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The technical challenges of future IoT
networks and their consequences on
modem’s and SoC’s design
Christophe Fourtet
SIGFOX in few words
M2M & IoT : The “arena” – Challenges, paradoxes
and “rationals”
The Ultra Narrow Band Approach
Cognitive SDR
Backend : The forgotten essential element
Consequences on modems, chips and SoC
Q&A’s
SIGFOX in few wordsInitially founded in 2008 with a technical charter oriented toward multi-signal
cognitive SDR for “tiny signals”
SDR and UNB fundamental radio blocks designed between 2008 and 2010
End 2010 : Association with Ludovic Le Moan, founder of Anywhere Technology
(now Sierra) and co-founder of ScoopIT… Re-foundation of SIGFOX with a new
charter : IoT operatorcharter : IoT operator
The “New SIGFOX” starts : Orientation to M2M/IoT network technology and
operator business model
2011 – 2012 : first large subscription contracts signed. Development of partner
eco-system - SIGFOX moves to TIC-Valley
2013 : France fully covered. Netherland and Spain to come.
2014 : Netherland, Spain covered. Large contracts signed. Anne Lauvergeon joins
SIGFOX as chairman of the board
2015 : 100 collaborators – Historic raising of 120 M - UK, Portugal, US, Asia,
Germany and Italy are engaged.… Stay tuned !
SIGFOX in few words
Christophe Fourtet - CSO Ludovic Le Moan - CEO
Anne Lauvergeon – Chairman of the board
Startup…In a garage ! A classic ?
Flexible
RF
Signal
processing
Power
supply
Connectivity
Base station
HTTPS
Web browser
Client
SIGFOX network
Back-end servers
Ethernet, 3G
or custom IP links
Ethernet, 3G
Front-end servers
Crawling
Flexible
RF
Signal
processing
Power
supply
Connectivity
Base station
Ethernet, 3G
or custom IP links
Client
HTTPS
Web browser
A global plan : 60+ countries in 5 years
Mid 2015 status
UmeåUmeå
• 1m km² coverage in Europe
while aggressive global
rollout ambitions
USAUSA
FRANCEFRANCE
SPAINSPAIN
UKUK
NLNL
PTPT
Menlo ParkMenlo Park
KoreaKorea
MumbaiMumbai
WarsawWarsaw
MunichMunich
MilanMilan
DublinDublin
GrazGraz
Montgomery
county
Montgomery
county
AntwerpAntwerp
Country launched On-going country deployment
Pilot cities
SingaporeSingapore
MumbaiMumbai
SantiagoSantiago
BogotaBogota
The ecosystem
The Ecosystem
More than 60 SIGFOX Ready™ solutions today
SIGFOX today
• SIGFOX BACKED BY
MOBILE NETWORK
OPERATORS, FINANCIAL
& INDUSTRY LEADERS
• 30 patents $150$150
M• 10 nationalities
• France, USA, Spain
far
M
raised so
far
10
M2M / IoT : The “Arena”
– Challenges, paradoxes
and “rationals”
Quick panorama of today’s M2M/IoT
Cellular : GPRS, 3G
… Optimized 4G in
Pro’s
Large networks
exist
Con’s
Cost.Consumption!
(terminals must be… Optimized 4G in
few years
PMR : Mobitex,
Tetra, specific
ISM : Proprietary,
mesh, ZigBee…
exist
Large networks
exist. Reliable
Low cost
(terminals must be
disciplined)
High cost.
Dedicated to Pro
No clear standard.
Often too simple.mesh, ZigBee…
Satellite
Low cost
Large coverage
Often too simple.
Not scalable
Relatively high cost.
Not flexible
Key facts about available spectrum
Cellular spectrum is, and will stay very expansive
Private spectrum as well
ISM spectrum is not large and drastically limited and constrainedISM spectrum is not large and drastically limited and constrained
(power, duty cycle…)
TV White space are not global, if not just a “Mirage”
Potential future specific allocations for M2M will take a long time, as
ever (10 years ?)ever (10 years ?)
You should better get organized for a maximum optimization !!!
Key goals for tomorrow’s M2M / IoT
Low cost … And even ultralow cost
Ultra low current drain
Consequence of above : Keep devices as “low talker” or “listener” asConsequence of above : Keep devices as “low talker” or “listener” as
possible, and avoid to “discipline” them through complex protocol…
However : Need for high scalability … Ten’s of billion of objects
Keep CAPEX and thus infrastructure as low cost as possible at startup
Plan to standardize !
Many things to be reinvented compared to classical networks !
The paradoxes
You need large cells for minimum CAPEX, thus long ranges
But you want low power
And despite large cells, you still want scalability on tiny spectrums, thusAnd despite large cells, you still want scalability on tiny spectrums, thus
very high capacity per MHz
However … devices are not disciplined for low consumption and low
complexity/cost …
It seems you need to put intelligence in the network and use
advanced techniques like Cognitive SDR !!!
Behind the technology : The rational
Main objective : Keep network cost as low
as possible
Most actors in M2M still think in a peer to peer way. But
the essential “market booting factor” is “having a low cost wide
area network, transparent to final customer”
cells as large as possible
Second objective : low cost / low
consumption modems
Keep it as simple as possible
But with as high capacity as possible
Optimize the resource. Thus please Be at
Nyquist criteria ! X bit per second = X Hz
bandwidth
You need high performance high selectivity
SDR cognitive able to handle a large number
of signals in parallel : That’s where you can
put your effort and money !
Simplify protocol, particularly for low volume
transactions
Focus on the low data volume market and
operate modems at low datarate to
drastically improve budget link. Cellular is
140/150 dB. Let’s go for 160 dB despite 20 dB less RF power
Network should not ask modems for long
disciplining processes. But it should be at
the service of modems to compensate for
put your effort and money !
Design the clever backend that fits with it, so
that it is seamless to final customer
the service of modems to compensate for
their imperfections, contributing to their low
cost
Develop ecosystem and applications
Summary of rational
Large cells but high capacity Try to be @ Nyquist for very low datarates
You must implement high selectivity's or high “logic channel” separation
Do not discipline your devices. Keep them simple without needs for accuracy.
Network will compensate static error, drifts and imperfections – Network “is at the
service” of devices !service” of devices !
But sophisticate your infrastructure to push service quality as high as possible with deep possibilities of
further upgrade
Particularly, design your nodes as “multi-instantiation” as possible
Optimize your budget links as far as possible
Do everything you can to migrate complexity from device to infrastructureDo everything you can to migrate complexity from device to infrastructure
All choices must be coherent within the complete system
Once again, bet on cognitive SDR + agile backhaul
Ultra Narrow Band
Approach
Network cost : Why Ultra Narrow Band ?
How to optimize your available spectrum ?
Conventional signals are stones (the protocol) containing a grain of sand (your information). You should rather fill directly with sand !
But Narrow Band techniques have been almost abandoned for more than 40 years. Why ?
Because the more you work narrowband, the more tuning is complex, the more stability issues are
of first importance… And thus the more expansive are your systems ! But SigFox succeeded to
achieve it at low cost…
But then, why not other techniques ?
Spread Spectrum is an other option and it helps get rid of stability issues
It is also a good technique for interference robustness.
In fact UNB and SS are dual technique regarding interferences
DSSS or OSSS often bring a certain degree of flexibility by essence
However, since you are able to solve the tuning issue at low cost, UNB might be superior on :
Simplicity of terminalsSimplicity of terminals
Fact that SS requires disciplining terminals for spreading code attribution
Better capacity : Since you are able to achieve UNB selectivity, the narrower you operate, the higher is capacity
Additionally, the narrower you operate, the lighter is protocol, going down to zero quickly
No frequency/channel management. Terminals are “free running”
Conclusion : if you solved the known UNB
issues, you will get better resource
optimization for much lower costs, less
protocol overhead, if any, seamless
deployment and post deployment, seamlessdeployment and post deployment, seamless
connections and lower power consumptions.
SDR is a way to achieve this
Are you sure selectivity/capacity is there ?
Yes, beyond rigorous scientific study, SigFox has developed a complete set of test equipments
allowing full network loading tests (with presence of interferers) on real hardware, before it can even
“just starts to occur” on the field.
Typically Up to 3 Million devices per day on a single BS for 3
transactions per device per day and only 8% spectrum loading
How did SigFox solved the UNB issues?
Do not care about terminal “imperfections”, like static or dynamic
stability, among others. Put effort on station’s SDR software that will
compensate for it !
Highly multisession thanks to time critical software coding techniques :
You cans handle thousands of simultaneous signals
High dynamic BS radio (120 dB) is needed for above purpose,
specially when installed at top of a large cell where electromagnetic
environment is “aggressive”.
Uplink is extremely simplified. Almost whatever commercial chip can
be used. Dynamic frequency instabilities are corrected in the BS.be used. Dynamic frequency instabilities are corrected in the BS.
Terminal is free to impose its frequency hopping.
Bidirectional terminal’s receivers do not need BS sophistication
because, once again, network compensates for their weaknesses. You
can operate UNB without stability concern.
Cognitive SDR
SDR in 2 words
Some history :
SDR concept appears in the 80’s (1984)
Labs like « Software Radio Proof-of-Concept laboratory » in US, or « German Aerospace Research
Establishment » or companies like Raytheon, Thomson, Rockwell start prototypes.
It is admitted Dr Joseph Mitola was the first in 1991 to introduce terms of « SDR », as well as
« cognitive »…Considered as the « pope » of SDR, he has for example worked on projects like SPEAKeasy II
for US departments
First 70 Msamp/s digital IF cellular base station introduced on the market around 2000
Since then, a good example of SDR devices : Our cell phones…Since then, a good example of SDR devices : Our cell phones…
You want to push
channel filtering and
« specialization » as far
as possible
SDR, or the quest of « saint – Graal »
And you want to get rid
of RF…
A practical SDR radio… in 2 words
But for now … Need some compromize
A Cognitive multi-instantiation SDR
A common RF and A/D for multiple software instantiations,
each of them dynamically “discovering”, identifying and
demodulating a specific UNB signal among a plurality of
others One RF = N receivers
Same principle for transmission : Compute a complex
multi-signal (multi-carrier), sent to a unique D/A & RF
A Cognitive multi-instantiation SDR
An example of a multi-branch demodulator Software implementation
Backend : Or the
forgotten element
Do not neglect Network “backend”
Backend is the “brain” of your SDR infrastructure :
Provide end to end seamless connectivity to customer.
Data management, web services, billings
BS, site and network asset control, management and statistics
Additional potential features:
Geo-location.
Network registration and population management.
Roaming strategy.Roaming strategy.
Security and surveillance algorithm.
Coverage simulation tool
QoS alerts based on metadata
Possibilities of spectrum remote analysis. Leads to manual or automated spectrum and jamming
alerts.
Possibilities of improved performances through signal post processing on servers taking
advantage of collaborative property of the network.
Everything you can log brings value
GeolocationNetwork redundancy
Do not neglect Network “backend”
Example of integrated coverage simulation and deployment tool
Do not neglect Network “backend”
Example of remote spectrum control : Station of Toulouse Rangueuil
Do not neglect Network “backend”
Example of remote spectrum control : Station du Pic du Midi
Do not neglect Network “backend”
Example of remote spectrum control : A station in San-Fransisco bay (FCC mode)
Consequences on
modems, chips and SoC
Your car’s wireless key becomes SIGFOX !
From the classical approach where the network disciplines to a novel
approach where it compensates for device’s TX and RX imperfections
leads to basic, thus low cost, devices.
No need for high RF power no need for external PA’sNo need for high RF power no need for external PA’s
No need for high frequency accuracy on device
No need for signal processing on device
No need for high quality, low EVM TX chains on deviceNo need for high quality, low EVM TX chains on device
For simple applications, not necessitating powerful µC, a pure single
chip solution is possible
COMPANY NAME
PRODUCT
NAME DESCRIPTION
CC112x High performance single chip radio transceiver designed for low-power and low-voltage operation in
Almost every available chip can run SIGFOX !
CC112x
family
High performance single chip radio transceiver designed for low-power and low-voltage operation in
cost-effective wireless systems
SI446X
High-performance, low-current transceivers covering the sub-GHz frequency bands from 119 to
1050 MHz
AX
8052F143
Transceiver integrating the micro-controller into the same component,
dedicated to high volume projects where every cents matters
ATA 8520
System-on-Chip integrating MCU, hardware security and SIGFOX
wireless connectivity solutions into one package
Ultimate optimization : “FOXY” from CEA-LETI
High Integration thanks to Digital-Oriented Architecture
Small Single-Chip made possible by thin technology CMOS nodes
Demonstrated in 65nm by CEA-Léti, and possible easy scalingDemonstrated in 65nm by CEA-Léti, and possible easy scaling
Ultra-Narrow Band / High Sensitivity receiver @ Low-Power
Consumption : -138 dBm for 7mA under 1.2V
Very Low-Power consumption Transmitter benefiting from the native
Low Data Rate : +3 dBm for 5mA/1.2VLow Data Rate : +3 dBm for 5mA/1.2V
Possibility of using standard accuracy crystal : The network compensate
for it, in TX as well as in RX
Thank you

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R&s 10 juin 2015 sigfox christophe

  • 1. The technical challenges of future IoT networks and their consequences on modem’s and SoC’s design Christophe Fourtet
  • 2. SIGFOX in few words M2M & IoT : The “arena” – Challenges, paradoxes and “rationals” The Ultra Narrow Band Approach Cognitive SDR Backend : The forgotten essential element Consequences on modems, chips and SoC Q&A’s
  • 3. SIGFOX in few wordsInitially founded in 2008 with a technical charter oriented toward multi-signal cognitive SDR for “tiny signals” SDR and UNB fundamental radio blocks designed between 2008 and 2010 End 2010 : Association with Ludovic Le Moan, founder of Anywhere Technology (now Sierra) and co-founder of ScoopIT… Re-foundation of SIGFOX with a new charter : IoT operatorcharter : IoT operator The “New SIGFOX” starts : Orientation to M2M/IoT network technology and operator business model 2011 – 2012 : first large subscription contracts signed. Development of partner eco-system - SIGFOX moves to TIC-Valley 2013 : France fully covered. Netherland and Spain to come. 2014 : Netherland, Spain covered. Large contracts signed. Anne Lauvergeon joins SIGFOX as chairman of the board 2015 : 100 collaborators – Historic raising of 120 M - UK, Portugal, US, Asia, Germany and Italy are engaged.… Stay tuned !
  • 4. SIGFOX in few words Christophe Fourtet - CSO Ludovic Le Moan - CEO Anne Lauvergeon – Chairman of the board
  • 5. Startup…In a garage ! A classic ?
  • 6. Flexible RF Signal processing Power supply Connectivity Base station HTTPS Web browser Client SIGFOX network Back-end servers Ethernet, 3G or custom IP links Ethernet, 3G Front-end servers Crawling Flexible RF Signal processing Power supply Connectivity Base station Ethernet, 3G or custom IP links Client HTTPS Web browser
  • 7. A global plan : 60+ countries in 5 years Mid 2015 status UmeåUmeå • 1m km² coverage in Europe while aggressive global rollout ambitions USAUSA FRANCEFRANCE SPAINSPAIN UKUK NLNL PTPT Menlo ParkMenlo Park KoreaKorea MumbaiMumbai WarsawWarsaw MunichMunich MilanMilan DublinDublin GrazGraz Montgomery county Montgomery county AntwerpAntwerp Country launched On-going country deployment Pilot cities SingaporeSingapore MumbaiMumbai SantiagoSantiago BogotaBogota
  • 9. The Ecosystem More than 60 SIGFOX Ready™ solutions today
  • 10. SIGFOX today • SIGFOX BACKED BY MOBILE NETWORK OPERATORS, FINANCIAL & INDUSTRY LEADERS • 30 patents $150$150 M• 10 nationalities • France, USA, Spain far M raised so far 10
  • 11. M2M / IoT : The “Arena” – Challenges, paradoxes and “rationals”
  • 12. Quick panorama of today’s M2M/IoT Cellular : GPRS, 3G … Optimized 4G in Pro’s Large networks exist Con’s Cost.Consumption! (terminals must be… Optimized 4G in few years PMR : Mobitex, Tetra, specific ISM : Proprietary, mesh, ZigBee… exist Large networks exist. Reliable Low cost (terminals must be disciplined) High cost. Dedicated to Pro No clear standard. Often too simple.mesh, ZigBee… Satellite Low cost Large coverage Often too simple. Not scalable Relatively high cost. Not flexible
  • 13. Key facts about available spectrum Cellular spectrum is, and will stay very expansive Private spectrum as well ISM spectrum is not large and drastically limited and constrainedISM spectrum is not large and drastically limited and constrained (power, duty cycle…) TV White space are not global, if not just a “Mirage” Potential future specific allocations for M2M will take a long time, as ever (10 years ?)ever (10 years ?) You should better get organized for a maximum optimization !!!
  • 14. Key goals for tomorrow’s M2M / IoT Low cost … And even ultralow cost Ultra low current drain Consequence of above : Keep devices as “low talker” or “listener” asConsequence of above : Keep devices as “low talker” or “listener” as possible, and avoid to “discipline” them through complex protocol… However : Need for high scalability … Ten’s of billion of objects Keep CAPEX and thus infrastructure as low cost as possible at startup Plan to standardize ! Many things to be reinvented compared to classical networks !
  • 15. The paradoxes You need large cells for minimum CAPEX, thus long ranges But you want low power And despite large cells, you still want scalability on tiny spectrums, thusAnd despite large cells, you still want scalability on tiny spectrums, thus very high capacity per MHz However … devices are not disciplined for low consumption and low complexity/cost … It seems you need to put intelligence in the network and use advanced techniques like Cognitive SDR !!!
  • 16. Behind the technology : The rational Main objective : Keep network cost as low as possible Most actors in M2M still think in a peer to peer way. But the essential “market booting factor” is “having a low cost wide area network, transparent to final customer” cells as large as possible Second objective : low cost / low consumption modems Keep it as simple as possible But with as high capacity as possible Optimize the resource. Thus please Be at Nyquist criteria ! X bit per second = X Hz bandwidth You need high performance high selectivity SDR cognitive able to handle a large number of signals in parallel : That’s where you can put your effort and money ! Simplify protocol, particularly for low volume transactions Focus on the low data volume market and operate modems at low datarate to drastically improve budget link. Cellular is 140/150 dB. Let’s go for 160 dB despite 20 dB less RF power Network should not ask modems for long disciplining processes. But it should be at the service of modems to compensate for put your effort and money ! Design the clever backend that fits with it, so that it is seamless to final customer the service of modems to compensate for their imperfections, contributing to their low cost Develop ecosystem and applications
  • 17. Summary of rational Large cells but high capacity Try to be @ Nyquist for very low datarates You must implement high selectivity's or high “logic channel” separation Do not discipline your devices. Keep them simple without needs for accuracy. Network will compensate static error, drifts and imperfections – Network “is at the service” of devices !service” of devices ! But sophisticate your infrastructure to push service quality as high as possible with deep possibilities of further upgrade Particularly, design your nodes as “multi-instantiation” as possible Optimize your budget links as far as possible Do everything you can to migrate complexity from device to infrastructureDo everything you can to migrate complexity from device to infrastructure All choices must be coherent within the complete system Once again, bet on cognitive SDR + agile backhaul
  • 19. Network cost : Why Ultra Narrow Band ? How to optimize your available spectrum ? Conventional signals are stones (the protocol) containing a grain of sand (your information). You should rather fill directly with sand ! But Narrow Band techniques have been almost abandoned for more than 40 years. Why ? Because the more you work narrowband, the more tuning is complex, the more stability issues are of first importance… And thus the more expansive are your systems ! But SigFox succeeded to achieve it at low cost…
  • 20. But then, why not other techniques ? Spread Spectrum is an other option and it helps get rid of stability issues It is also a good technique for interference robustness. In fact UNB and SS are dual technique regarding interferences DSSS or OSSS often bring a certain degree of flexibility by essence However, since you are able to solve the tuning issue at low cost, UNB might be superior on : Simplicity of terminalsSimplicity of terminals Fact that SS requires disciplining terminals for spreading code attribution Better capacity : Since you are able to achieve UNB selectivity, the narrower you operate, the higher is capacity Additionally, the narrower you operate, the lighter is protocol, going down to zero quickly No frequency/channel management. Terminals are “free running” Conclusion : if you solved the known UNB issues, you will get better resource optimization for much lower costs, less protocol overhead, if any, seamless deployment and post deployment, seamlessdeployment and post deployment, seamless connections and lower power consumptions. SDR is a way to achieve this
  • 21. Are you sure selectivity/capacity is there ? Yes, beyond rigorous scientific study, SigFox has developed a complete set of test equipments allowing full network loading tests (with presence of interferers) on real hardware, before it can even “just starts to occur” on the field. Typically Up to 3 Million devices per day on a single BS for 3 transactions per device per day and only 8% spectrum loading
  • 22. How did SigFox solved the UNB issues? Do not care about terminal “imperfections”, like static or dynamic stability, among others. Put effort on station’s SDR software that will compensate for it ! Highly multisession thanks to time critical software coding techniques : You cans handle thousands of simultaneous signals High dynamic BS radio (120 dB) is needed for above purpose, specially when installed at top of a large cell where electromagnetic environment is “aggressive”. Uplink is extremely simplified. Almost whatever commercial chip can be used. Dynamic frequency instabilities are corrected in the BS.be used. Dynamic frequency instabilities are corrected in the BS. Terminal is free to impose its frequency hopping. Bidirectional terminal’s receivers do not need BS sophistication because, once again, network compensates for their weaknesses. You can operate UNB without stability concern.
  • 24. SDR in 2 words Some history : SDR concept appears in the 80’s (1984) Labs like « Software Radio Proof-of-Concept laboratory » in US, or « German Aerospace Research Establishment » or companies like Raytheon, Thomson, Rockwell start prototypes. It is admitted Dr Joseph Mitola was the first in 1991 to introduce terms of « SDR », as well as « cognitive »…Considered as the « pope » of SDR, he has for example worked on projects like SPEAKeasy II for US departments First 70 Msamp/s digital IF cellular base station introduced on the market around 2000 Since then, a good example of SDR devices : Our cell phones…Since then, a good example of SDR devices : Our cell phones… You want to push channel filtering and « specialization » as far as possible SDR, or the quest of « saint – Graal » And you want to get rid of RF…
  • 25. A practical SDR radio… in 2 words But for now … Need some compromize
  • 26. A Cognitive multi-instantiation SDR A common RF and A/D for multiple software instantiations, each of them dynamically “discovering”, identifying and demodulating a specific UNB signal among a plurality of others One RF = N receivers Same principle for transmission : Compute a complex multi-signal (multi-carrier), sent to a unique D/A & RF
  • 27. A Cognitive multi-instantiation SDR An example of a multi-branch demodulator Software implementation
  • 28. Backend : Or the forgotten element
  • 29. Do not neglect Network “backend” Backend is the “brain” of your SDR infrastructure : Provide end to end seamless connectivity to customer. Data management, web services, billings BS, site and network asset control, management and statistics Additional potential features: Geo-location. Network registration and population management. Roaming strategy.Roaming strategy. Security and surveillance algorithm. Coverage simulation tool QoS alerts based on metadata Possibilities of spectrum remote analysis. Leads to manual or automated spectrum and jamming alerts. Possibilities of improved performances through signal post processing on servers taking advantage of collaborative property of the network. Everything you can log brings value GeolocationNetwork redundancy
  • 30. Do not neglect Network “backend” Example of integrated coverage simulation and deployment tool
  • 31. Do not neglect Network “backend” Example of remote spectrum control : Station of Toulouse Rangueuil
  • 32. Do not neglect Network “backend” Example of remote spectrum control : Station du Pic du Midi
  • 33. Do not neglect Network “backend” Example of remote spectrum control : A station in San-Fransisco bay (FCC mode)
  • 35. Your car’s wireless key becomes SIGFOX ! From the classical approach where the network disciplines to a novel approach where it compensates for device’s TX and RX imperfections leads to basic, thus low cost, devices. No need for high RF power no need for external PA’sNo need for high RF power no need for external PA’s No need for high frequency accuracy on device No need for signal processing on device No need for high quality, low EVM TX chains on deviceNo need for high quality, low EVM TX chains on device For simple applications, not necessitating powerful µC, a pure single chip solution is possible
  • 36. COMPANY NAME PRODUCT NAME DESCRIPTION CC112x High performance single chip radio transceiver designed for low-power and low-voltage operation in Almost every available chip can run SIGFOX ! CC112x family High performance single chip radio transceiver designed for low-power and low-voltage operation in cost-effective wireless systems SI446X High-performance, low-current transceivers covering the sub-GHz frequency bands from 119 to 1050 MHz AX 8052F143 Transceiver integrating the micro-controller into the same component, dedicated to high volume projects where every cents matters ATA 8520 System-on-Chip integrating MCU, hardware security and SIGFOX wireless connectivity solutions into one package
  • 37. Ultimate optimization : “FOXY” from CEA-LETI High Integration thanks to Digital-Oriented Architecture Small Single-Chip made possible by thin technology CMOS nodes Demonstrated in 65nm by CEA-Léti, and possible easy scalingDemonstrated in 65nm by CEA-Léti, and possible easy scaling Ultra-Narrow Band / High Sensitivity receiver @ Low-Power Consumption : -138 dBm for 7mA under 1.2V Very Low-Power consumption Transmitter benefiting from the native Low Data Rate : +3 dBm for 5mA/1.2VLow Data Rate : +3 dBm for 5mA/1.2V Possibility of using standard accuracy crystal : The network compensate for it, in TX as well as in RX