  Beginning July 19  Including post election day coverage News article = verbal unit of analysis Visual aid = visual unit of analysis Comparative narrative analysis (Berger, 2005, 1997)
  • 9. NFO: The Lula blessing Dilma was manifestly and latently framed as Lula’s successor Manifest:  The candidate chosen to succeed President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva four years ago, Dilma Rousseff assumed the presidency of the Republic January 1 with the challenge to prove to allies and the opposition that she’ll create a government with her own mark. (Valor, 1 November 2010, italics added)  The PSDB felt in its skin what “the Lula factor” means in a presidential campaign. (Folha, 1 November 2010)  Dilma’s platform will give emphasis just to the continuation of the Lula government. (Jornal, 4 August 2010)
  • 10. NFO: The Lula blessing Dilma was manifestly and latently framed as Lula’s successor Latent (paternalism and patrimonialism):  Elected to work and thanks to the godfather, Dilma Rousseff inherits this complex and delicate arrangement that sustains Lulaism. (Folha, 1 November 2010, italics added)  These actions [of having Lula join Dilma in her presidential campaign] follow the strategy… of pasting the image of Lula—whose government has achieved a 79 percent approval rating—to his candidate. (Folha, 31 August 2010) “keeping things as they are” = “marca de continuidade” Buffering of campaign flack
  • 11. NF2: The softer side of politics Demonstrates female empowerment and call for female political involvement Latent (above the mud):  The objective is to combat what Dilma classified as “campaign performed above calumnies and defamations.” (Valor, 5 October 2010 italics added)  When commenting on the attacks that she was suffering from her principal opponent in the election campaign, Dilma Rousseff said that her campaign would be run until its completion by “tolerance.” “My campaign will be marked by tolerance. I will not enter into hate. I will win with love.” (Valor, 24 September 2010, italics added) Different from Mr. Serra, who used fear tactics
  • 12. NF2: The softer side of politics Demonstrates female empowerment and call for female political involvement Latent (strong, innovative and fresh tactics):  In electoral advertisements, the PT [Workers’ Party, Dilma’s party] deviated from the “Little Dilma peace and love” of the first [election] phase and thickened the direct vote climate of the dispute. (Folha, 13 October 2010, italics added)  [After delivering a] positive agenda…, the female candidate innovated by opening the meeting to discussion and granted interviews with general ideas about education… In another innovation, Dilma left to speak with reporters from the mounted pulpit in the garden of her office. (Folha, 4 August 2010)  Dilma affirms that she is not “aggressive, but rather “assertive…” (Folha, 13 October 2010)
  • 13. NF3: A new hope Ms. Rousseff latently framed as a success story for women, minorities and democracy Latent (poised for power):  …[T]he challenges ahead are enormous and the next government can count on an external scene that may not be too favorable. “Dilma, however, has full capacity to administer and overcome the difficulties so that Brazil will continue to grow.” (Valor, 1 November 2010) Latent (gender as a delayed issue):  Dilma’s advantage continues anchored in the masculine electorate… (Folha, 29 October 2010, italics added)
  • 14. NF3: A new hope Ms. Rousseff latently framed as a success story for women, minorities and democracy Latent (pan-Dilma/women):  “To try to taint, with lies and defamations, a woman of Dilma Rousseff’s quality is to practice a crime against Brazil. And, in particular, against the Brazilian woman,” said Lula. (Folha, 8 September 2010)  In the part [of her acceptance speech] of acknowledgements, Dilma adopted Barack Obama’s slogan, “Yes, we can.” “I would very much like that the mothers and fathers of little girls look today in their eyes and say to them: ‘Yes, a woman can.’” (Folha, 1 November 2010, italics added)  To the president of Bolivia, the victory of the PT female candidate represents a celebration of democracy. “It’s a triumph of Latin-American democracy,” said Morales. (Valor, 1 November 2010)
  • 15. Final comments RQ1: What news frames emerge from the Brazilian national online news coverage of Dilma Rousseff during her campaign for president? Lula’s blessing; The softer side of politics; A new hope Three news frames served as organizing principles that seemed socially shared and persistent, at least during the election time period, and worked symbolically to meaningfully structure at minimum Dilma’s presidential victory
  • 16. Final comments RQ2: What might the verbal and visual news frames indicate about the state of journalism and the current levels of democracy within Brazil? Dilma’s policy of openness with regard to the press Moving away from patrimonial and patriarchal society through elected female leadership The governmental denotation of “democracy” is increased through Brazil’s continued practice of democratic elections, and the social connotation of “racial democracy” is expanded through her win
  • 17. Additional questions How does Brazil’s election of a female for its head of state connect it with other Latin American nations? What might investigating alternative media venues in conjunction with or apart from mainstream media (Lawrence, 2010, p. 268) reveal about the state of politics and social justice issues within Brazil?
  • 18. Thank you! Tania Cantrell Rosas-Moreno, Ph.D. Loyola University Maryland Department of Communication 4501 North Charles St. Baltimore, MD 21210 Email: tcrosasmoreno@loyola.edu

Editor's Notes

  1. Image courtesy of Valor Online, 29 October 29 2010; http://www.valoronline.com.br/online/datafolha/5956/329761/datafolha-aponta-56-de-votos-validos-para-dilma-e-44-para-serra: .
  2. Top left image courtesy of Folha, 12 August 2010: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/781929-serra-nao-pode-estar-na-garupa-de-fhc-porque-e-ate-covardia-afirma-dilma.shtml. Bottom right image courtesy of Valor 24 September 2010; . http://www.valoronline.com.br/impresso/politica/100/313678/dilma-descarta-mudancas-na-campanha Latin America’s earliest, largest, most diverse, radical and successful women’s movement One of the worlds’ lowest rates of women’s political participation (Htun, 2002) Note: Brazil has partly-free ranked press
  3. Image courtesy of Valor 1 November 2010; http://www.valoronline.com.br/impresso/politica/100/330733/desafio-de-dilma-sera-o-de-impor-sua-marca
  4. Logos courtesy of each online newspaper site.
  5. A visual aid is defined as a photograph, a still from a video clip embedded in a story or a chart.
  6. Jornal gives the most verbal attention to the candidate overall, but the least visual.
  7. Image courtesy of Jornal, 1 November 2010; http://www.jb.com.br/eleicoes-2010/noticias/2010/11/01/dilma-define-comando-da-equipe-de-transicao/. Importance of image – manifestly: Lula gives Dilma his blessing. Latently: History of paternalism in Brazil… “Good ol’ boys” ~ Brazilian version of nepotism.
  8. Top image courtesy of Valor 1 November 2010; http://www.valoronline.com.br/impresso/politica/100/330803/jornal-da-igreja-universal-recomenda-voto-em-dilma and of Folha 1 November 2010: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/824028-jornal-da-igreja-universal-publica-sete-razoes-para-votar-em-dilma.shtml Patrimonialism demo’ed in this newsletter. Put out by Igreja Universal, one of Brazil’s most powerful (evangelical) churches as well as Brazil’s largest multinational organization. Bottom image courtesy of Jornal 1 November 2010: http://www.jb.com.br/eleicoes-2010/noticias/2010/11/01/dilma-define-comando-da-equipe-de-transicao/ and Folha 1 November 2010: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/823631-lula-diz-que-dilma-demonstrou-ser-uma-guerreira-durante-campanha.shtml.
  9. Top image courtesy of Valor 1 November 2010; http://www.valoronline.com.br/online/dilma/24333/314046/dilma-elogia-capitalizacao-da-petrobras.
  10. This visual courtesy of Folha, 29 October 2010: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/822101-saude-de-dilma-e-serra-vai-bem-aponta-exame.shtml.
  11. Top image courtesy of Valor 16 September 2010; http://www.valoronline.com.br/impresso/citibank/2088/309648/em-mg-dilma-marina-e-plinio-debatem-o-pos-eleicao; Bottom image courtesy of Jornal 1 November 2010: http://www.jb.com.br/pais/noticias/2010/11/01/em-sua-primeira-entrevista-dilma-elege-erradicar-miseria-como-grande-desafio/.
  12. Image courtesy of Folha 1 November 2010; http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/823622-dilma-rousseff-teve-mais-de-55-milhoes-de-votos-a-presidencia.shtml
  13. Image courtesy of Folha 1 November 2010; . http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/824102-dilma-diz-que-ira-acompanhar-com-rigor-guerra-cambial-entre-paises.shtml.
  14. Image courtesy of Valor 1 November 2010; . http://www.valoronline.com.br/online/cristina-kirchner/35314/330859/lideres-latino-americanos-saudam-dilma-pela-vitoria
  15. Image courtesy of Jornal 1 November 2010; . . http://www.jb.com.br/eleicoes-2010/noticias/2010/11/01/saberei-honrar-o-legado-de-lula-diz-dilma-emocionada-3/
  16. Image courtesy of Valor 1 November 2010; http://www.valoronline.com.br/impresso/primeira-pagina/3021/330685/dilma-e-eleita-e-define-medidas