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Page   1  
SUBSTANCE  
Volume 1, Issue 1  November 2008  
Nanotechnology: Defeating 
Cancer 
An introduction   
-Chris Smiley 
Staff writer  
The main forms of cancer treatment have involved toxic  
chemicals and radiation that could be effective in destroying  
cancer cells but consequently also killed surrounding healthy  
cells as well.  Now researchers from a number of institutions,  
such as MIT, under the funding of The National Cancer  
Institute are developing nanotechnology for cancer treatment.   
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter between 1 and  
100 nanometers; in perspective, a sheet of paper is 100,000  
nanometers thick.    
  
  
  
INSIDE THIS ISSUE  
2  Hybrid Nanoparticle  
2  An introspect on nuclear proliferation  
4  Astronauts ‘Time Travel’ into the future  
4  Making garbage worth something  
The Farce of Aging and 
the Real Fountain of Youth 
The Science of Free Radicals and Corporal Deterioration   
-Fabrice Harel-Canada 
Staff Writer  
Have you ever wished you could live forever, that you  
could remain as much a part of this world as the mountains  
and the moon?  Invulnerability from the processes of aging  
and their collections of related diseases is not as far away as  
people may think.  According to Cambridge educated  
biogerontologist, Dr. Aubrey De Grey, the technology to  
live indefinitely is within our grasp.  It is a complete  
misconception that aging is inescapable.  Our bodies have  
the capability to sustain itself virtually indefinitely but there  
are certain biological hurdles that must be overcome.  
     
A great deal of De Grey’s work centers on the effects and  
implications of free radicals on the body.  Free Radical  
Theory is one of the foremost explanations for the cause of  
aging, attributing age-related frailty and disease to the  
accumulation of free radicals and other substances within  
and between cells.  Free radicals are the residue molecules  
left over from metabolic processes necessary for life to  
occur and continue, but these have been shown to be quite  
damaging on the cells they are stored in, eventually leading  
to oxidative stress and handicapping the cells’ ability to  
repair itself.  Every minute an organism continues to live  
another set of free radicals is released that destroy our  
body’s ability to heal itself and remain in youthful strength.  
While the process for actually removing these harmful  
accumulations is complicated and requires much more  
research, De Grey and the Methuselah Foundation are  
experimenting with different extraction therapies and  
engineering instruments.  How much they are able to  
progress in this endeavor is as much contingent on their  
respective abilities as it is on the amount of support and  
funding they receive in the lab. Until people are even aware  
that living into the hundreds of years is being investigated,  
continued on page 2
Page   2  
Researchers have used nanostructures to create stain-proof  
clothing and have also used nanoscale tubes of carbon,  
which is extremely strong, to make bicycles and baseball bats.   
However, nanotechnology is currently being put to more  
significant use for mankind.  Nanoparticles are inventing a  
new field of cancer treatment.  These particles are being  
engineered to do an array of tasks from being introduced  
into the bloodstream to locate and map tumors to carrying a  
payload of drugs to destroy them.  The potential of this  
treatment is high but researchers are cautious to put a 
timetable out for availability. 
Hybrid Nanoparticle 
Recently a hybrid nanoparticle was developed that can image  
and treat tumors in humans.  This new lipid based particle is  
made up of a magnetic nanoparticle, a fluorescent quantum  
dot (aka an image contrast agent), and an anti-cancer drug  
that is specially engineered so that it can flow through the  
body undetected by our immune systems.  Most prior drugs  
have failed because they could not reach the cancerous tissue  
in time or without being destroyed by the body’s immune  
system, nor could these older drugs effectively distinguish  
healthy tissue from diseased tissue.  
However, this new hybrid particle has a protein called F3  
that homes in on cancer cells and sticks to them.  Then the  
iron oxide component of this nanoparticle allows the particle  
to be seen using an MRI.  Scientists also placed a quantum  
dot that can be seen by a fluorescent scanner.  With this  
researchers envision surgeons using an MRI before surgery  
to find the specific location of the tumor and then using  
fluorescent imaging during surgery to find and remove all  
parts of the tumor.ı  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
Nanotechnology opportunities 
Few universities offer degrees in nanotechnology and many  
students who are interested in this incredibly significant  
research are uncertain about how to prepare for work in the  
field of nanotechnology and what to study.  Nanotechnology  
is a multidisciplinary field so there are many degrees that  
would be suitable.  At the University of Central Florida a  
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology track is now offered in  
their liberal studies major as a B.S. as more universities are  
offering specialized degrees into this growing field. ı   
Nuclear Proliferation and Irrationality 
-Chris Smiley 
The nuclear proliferation concern, when examined at its  
core, conveys a great deal about humanity.  Man has always  
seen the need for a body, government etc., to overlook the  
affairs of everyone. For thousands of years man has divided  
himself into groups. A rational and responsible idea because  
this earth is so vast that it would seem necessary to have the  
planet sectioned off for a more efficient maintenance.   
However it is this separation between humanity that has  
been a constant detriment.  It is human nature to be  
somewhat selfish and to have survivalist instincts.   
Therefore, when societies are sectioned off and viewed as  
different from one another then conflict is inevitable.  One  
society will be looking out for itself and will do what is  
necessary to make the lives of its own people as great as  
possible, ultimately disregarding the rest of humanity.  The  
only consequences it essentially cares about are to its own  
people, but even sometimes this is skewed.    
Our allegiance to sovereign nations enables a  
contract within a society but destroys the contract  
with the world.  
Mankind is a species of intelligence yet lacking sufficient  
rationality.  It is the most irrational and contradictory thing  
to do anything to end life.  Our life is what we are; it is our  
existence.  However many men have led others into battle  
against their fellow man where countless lives were ended.  It  
is a farce for men to be in control of such power when they  
do not realize the value of human existence.  We are so  
fortunate to have a mind that can attempt to understand this  
existence that we have been brought into.    
Yes if we are going to have government then having  
sectional government is necessary.  The problem is that there  
exists not one homogenous network of government, but  
individual nations.  As much as some would like, the UN is  
continued from page 1  
Nanotechnology works because the surface area of medication 
is multiplied hundreds of times. Previously, dissolution rates 
were slow because the outside of the large molecules had to be 
absorbed before the inside could even start. Nanotechnology 
creates molecules so small absorption is almost instantaneous.
Page   3  
  
IN OUR NE XT  I SSUE S  
v How nanotechnology can stop HIV  
  
v New study on out of body experiences   
v Oxford researches why people believe in God  
  
v Q&A with the Methuselah Foundation  
  
v How to time travel  
  
  
not a world government and there will never be a world  
government as long as man is as irrational and divided as he is.   
Therefore, for one region to tell another region what it can and  
cannot do is irrational if it is something that is not agreed upon  
by all.  The US has frequently called other leaders evil, but those  
leaders are saying the same thing about America.  Who’s to say  
who is evil versus who is good?    
If there were global agreement and understanding then there  
would be no worry about nuclear weapons in the first place.  It  
is especially irrational for one government that has nuclear  
weapons to demand that no one else have that power.  The  
countries with the weapons are establishing dominance at the  
least.  
Government should simply be to protect all people from certain  
individuals, not to protect a group of people from another  
people.  Once mankind can realize this fundamental idea then  
we can have peace.  I believe that government should extend  
the globe and serve the purposes of protection, economic  
security, and the advancement of mankind.  For centuries  
mankind has had such a minimalized view of existence, but now  
that we have begun to know the immense depths of existence  
we must realize that this species is just a speck in this vastness.   
No one country should have dominance over another because  
the truth is that all act irrational and there is not one sanctity.  
Thomas Hobbes believed that an authoritarian government is  
necessary to keep man under control because we are naturally  
inclined to be selfish and destructive towards others.  However  
those same people that are in power are also human and also  
have the same traits.  Until man can rise above its naturalistic  
temperaments then one group cannot control the herd because  
the control is also just as irrational as the herd.  To escape this  
state of war of all against all, Hobbes writes in Leviathan that  
men must enter into a social contract to establish stability.  Why  
is it that there isn’t a social contract on a global level?  Our  
allegiance to sovereign nations enables a contract within a  
society but destroys the contract with the world.  
Many theorists concentrate on the rights of man in a society but  
what of the rights in a world sense?  Thomas Paine believed  
government should be overthrown for internal freedom and  
peace within a state but also “to promote universal peace,  
civilization, and commerce, and to break the chains of political  
superstition, and raise degraded man to his proper rank”.  If we  
can overcome the current ideality of sectional government to  
realize the rationality of global peace then there wouldn’t be an  
issue of nuclear proliferation. ı  
  
Aging continued from page 1  
progress is likely to remain at sub-par rates and this  
technology may not be available for many decades.   
An unexpectedly negative reaction to the mere idea  
of living indefinitely accounts for a large part of the lack of  
funds Dr. De Grey has to deal with. How in the world could  
someone have a problem with this? The answer and more  
coming up in out next issue. □  
  
Nuclear Proliferation continued from page 2  
Thus far, only metabolic processes have been described as causing free 
radicals but other factors like those seen above contribute to the overall 
aging process. Metabolism is by far the most important contributor of 
aging because it never stops and is essential to life whereas air pollution, 
smoking, and even exposure to large amount of sunlight are completely 
controllable and thus, preventable.
Page   4  
      
STAFF  
v CHRIS SMILEY  
v FABRICE HAREL-CANADA   
v JOHN WILLIAMS  
v ALICE BAKER   
v JAMES WALLACE  
  
  
Substance is an independent, non-profit publication by  
undergraduate students from Florida universities.  
Questions, comments, or interest in writing/contributing  
please email- John@FloridaInquiry.net or call 5618663719   
We will not be offended if you decide to donate. Rest  
assured that whatever is received would go to offset printing  
costs and not personal needs  
  
  
Turning Garbage into 
Energy 
-Alice Baker 
Staff writer  
In St. Lucie County Florida the first American plasma plant  
will be up and running by 2011.  A company out of Atlanta,  
Geoplasma, is using plasma, a superheated substance, to turn  
garbage into pressurized gas that creates electricity by turning  
a turbine.  Trash is dumped into a container that is heated to  
10,000 degrees Fahrenheit from the blasts of plasma and the  
subsequent vaporized gas is pumped through the turbine.   
Only the organic compounds are vaporized but the inorganic  
compounds (various metals) settle at the bottom and can  
then be recycled and used in construction.  This process will  
reduce landfill volume and the release of methane while  
providing power for over 50,000 homes.  In contrast to  
standard incineration of trash the plasma processes emissions  
are significantly lower.  There are already several plasma  
plants in use around the world but we are expecting  
American minds to bring plasma waste technologies to the  
fore. ı  
  
ASTRONAUT S  
TIME   TRAVE L  
-Chris Smiley 
If you have ever heard a professor or  
someone on television remark that  
astronauts have time traveled into the  
future and were left questioning or  
wanted clarification on what time  
travel actually means and whether or  
not people can or have actually done  
it, then I hope to clear some things up.   
The truth is yes, astronauts have ‘time  
traveled’. However, it is not as  
romantic as they infer, nowhere near  
the “Back to the Future” sense that  
most would assume. Only fractions of  
a single second have been ‘time  
traveled’. But how is that even  
possible and what exactly is  
happening?    
A space shuttle travels about 17,500  
miles per hour.  Even though this is  
40,000 times slower than the speed of  
light, a continuum exists that as any  
object moves closer to the speed of  
light, ‘time’ slows down.  Things that  
are moving at these high rates of speed  
experience time dilation where the  
movements of everything slow down  
while traveling.  So an astronaut’s  
molecules and brain processes move  
slower but they do not notice this.  In  
effect, astronauts are not aging as fast  
as time moves slower for them than  
people on earth.  So people have taken  
from this that you have ‘time traveled’  
but in essence it is better related to  
cryogenic freezing or something of the  
sort, for most people view traveling  
into the future as instantaneously going   
to the future whereas this instance  
reflects time as the change and  
movement of particles.  In time  
dilation, you still exist in the same time  
and universe as everyone else but your  
experience is only different. ı  
TRY THIS AT HOME 
-John Williams 
After you’re done enjoying the rest of  
this month’s Substance Newsletter, get  
up and start running to Georgia to  
shout how awesome this publication  
is. You will age  
.0000000000000000000000000000000 
00000000000000000000000000000000 
00000000000000000000000000000000 
00000000000000000000000000000000 
00000000000000000000000000000000 
0000003 seconds less for doing so.  
You’re welcome.
Page   5

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Substance_Nov08fin

  • 1. Page 1 SUBSTANCE Volume 1, Issue 1 November 2008 Nanotechnology: Defeating Cancer An introduction -Chris Smiley Staff writer The main forms of cancer treatment have involved toxic chemicals and radiation that could be effective in destroying cancer cells but consequently also killed surrounding healthy cells as well. Now researchers from a number of institutions, such as MIT, under the funding of The National Cancer Institute are developing nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter between 1 and 100 nanometers; in perspective, a sheet of paper is 100,000 nanometers thick. INSIDE THIS ISSUE 2 Hybrid Nanoparticle 2 An introspect on nuclear proliferation 4 Astronauts ‘Time Travel’ into the future 4 Making garbage worth something The Farce of Aging and the Real Fountain of Youth The Science of Free Radicals and Corporal Deterioration -Fabrice Harel-Canada Staff Writer Have you ever wished you could live forever, that you could remain as much a part of this world as the mountains and the moon? Invulnerability from the processes of aging and their collections of related diseases is not as far away as people may think. According to Cambridge educated biogerontologist, Dr. Aubrey De Grey, the technology to live indefinitely is within our grasp. It is a complete misconception that aging is inescapable. Our bodies have the capability to sustain itself virtually indefinitely but there are certain biological hurdles that must be overcome. A great deal of De Grey’s work centers on the effects and implications of free radicals on the body. Free Radical Theory is one of the foremost explanations for the cause of aging, attributing age-related frailty and disease to the accumulation of free radicals and other substances within and between cells. Free radicals are the residue molecules left over from metabolic processes necessary for life to occur and continue, but these have been shown to be quite damaging on the cells they are stored in, eventually leading to oxidative stress and handicapping the cells’ ability to repair itself. Every minute an organism continues to live another set of free radicals is released that destroy our body’s ability to heal itself and remain in youthful strength. While the process for actually removing these harmful accumulations is complicated and requires much more research, De Grey and the Methuselah Foundation are experimenting with different extraction therapies and engineering instruments. How much they are able to progress in this endeavor is as much contingent on their respective abilities as it is on the amount of support and funding they receive in the lab. Until people are even aware that living into the hundreds of years is being investigated, continued on page 2
  • 2. Page 2 Researchers have used nanostructures to create stain-proof clothing and have also used nanoscale tubes of carbon, which is extremely strong, to make bicycles and baseball bats. However, nanotechnology is currently being put to more significant use for mankind. Nanoparticles are inventing a new field of cancer treatment. These particles are being engineered to do an array of tasks from being introduced into the bloodstream to locate and map tumors to carrying a payload of drugs to destroy them. The potential of this treatment is high but researchers are cautious to put a timetable out for availability. Hybrid Nanoparticle Recently a hybrid nanoparticle was developed that can image and treat tumors in humans. This new lipid based particle is made up of a magnetic nanoparticle, a fluorescent quantum dot (aka an image contrast agent), and an anti-cancer drug that is specially engineered so that it can flow through the body undetected by our immune systems. Most prior drugs have failed because they could not reach the cancerous tissue in time or without being destroyed by the body’s immune system, nor could these older drugs effectively distinguish healthy tissue from diseased tissue. However, this new hybrid particle has a protein called F3 that homes in on cancer cells and sticks to them. Then the iron oxide component of this nanoparticle allows the particle to be seen using an MRI. Scientists also placed a quantum dot that can be seen by a fluorescent scanner. With this researchers envision surgeons using an MRI before surgery to find the specific location of the tumor and then using fluorescent imaging during surgery to find and remove all parts of the tumor.ı Nanotechnology opportunities Few universities offer degrees in nanotechnology and many students who are interested in this incredibly significant research are uncertain about how to prepare for work in the field of nanotechnology and what to study. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field so there are many degrees that would be suitable. At the University of Central Florida a Nanoscience and Nanotechnology track is now offered in their liberal studies major as a B.S. as more universities are offering specialized degrees into this growing field. ı Nuclear Proliferation and Irrationality -Chris Smiley The nuclear proliferation concern, when examined at its core, conveys a great deal about humanity. Man has always seen the need for a body, government etc., to overlook the affairs of everyone. For thousands of years man has divided himself into groups. A rational and responsible idea because this earth is so vast that it would seem necessary to have the planet sectioned off for a more efficient maintenance. However it is this separation between humanity that has been a constant detriment. It is human nature to be somewhat selfish and to have survivalist instincts. Therefore, when societies are sectioned off and viewed as different from one another then conflict is inevitable. One society will be looking out for itself and will do what is necessary to make the lives of its own people as great as possible, ultimately disregarding the rest of humanity. The only consequences it essentially cares about are to its own people, but even sometimes this is skewed. Our allegiance to sovereign nations enables a contract within a society but destroys the contract with the world. Mankind is a species of intelligence yet lacking sufficient rationality. It is the most irrational and contradictory thing to do anything to end life. Our life is what we are; it is our existence. However many men have led others into battle against their fellow man where countless lives were ended. It is a farce for men to be in control of such power when they do not realize the value of human existence. We are so fortunate to have a mind that can attempt to understand this existence that we have been brought into. Yes if we are going to have government then having sectional government is necessary. The problem is that there exists not one homogenous network of government, but individual nations. As much as some would like, the UN is continued from page 1 Nanotechnology works because the surface area of medication is multiplied hundreds of times. Previously, dissolution rates were slow because the outside of the large molecules had to be absorbed before the inside could even start. Nanotechnology creates molecules so small absorption is almost instantaneous.
  • 3. Page 3 IN OUR NE XT I SSUE S v How nanotechnology can stop HIV v New study on out of body experiences v Oxford researches why people believe in God v Q&A with the Methuselah Foundation v How to time travel not a world government and there will never be a world government as long as man is as irrational and divided as he is. Therefore, for one region to tell another region what it can and cannot do is irrational if it is something that is not agreed upon by all. The US has frequently called other leaders evil, but those leaders are saying the same thing about America. Who’s to say who is evil versus who is good? If there were global agreement and understanding then there would be no worry about nuclear weapons in the first place. It is especially irrational for one government that has nuclear weapons to demand that no one else have that power. The countries with the weapons are establishing dominance at the least. Government should simply be to protect all people from certain individuals, not to protect a group of people from another people. Once mankind can realize this fundamental idea then we can have peace. I believe that government should extend the globe and serve the purposes of protection, economic security, and the advancement of mankind. For centuries mankind has had such a minimalized view of existence, but now that we have begun to know the immense depths of existence we must realize that this species is just a speck in this vastness. No one country should have dominance over another because the truth is that all act irrational and there is not one sanctity. Thomas Hobbes believed that an authoritarian government is necessary to keep man under control because we are naturally inclined to be selfish and destructive towards others. However those same people that are in power are also human and also have the same traits. Until man can rise above its naturalistic temperaments then one group cannot control the herd because the control is also just as irrational as the herd. To escape this state of war of all against all, Hobbes writes in Leviathan that men must enter into a social contract to establish stability. Why is it that there isn’t a social contract on a global level? Our allegiance to sovereign nations enables a contract within a society but destroys the contract with the world. Many theorists concentrate on the rights of man in a society but what of the rights in a world sense? Thomas Paine believed government should be overthrown for internal freedom and peace within a state but also “to promote universal peace, civilization, and commerce, and to break the chains of political superstition, and raise degraded man to his proper rank”. If we can overcome the current ideality of sectional government to realize the rationality of global peace then there wouldn’t be an issue of nuclear proliferation. ı Aging continued from page 1 progress is likely to remain at sub-par rates and this technology may not be available for many decades. An unexpectedly negative reaction to the mere idea of living indefinitely accounts for a large part of the lack of funds Dr. De Grey has to deal with. How in the world could someone have a problem with this? The answer and more coming up in out next issue. □ Nuclear Proliferation continued from page 2 Thus far, only metabolic processes have been described as causing free radicals but other factors like those seen above contribute to the overall aging process. Metabolism is by far the most important contributor of aging because it never stops and is essential to life whereas air pollution, smoking, and even exposure to large amount of sunlight are completely controllable and thus, preventable.
  • 4. Page 4 STAFF v CHRIS SMILEY v FABRICE HAREL-CANADA v JOHN WILLIAMS v ALICE BAKER v JAMES WALLACE Substance is an independent, non-profit publication by undergraduate students from Florida universities. Questions, comments, or interest in writing/contributing please email- John@FloridaInquiry.net or call 5618663719 We will not be offended if you decide to donate. Rest assured that whatever is received would go to offset printing costs and not personal needs Turning Garbage into Energy -Alice Baker Staff writer In St. Lucie County Florida the first American plasma plant will be up and running by 2011. A company out of Atlanta, Geoplasma, is using plasma, a superheated substance, to turn garbage into pressurized gas that creates electricity by turning a turbine. Trash is dumped into a container that is heated to 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit from the blasts of plasma and the subsequent vaporized gas is pumped through the turbine. Only the organic compounds are vaporized but the inorganic compounds (various metals) settle at the bottom and can then be recycled and used in construction. This process will reduce landfill volume and the release of methane while providing power for over 50,000 homes. In contrast to standard incineration of trash the plasma processes emissions are significantly lower. There are already several plasma plants in use around the world but we are expecting American minds to bring plasma waste technologies to the fore. ı ASTRONAUT S TIME TRAVE L -Chris Smiley If you have ever heard a professor or someone on television remark that astronauts have time traveled into the future and were left questioning or wanted clarification on what time travel actually means and whether or not people can or have actually done it, then I hope to clear some things up. The truth is yes, astronauts have ‘time traveled’. However, it is not as romantic as they infer, nowhere near the “Back to the Future” sense that most would assume. Only fractions of a single second have been ‘time traveled’. But how is that even possible and what exactly is happening? A space shuttle travels about 17,500 miles per hour. Even though this is 40,000 times slower than the speed of light, a continuum exists that as any object moves closer to the speed of light, ‘time’ slows down. Things that are moving at these high rates of speed experience time dilation where the movements of everything slow down while traveling. So an astronaut’s molecules and brain processes move slower but they do not notice this. In effect, astronauts are not aging as fast as time moves slower for them than people on earth. So people have taken from this that you have ‘time traveled’ but in essence it is better related to cryogenic freezing or something of the sort, for most people view traveling into the future as instantaneously going to the future whereas this instance reflects time as the change and movement of particles. In time dilation, you still exist in the same time and universe as everyone else but your experience is only different. ı TRY THIS AT HOME -John Williams After you’re done enjoying the rest of this month’s Substance Newsletter, get up and start running to Georgia to shout how awesome this publication is. You will age .0000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000 0000003 seconds less for doing so. You’re welcome.
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