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PRESENTATION
         ON
PRODUCTION SCHEDULING




      PRESENTED BY:-
                 POOJA
                 HEMANGI
                 KIRAN
                 ANURADHA
ROADMAP
What is scheduling
Examples
Objectives
Elements
Priority Planning
Master Production scheduling (MPS)
Objectives of MPS
Functions of MPS
Problems of sequencing in scheduling
SCHEDULING
 Scheduling is one of the most important elements in
  production planning.

 Scheduling calls for through understanding of all aspects of
  the production process and is an outcome of the integration
  of the efforts of planners in the planning group and the
  people in the shop-floor.

 Scheduling integrates the people, machine, materials,
  customer demands, and quality requirements in finalizing the
  priorities. Scheduling makes it possible by determining
  starting and completion data each of the operations.
EXAMPLES OF SCHEDULING

Timetabling Scheduling of the Computer :A number
 of different courses (tasks) have to be given using the
 PC room(resource)
Workforce scheduling : Assign shifts for nurses and
 doctors in a Hospital
Sports Scheduling
Drug Scheduling
CONT……….

  Scheduling effects from 2 environmental factors that are
 internal and external to the organization.
Internal environment
External environment
OBJECTIVES OF SCHEDULING

Maximize throughput
Be predictable:
Minimize overhead
Balance resource use
Achieve a balance between response and utilization
Avoid indefinite postponement
Enforce Priorities
Give preference to process holding
Degrade gracefully under heavy loads
ELEMENTS OF SCHEDULING


The processors
The tasks
The processing timings
The precedence relations
PRIORITY PLANNING

 Planning is the process by which the elements
 required to perform a task are determined in advance
 of the job start. The process is as follows :
Operations soft constraints
Management policy constraints
Engineering hard constraints
MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULING
     Master scheduling is a part of scheduling.

 A Master Production Schedule is a Schedule of the
    completions of the end items and these completions are
    very much planned in nature.

 A MPS is also in management language referred to as the
    master of all the schedules as this schedule provides the
    production, planning, purchasing & top management, the
    most needed information required for planning and
    control of the whole manufacturing process or the
    operation.
OBJECTIVES OF MASTER SCHEDULING



Keeping the inventories
Setting up the due dates for the availability of items
Maintaining the customer service
Setting proper schedules
FUNCTIONS OF MASTER
             SCHEDULING

Specifies planning periods as daily, weekly, or monthly.
Group work order processing
Tracks accuracy of order forecasting as percentage.
Classifies supply into types such as materials, purchased,
 flow, work order, and transfer.
Schedule can be edited, changed, or consolidated.
PROBLEMS OF SEQUENCING IN
        SCHEDULING



SHORTEST PROCESSING TIME (SPT)
WEIGHTED SHORTEST PROCESSING TIME (WSPT)
EXAMPLE:-
 The data about a set of single operation jobs that is to be processed in
  a CNC lathe and the processing times of the jobs in the given set of jobs
  are as given in table.
 Find the optimal sequence which will minimize the mean flow time and
  also obtain the corresponding minimum mean flow time.

                     Job, j                Processing time, tj
                       1                             7
                       2                            18
                       3                             6
                       4                             8
                       5                            12
SOLUTION:-
 For the given problem, the number of jobs is equal to
 5. The jobs are arranged as per the SPT ordering.

             Job, j          Processing time, tj
               3                       6
               1                       7
               4                       8
               5                      12
               2                      18


Therefore, the job sequence which will minimize the
 mean flow time is 3-1-4-5-2.
CONT
The computation of flow time for the optimal sequence
 (3-1-4-5-2).
               COMPUTATION FLOW TIME
            Job, j     Processing time, tj   Completion time, cj(fj)

                3              6                       6

                1              7                       13

                4              8                       21

                5              12                      33

                2              18                      51
CONT
Since the ready time rj is zero for all the values of j, the flow
  time (fj) = cj for all j.
Therefore,
1/5 ∑ Fj = 1/5 (6+13+21+33+51)
              = 1/5 (124)
              = 24.8 hours
Therefore, the optimal mean flow time = 24.8 hours.
WSPT
Example
           Job, j     Processing time, tj   Weight , wj

             1                7                 1
             2                18                2
             3                6                 1
             4                8                 2
             5                12                3

Determine the sequence which will minimize the
 weighted flow time of this problem. Also find the
 corresponding weighted mean flow time.
SOLUTION:-

 The weighted processing times of various jobs are
 summarized by using the formula tj/wj, j = 1,2,3,4, and 5
           Job, j   Processing time,   Weight , wj   Tj/wj
                           tj
             1             7               1          7

             2            18               2          9

             3             6               1          6

             4             8               2          4

             5            12               3          4
CALCULATIONS OF WEIGHTED
        FLOW TIMES
Job, j   Processing time,   Cj (Fj)   Weight , wj   Fjwj
                tj
  4             8             8           2         16
  5            12             20          3         60
  3             6             26          1         26
  1             7             33          1         33
  2            18             51          2         102
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scheduling

  • 1. PRESENTATION ON PRODUCTION SCHEDULING PRESENTED BY:- POOJA HEMANGI KIRAN ANURADHA
  • 2. ROADMAP What is scheduling Examples Objectives Elements Priority Planning Master Production scheduling (MPS) Objectives of MPS Functions of MPS Problems of sequencing in scheduling
  • 3. SCHEDULING  Scheduling is one of the most important elements in production planning.  Scheduling calls for through understanding of all aspects of the production process and is an outcome of the integration of the efforts of planners in the planning group and the people in the shop-floor.  Scheduling integrates the people, machine, materials, customer demands, and quality requirements in finalizing the priorities. Scheduling makes it possible by determining starting and completion data each of the operations.
  • 4. EXAMPLES OF SCHEDULING Timetabling Scheduling of the Computer :A number of different courses (tasks) have to be given using the PC room(resource) Workforce scheduling : Assign shifts for nurses and doctors in a Hospital Sports Scheduling Drug Scheduling
  • 5.
  • 6. CONT………. Scheduling effects from 2 environmental factors that are internal and external to the organization. Internal environment External environment
  • 7. OBJECTIVES OF SCHEDULING Maximize throughput Be predictable: Minimize overhead Balance resource use Achieve a balance between response and utilization Avoid indefinite postponement Enforce Priorities Give preference to process holding Degrade gracefully under heavy loads
  • 8. ELEMENTS OF SCHEDULING The processors The tasks The processing timings The precedence relations
  • 9. PRIORITY PLANNING Planning is the process by which the elements required to perform a task are determined in advance of the job start. The process is as follows : Operations soft constraints Management policy constraints Engineering hard constraints
  • 10.
  • 11. MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULING  Master scheduling is a part of scheduling.  A Master Production Schedule is a Schedule of the completions of the end items and these completions are very much planned in nature.  A MPS is also in management language referred to as the master of all the schedules as this schedule provides the production, planning, purchasing & top management, the most needed information required for planning and control of the whole manufacturing process or the operation.
  • 12.
  • 13. OBJECTIVES OF MASTER SCHEDULING Keeping the inventories Setting up the due dates for the availability of items Maintaining the customer service Setting proper schedules
  • 14. FUNCTIONS OF MASTER SCHEDULING Specifies planning periods as daily, weekly, or monthly. Group work order processing Tracks accuracy of order forecasting as percentage. Classifies supply into types such as materials, purchased, flow, work order, and transfer. Schedule can be edited, changed, or consolidated.
  • 15. PROBLEMS OF SEQUENCING IN SCHEDULING SHORTEST PROCESSING TIME (SPT) WEIGHTED SHORTEST PROCESSING TIME (WSPT)
  • 16. EXAMPLE:-  The data about a set of single operation jobs that is to be processed in a CNC lathe and the processing times of the jobs in the given set of jobs are as given in table.  Find the optimal sequence which will minimize the mean flow time and also obtain the corresponding minimum mean flow time. Job, j Processing time, tj 1 7 2 18 3 6 4 8 5 12
  • 17. SOLUTION:- For the given problem, the number of jobs is equal to 5. The jobs are arranged as per the SPT ordering. Job, j Processing time, tj 3 6 1 7 4 8 5 12 2 18 Therefore, the job sequence which will minimize the mean flow time is 3-1-4-5-2.
  • 18. CONT The computation of flow time for the optimal sequence (3-1-4-5-2).  COMPUTATION FLOW TIME Job, j Processing time, tj Completion time, cj(fj) 3 6 6 1 7 13 4 8 21 5 12 33 2 18 51
  • 19. CONT Since the ready time rj is zero for all the values of j, the flow time (fj) = cj for all j. Therefore, 1/5 ∑ Fj = 1/5 (6+13+21+33+51) = 1/5 (124) = 24.8 hours Therefore, the optimal mean flow time = 24.8 hours.
  • 20. WSPT Example Job, j Processing time, tj Weight , wj 1 7 1 2 18 2 3 6 1 4 8 2 5 12 3 Determine the sequence which will minimize the weighted flow time of this problem. Also find the corresponding weighted mean flow time.
  • 21. SOLUTION:-  The weighted processing times of various jobs are summarized by using the formula tj/wj, j = 1,2,3,4, and 5 Job, j Processing time, Weight , wj Tj/wj tj 1 7 1 7 2 18 2 9 3 6 1 6 4 8 2 4 5 12 3 4
  • 22. CALCULATIONS OF WEIGHTED FLOW TIMES Job, j Processing time, Cj (Fj) Weight , wj Fjwj tj 4 8 8 2 16 5 12 20 3 60 3 6 26 1 26 1 7 33 1 33 2 18 51 2 102