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Talking with Things: What's Hot in Low-Power Long-Range IoT Connectivity


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Had an honor to share about IoT on E27's Echelon Malaysia 2017, Penang. Talking about Low Power Wide Area Network, focusing on LoRa/LoRaWAN.

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Talking with Things: What's Hot in Low-Power Long-Range IoT Connectivity

  1. 1. Talking with Things ECHELON MALAYSIA - 2017, PENANG, APR 13 What's Hot in Low- Power Long-Range IoT Connectivity
  2. 2. Disclaimer English is not my mother tongue. bear with me
  3. 3. What’s the heck an Indonesian doing here in Penang :) ? Well… I might have some stories/experiences to share with you
  4. 4. Internet of Things Connectivity
  5. 5. First coined in 2009 by Kevin Ashton, RFID pioneer and cofounder of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Internet of Things
  6. 6. “Network of physical objects with embedded electronics, software, connectivity, and people to enable connectivity to exchange data, for intelligent applications and services„ Internet of Things
  7. 7. Things Connectivity People & Processes Data Data Internet of Things
  8. 8. A bit of story in 2003 around IoT connectivity
  9. 9. My final year project in 2003 was kind of IoT Design and Implementation of Home Lighting Control System and Home Monitoring System using Mobile Phone over Internet
  10. 10. Circa 2003, original archive Lamps Web Cam Modem for SMS & GPRS Home Server* GPRS GPRS My final project Architecture “The Thing” *Obviously it’s not based on single-board computer (SBC). SBC is non-existent commercially back then
  11. 11. GPRS 2.5G, 40 - 80 kbps in theory Mobile app Home Server app Achieved 12 secs/frame NOT 12 frame/secs (fps) :) My final project Video streaming feature Circa 2003, original archive J2ME app, on Nokia 3650 J2SE-based
  12. 12. That’s what I had in 2003 for wide area IoT connectivity
  13. 13. CONNECTIVITY is one of the biggest challenges to creating a true IoT …yet, it always fascinates me!
  14. 14. Fast forward to now
  15. 15. oh hi… Before continuing…
  16. 16. Andri Yadi | a at dycode dot com |
  17. 17. makestro.comCEO ambassador
  18. 18. 150+ Speakings 30+ talks about IoT for the past 2 years
  19. 19. Proudly coder for 
 19 years ASM, QBasic, Pascal, c, C++, Java, PHP, Bash, C#, Visual Basic, HTML, JavaScript, Python, Objective-C, Swift .NET, Qt/QML, Java ME/EE/SE, Android SDK, iOS SDK, Node.js ARM MBED, ESP8266, ESP-IDF, Arduino
  20. 20. Cellular IoT (CIoT) connectivity we NOW have Fast, efficient 
 Up to 10 Mbps for 4G LTE Ubiquitous coverage Reliable & secure Not designed for IoT in mind High power consumption Relatively expensive: modules, data plan Provisioning, manageability Advantages Considerations
  21. 21. Cellular IoT (CIoT) connectivity we WILL have EC-GSM-IoT LTE-M / eMTC NB-IoT Low data throughput Low power Low device & deployment cost Extended coverage Technologies Common Traits
  22. 22. 3 Evolution of IoT Connectivity in 3GPP/GSMA 5 MHz200 kHz 1.4 MHz 5/10/15/20 MHz Other influences GSM LTE Cat-1+ Delay Tolerant Access Cat-0 Cat-M1 Cat-NB1EC-GSM UMTS GSM is the original wide-area M2M wireless connectivity technology. EC-GSM enhances it to keep it competitive. UMTS did not see any significant push towards a low-power variant. LTE-M (Cat-M1) is a concession to the low-power/low-throughput device within mainstream LTE. NB-IoT (Cat-NB1), a new RAN technology, is the official LPWAN contestant from the 3GPP/GSMA stable Evolution of IoT Connectivity in 3GPP/GSMA
  23. 23. LPWA Competing technologies
  24. 24. Communication Technologies - Overview Mbps Kbps bps 10 m 100 m 1 km 10 km Baud rate Range Wi-Fi / BT Short Range LPWAN ST Confidential Cellular -M -NB-IOT 5G 850/1900 MHz 900/1800 MHz Sub-GHz 2.4 GHz WIFI/BT Short Range LPWAN Cellular IoT Connectivity: Range vs Speed
  25. 25. tend to be less complex than mesh networks as the endpoints can be connected directly to a gateway or base station, rather than relying on a relay system to transmit messages. cellular technologies and WiFi tend to offer high throughput rates, while new low power wide area (LPWA) technologies and Bluetooth are low energy technologies (see graphic). Low power wide area options Proprietary LPWA technologies in Cellular Range Battery Life LONG SHORT LONG Local network (WiFi, ZigBee, Z-Wave) Personal network (Bluetooth) Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN: Sigfox, LoRa, Dash7) Source: Alexander Vanwynsberghe, Blog article 'Long-range radios will change how the Internet of Things communicates' Source: Alexander Vanwynsberghe, Blog article 'Long-range radios will change how the Internet of Things communicates' IoT Connectivity: Range vs Power
  26. 26. What is LPWA Low Power, Wide Area Networks Low data throughput = High sensitivity = Long range Relatively low cost Multiple Access = One-to-Many Architecture Using licensed or unlicensed spectrum
  27. 27. LPWA: Typicals
  28. 28. License-free Spectrum EC- -m Licensed Spectrum LPWA: Technologies
  29. 29. LPWAN - ComparisonsLPWA: Comparison
  30. 30. Disclaimer Obviously, I can not go deep into each technologies 30 minutes won’t be enough
  31. 31. Cost Modules, deployment, operational cost Usage Model / Licensing SIGFOX – Required to utilize their public network 
 LoRa – Proprietary physical layer but open MAC Regional Regulatory Allowed frequency for ISM band
 In Europe, duty-cycle is 1% for end-devices Upstream/Downstream SIGFOX – nearly entirely upstream 
 LoRaWAN – has 3 classes supporting different balances of upstream & downstream Hardware & Network Availability Is it available NOW? LPWA: Selection Factors
  32. 32. LoRa? For that… we’ll focus on…
  33. 33. Not this woman :)
  34. 34. Wireless modulation technology Physical (PHY) layer for long range communications Operates in the license-free ISM bands all around the world • 433, 868, 915 Mhz • Regulated (power, duty-cycle, bandwidth) E.g: EU: 0.1% or 1% per sub-band duty-cycle limitation (per hour) Sensitivity: -142 dBm Link budget (EU): 156 dB What is LoRa
  35. 35. ISM Regulation ISM worldwide regulation 7 Output Power vs Duty Cycle Countries Frequency band review Max. output power EU 868 MHz 14 dBm USA 915 MHz 20 dBm Korea 900 MHz 14 dBm Japan 920 MHz Malaysia 862 to 875 MHz 20 dBm Philippines 868 MHz Vietnam 920 to 925 MHz India 865 to 867 MHz Singapore 922 MHz Thailand 920 to 925 MHz Indonesia 922 MHz ANZ 915 to 928 MHz Taiwan 920 to 925 MHz China 470 to 510 MHz 17 dBm 919 to 923MHz
  36. 36. Communications protocol & architecture utilizing the LoRa physical layer Data rates are from 300bps to 5.5kbps 
 Has 2 high-speed channels at 11kbps and 50kbps (using FSK modulation) It supports • secure bi-directional communication, • mobility What is LoRaWAN
  37. 37. LoRa/LoRaWAN Architecture
  38. 38. ASSET TRACKING A real-world use case, that we did…
  39. 39. (Planned) thousand of assets to track Deployed in country-side: no cellular coverage, hard to reach once deployed Battery should last at least 3 years Trigger alert if asset is in-move and track its movement Requirement
  40. 40. Low power MCU: Microchip/Atmel ATSAMD21 Sufficient clock, flash, RAM, peripherals
 Interrupt: RTC, external -> useful for wake-up Brain Sensor IMU sensor: gyroscope, accelerometer. 
 Will wake up MCU upon significant movement Obviously, need GPS module to track location Battery Lithium-thionyl chloride cells (Li-SoCl2) to reduce self-discharging rate 19Ah enough for 3+ years Solution: Hardware-side
  41. 41. Most deployment areas are not covered by any cellular services Cellular Wi-Fi Nearby “civilization” is 5 km away. Not having clean LoS to use directional antenna Power consumption consideration LPWA Can be an option, but which one? Should be: Private network
 Easy and low-cost enough to implement NOW Options: Connectivity
  42. 42. 3 - 5km LoRaWAN
 Gateway Network
 Server Application
 Server Cellular (3G/4G) Backend Tracker Node Solution: Architecture Makestro Cloud On-site
  43. 43. System only wake up upon: timer interrupt and external interrupt (significant motion & displacement) During sleeping:
 Turn off unneeded MCU peripherals
 Turn off/make sleep GPS and radio
 Keep IMU sensor alive with the lowest update frequency Only transmit data:
 By timer (depends on OTA configuration)
 Upon alert/interrupt Circuit design optimisation: reduce components, pull-ups, etc Low power technique
  44. 44. Tracker Node GPS Module Backup/ RTC Power GPS Antenna LoRa Antenna
  45. 45. Tracker Node ATMEL SAMD21 IMU Sensor LoRa 
 Module Battery Sensor
  46. 46. Get One at:
  47. 47. LoRaWAN Gateway LoRaWAN Node Portable: battery -powered, GPS for accurate timing
  48. 48. CLOSING
  49. 49. LPWA is NOW!
  50. 50. (arguably) a more accessible option, NOW!
  51. 51. How to start?
  52. 52. Cytron’s Arduino & Shields: GPS, LoRa, LiPo battery Use development board + modules!
  53. 53. Use development board + modules! DycodeX’s ESPectro + LoRa + Alora Kit
  54. 54. COMING SOON!
  55. 55. SIM868
 GPRS + GPS Ultimate IoT connectivity board! ESP32 MCU
 WIFi + Bluetooth SIM5360
 3G + GPS Options Raspberry Pi-compatible pinout Compatible with many Raspberry Pi hats
  56. 56. Ultimate IoT connectivity board! LoRa/LoRaWAN Module NFC
  57. 57. Be a maker!
  58. 58. A movement to “democratize” knowledge, hardware kit, and software to help makers to start making in hardware. Disclosure: it’s initiated and supported by DycodeX, but it’s Community!
  60. 60. Learning Shop Community Software Projects, tutorials, videos, news,
 professional trainings Hardware marketplace: kits, devboards, maker tools IoT Cloud infrastructure, software 
 libraries, sample code Offline meetups, seminars, training/hands-on, challenges
  61. 61. makestroid makestroid makestroid
  62. 62. How can we help? for your next IoT endeavour
  63. 63. Andri
 CEO Helmi
 CMO Get in Touch
  64. 64. | IoT & maker movement enabler