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STUDY OF AERODYNAMICS OF A CRICKET BALL

    Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood Ebna Hai1, Wing Commander Md. Abdus Salam2
        1
          Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST),
                                  Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh, shameem.me@mist.edu.bd
        2
          Faculty of Aeronautical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST),
                                    Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh, salam.me@mist.edu.bd

ABSTRACT
This research is concerned with the nature and aerodynamic behavior on cricket balls in flight. It is written to determine
the aerodynamic characteristics of a cricket ball with a mass of 156 gm and approximate diameter of 70 mm, where a
sample cricket ball was fixed with a shaft in a wind tunnel. The aerodynamic characteristics have been analyzed by
varying the rotational rpm of the cricket ball, where the axis of rotation for seam and shaft is same and the pressure
difference between the upper and the lower surface of the cricket ball determine by the help of static manometer. Some
experimental works have also been carried out and compared with those of the results obtained numerically. The upward
pressure, which creates lift, has increased almost linearly with the increase of ball position angle to approximately 15o to
30o and it also decrease with increase of ball rotational speed. Finally some conclusions have been drawn on the basis of
the experimental result.

Keywords: Lift, Drag



1. INTRODUCTION
A cricket ball has six rows of prominent stitching, which
are known as primary seam. There are typically 60-80
stitches in each row. The seam is along the quot;equatorquot; of
the two-hemisphere ball. Better quality balls are made of
4 pieces of leather so that each hemisphere has a line of
internal stitching forming the quot;secondary seamquot;. The
secondary seams of the two hemispheres are at right
angles to each other.
For such construction different types of swings are
generated and for different speed of rotation direction lift
and Magnus effect occurs.
The key to making a cricket ball swing is to cause a
pressure difference between the two sides of the ball. The
air pressure depends on the flow of the air over each side
of the ball. Swing is generated when blowers, by accident
or design, disrupt the flow of air over one side of the ball.
The lift generated by a cricket ball depends on factors
                                                                 Figure 1: Schematic diagram of Experimental Set-Up
such as the speed of the airflow, the density of the air, the
total area of the ball, rotational speed of ball.
Researches in Bangladesh were carried out to visualize
the flow over the cricket ball in steady and rotational
(manual rotation) condition without airflow. But here in
this study, considerable effort is given to visualize the air
flow pattern over the cricket ball across the seam in
steady and various rotational conditions with airflow.
Effort is also given to determine the pressure difference
between the upper and lower surface of the sample
cricket ball during lift and Magnus effect.

2. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP
Figure 1-2 shows the design and photograph of the
complete experimental set up. The wind tunnel made by
8 mm think transparent “Acrylic plastic sheet”. This
wind tunnel has four parts as air inlet section, test section,
                                                                 Figure 2: Photograph of Experimental Set-Up
diffuser section and blower section.
A 1 hp, 3 phases, 220 V, AC blower used at the end of
                                                                 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
diffuser section whose maximum rpm is 1400. For
                                                                 The research was conducted test in the low speed
rotating the sample cricket ball in test section one AC
                                                                 subsonic wind tunnel. The free stream airflow (v) is kept
motor is used, whose maximum rpm is 9500. A regulator
                                                                 constant at 2.62 m/s and the other parameters are
used to control the motor rpm.
atmospheric pressure (Po) is 101365 Pa; density of air (ρ)
is 1.1774 kg / m3, absolute viscosity (μ) is 1.79 x 10-5
kg/m-s, Reynolds Number (Re) is 35053. Here the effect
of temperature is neglected. The lift has been calculated
from the experimental data based on the consideration of
2-D cricket ball.

                            90°
                 60°

           30°
                  Upper
                  surface
     0°                                                       Figure 5: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball
                  Lower                                      rotational Speed (3043 rpm)
                  surface
          30°

                 60°
                            90°

Figure 3: Angular position of the cricket ball where the
manometer reading was taken.

3.1 Aerodynamic Characteristics of cricket ball with
steady position.
There are no pressure differences in upper and lower
surface of the sample cricket ball, when it is steady.
                                                             Figure 6: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball
3.2 Aerodynamic Characteristics of cricket ball with         rotational Speed (3365 rpm)
rotation.
The variation of lift pressure with ball position for a
sample cricket ball with 2624 rpm rotational speed is
shown in Figure 4. At zero degree, the pressure
difference is almost zero and increases linearly with the
increase of ball position angle up to approximately 30o.
After wards, lift pressure decreases with further increase
of ball position angle. It is also observed that the
maximum pressure difference (lift pressure) is
approximately 94 Pa.




                                                             Figure 7: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball
                                                             rotational Speed (5879 rpm)




Figure 4: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball
rotational speed (2624 rpm)




                                                             Figure 8: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball
                                                             rotational Speed (6178 rpm)
Figure 5-8 shows the variation of lift pressure with ball     6. REFERENCES
position for a sample cricket ball for rotational speeds of   1. Clancy L. J.: “Aerodynamics”, John Wiley, New
3043, 3365, 507 and 6178 rpm respectively. The results            York, 1975.
are similar with only difference is maximum pressure          2. Dr. Maglub Al Nur: “Flow over a cricket ball”,
difference and these were 86 Pa, 81 Pa, 76 Pa and 73 Pa           BUET, 1999.
respectively at 30° ball position.                            3. Mehta, R.D. and Wood, D.H.: quot;Aerodynamics of the
                                                                  Cricket Ballquot;. Cover Article for New Scientist, 1980.
                                                              4. K.L. Kumar, “Engineering Fluid Mechanics”.11th-ed,
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The variation of upward pressure (pressure difference i.e         pp-230-234.
lift) with ball position for a sample cricket ball with       5. Anderson J.D.: “Fundamentals of Aerodynamics”,
different rotational speed is shown in Figure 9. At zero          McGraw-Hill Companies; 2nd edition, 1991.
degree, the pressure difference is almost near to zero and
it increases slowly at surface area’s 0 to 15 degree from     7. NOMENCLATURE
the horizontal axis of the ball.
                                                                 Symbol       Meaning                    Unit
Pressure difference increases linearly with the increase of
ball position angle up to approximately 30o. After wards,
                                                                    θ         Ball position (in angle)   Degree
upward pressure decreases with the further increase of
                                                                    PL        Upward presser             Pa
ball position angle. Also lift pressure decrease with
increasing ball rotation.                                           Re        Reynolds number            None
It is also observed that the maximum lift pressure 94 Pa                                                 kg/m3
                                                                    ρo        Density of air
was found for minimum ball rotation 2624 rpm at 30o ball
                                                                    Po        Atmospheric pressure       Pa
position.
                                                                     μ        Absolute viscosity         kg/m-s
                                                                     v        air velocity               m/s

                                                  rpm
                                                  2624
                                                  3043
                                                  3365
                                                  5879
                                                  6178



Figure 9: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve in different
rpm

5. CONCLUSIONS
The experimental observation includes study of
aerodynamic behavior of both stationary and rotating
cricket ball placed in a wind tunnel. No pressure
difference was found in between upper and lower surface
of the sample cricket ball, when it is steady. In this
research, various lift pressures was measured from
experimental numerical data. Number of graphs are
plotted to study the characteristics of lift pressure with
rotational speed. The magnitude of the experimental lift
pressure varies with cricket ball’s rotational speed and
position. Pressure difference increases linearly with the
increase of ball position angle up to approximately 30o
Maximum lift pressure was found in 30o ball position
angle at lower rotational speed.

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Study of Aerodynamics of a Cricket Ball

  • 1. STUDY OF AERODYNAMICS OF A CRICKET BALL Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood Ebna Hai1, Wing Commander Md. Abdus Salam2 1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh, shameem.me@mist.edu.bd 2 Faculty of Aeronautical Engineering Department, Military Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh, salam.me@mist.edu.bd ABSTRACT This research is concerned with the nature and aerodynamic behavior on cricket balls in flight. It is written to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a cricket ball with a mass of 156 gm and approximate diameter of 70 mm, where a sample cricket ball was fixed with a shaft in a wind tunnel. The aerodynamic characteristics have been analyzed by varying the rotational rpm of the cricket ball, where the axis of rotation for seam and shaft is same and the pressure difference between the upper and the lower surface of the cricket ball determine by the help of static manometer. Some experimental works have also been carried out and compared with those of the results obtained numerically. The upward pressure, which creates lift, has increased almost linearly with the increase of ball position angle to approximately 15o to 30o and it also decrease with increase of ball rotational speed. Finally some conclusions have been drawn on the basis of the experimental result. Keywords: Lift, Drag 1. INTRODUCTION A cricket ball has six rows of prominent stitching, which are known as primary seam. There are typically 60-80 stitches in each row. The seam is along the quot;equatorquot; of the two-hemisphere ball. Better quality balls are made of 4 pieces of leather so that each hemisphere has a line of internal stitching forming the quot;secondary seamquot;. The secondary seams of the two hemispheres are at right angles to each other. For such construction different types of swings are generated and for different speed of rotation direction lift and Magnus effect occurs. The key to making a cricket ball swing is to cause a pressure difference between the two sides of the ball. The air pressure depends on the flow of the air over each side of the ball. Swing is generated when blowers, by accident or design, disrupt the flow of air over one side of the ball. The lift generated by a cricket ball depends on factors Figure 1: Schematic diagram of Experimental Set-Up such as the speed of the airflow, the density of the air, the total area of the ball, rotational speed of ball. Researches in Bangladesh were carried out to visualize the flow over the cricket ball in steady and rotational (manual rotation) condition without airflow. But here in this study, considerable effort is given to visualize the air flow pattern over the cricket ball across the seam in steady and various rotational conditions with airflow. Effort is also given to determine the pressure difference between the upper and lower surface of the sample cricket ball during lift and Magnus effect. 2. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP Figure 1-2 shows the design and photograph of the complete experimental set up. The wind tunnel made by 8 mm think transparent “Acrylic plastic sheet”. This wind tunnel has four parts as air inlet section, test section, Figure 2: Photograph of Experimental Set-Up diffuser section and blower section. A 1 hp, 3 phases, 220 V, AC blower used at the end of 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT diffuser section whose maximum rpm is 1400. For The research was conducted test in the low speed rotating the sample cricket ball in test section one AC subsonic wind tunnel. The free stream airflow (v) is kept motor is used, whose maximum rpm is 9500. A regulator constant at 2.62 m/s and the other parameters are used to control the motor rpm.
  • 2. atmospheric pressure (Po) is 101365 Pa; density of air (ρ) is 1.1774 kg / m3, absolute viscosity (μ) is 1.79 x 10-5 kg/m-s, Reynolds Number (Re) is 35053. Here the effect of temperature is neglected. The lift has been calculated from the experimental data based on the consideration of 2-D cricket ball. 90° 60° 30° Upper surface 0° Figure 5: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball Lower rotational Speed (3043 rpm) surface 30° 60° 90° Figure 3: Angular position of the cricket ball where the manometer reading was taken. 3.1 Aerodynamic Characteristics of cricket ball with steady position. There are no pressure differences in upper and lower surface of the sample cricket ball, when it is steady. Figure 6: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball 3.2 Aerodynamic Characteristics of cricket ball with rotational Speed (3365 rpm) rotation. The variation of lift pressure with ball position for a sample cricket ball with 2624 rpm rotational speed is shown in Figure 4. At zero degree, the pressure difference is almost zero and increases linearly with the increase of ball position angle up to approximately 30o. After wards, lift pressure decreases with further increase of ball position angle. It is also observed that the maximum pressure difference (lift pressure) is approximately 94 Pa. Figure 7: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball rotational Speed (5879 rpm) Figure 4: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball rotational speed (2624 rpm) Figure 8: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve at ball rotational Speed (6178 rpm)
  • 3. Figure 5-8 shows the variation of lift pressure with ball 6. REFERENCES position for a sample cricket ball for rotational speeds of 1. Clancy L. J.: “Aerodynamics”, John Wiley, New 3043, 3365, 507 and 6178 rpm respectively. The results York, 1975. are similar with only difference is maximum pressure 2. Dr. Maglub Al Nur: “Flow over a cricket ball”, difference and these were 86 Pa, 81 Pa, 76 Pa and 73 Pa BUET, 1999. respectively at 30° ball position. 3. Mehta, R.D. and Wood, D.H.: quot;Aerodynamics of the Cricket Ballquot;. Cover Article for New Scientist, 1980. 4. K.L. Kumar, “Engineering Fluid Mechanics”.11th-ed, 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The variation of upward pressure (pressure difference i.e pp-230-234. lift) with ball position for a sample cricket ball with 5. Anderson J.D.: “Fundamentals of Aerodynamics”, different rotational speed is shown in Figure 9. At zero McGraw-Hill Companies; 2nd edition, 1991. degree, the pressure difference is almost near to zero and it increases slowly at surface area’s 0 to 15 degree from 7. NOMENCLATURE the horizontal axis of the ball. Symbol Meaning Unit Pressure difference increases linearly with the increase of ball position angle up to approximately 30o. After wards, θ Ball position (in angle) Degree upward pressure decreases with the further increase of PL Upward presser Pa ball position angle. Also lift pressure decrease with increasing ball rotation. Re Reynolds number None It is also observed that the maximum lift pressure 94 Pa kg/m3 ρo Density of air was found for minimum ball rotation 2624 rpm at 30o ball Po Atmospheric pressure Pa position. μ Absolute viscosity kg/m-s v air velocity m/s rpm 2624 3043 3365 5879 6178 Figure 9: Ball position Vs lift pressure curve in different rpm 5. CONCLUSIONS The experimental observation includes study of aerodynamic behavior of both stationary and rotating cricket ball placed in a wind tunnel. No pressure difference was found in between upper and lower surface of the sample cricket ball, when it is steady. In this research, various lift pressures was measured from experimental numerical data. Number of graphs are plotted to study the characteristics of lift pressure with rotational speed. The magnitude of the experimental lift pressure varies with cricket ball’s rotational speed and position. Pressure difference increases linearly with the increase of ball position angle up to approximately 30o Maximum lift pressure was found in 30o ball position angle at lower rotational speed.