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Tiit Tammaru
What leads to perfect
segregation?
Dynamic Segregation Model by
Thomas C Schelling (1969)
Mixed population Preference-based
sorting
Segregated population
Segregation in
different life
domains is
related
EducationWork Education
Residence
Other
Group level segregation occurs on multiple
reasons as a result of individual level sorting
Skills Homophily Discrimination
Segregation between the
Top and Bottom SES groups
Inequality trends reversed in the 1980s
Top 10% income share, 1915–2015
Source: Global Inequality Report 2018
Segregation between the
Top and Bottom SES groups
0
10
20
30
40
50 Riga
Oslo
Prague
Vilnius
Helsinki
Tallinn
Budapest
Stockholm
Athens
Madrid
Amsterdam
London
Milan
IndexofDissimilarity
2001
Medium
Low
High
Segregation between the
Top and Bottom SES groups
0
10
20
30
40
50
Riga
Oslo
Prague
Vilnius
Helsinki
Tallinn
Budapest
Stockholm
Athens
Madrid
Amsterdam
London
Milan
IndexofDissimilarity
2001 2011
Medium
Low
High
Key drivers of inequality in Europe:
Globalisation and Technology
Less skills More skills
Less skills More skills
Global hunt
for
Talent
Key drivers of inequality in Europe:
Globalisation and Technology
Less skills More skills
Global
competition
Global hunt
for
Talent
Key drivers of inequality in Europe:
Globalisation and Technology
Top SES
neighbourhoods
Middle SES
neighbourhoods
Bottom SES
neighbourhoods
Low socioecnomic inequality
Low socioeconomic segregation
Top SES
neighbourhoods
Middle SES
neighbourhoods
Bottom SES
neighbourhoods
High socioeconomic inequality
High socioeconomic segregation
Socio-spatialmobility
Low income inequality: Low income inequality:
Residence
Education
Work
Vicious circle of segregation:
Factors leading to perfect
segregation:
 High level of income inequality
 Inter-generational transmission of poverty
 High immigration focussing on labour needs
 Low level of public interventions
 Existence of homogenous neighbourhoods
in the city
What about Estonia?:
 Income inequality has increased significantly
 Share of ethnic minorities is high
 Kids are segregated from age three to
different educational systems
 School segregation transmits to the labour
market
 Differences on the labour market are
transmitting to the housing market
Thank you!
tiit.tammaru@ut.ee:

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Prof. Tiit Tammaru: What leads to perfect segregation?

  • 1. Tiit Tammaru What leads to perfect segregation?
  • 2. Dynamic Segregation Model by Thomas C Schelling (1969) Mixed population Preference-based sorting Segregated population
  • 3. Segregation in different life domains is related EducationWork Education Residence
  • 4. Other Group level segregation occurs on multiple reasons as a result of individual level sorting Skills Homophily Discrimination
  • 5. Segregation between the Top and Bottom SES groups Inequality trends reversed in the 1980s Top 10% income share, 1915–2015 Source: Global Inequality Report 2018
  • 6. Segregation between the Top and Bottom SES groups 0 10 20 30 40 50 Riga Oslo Prague Vilnius Helsinki Tallinn Budapest Stockholm Athens Madrid Amsterdam London Milan IndexofDissimilarity 2001 Medium Low High
  • 7. Segregation between the Top and Bottom SES groups 0 10 20 30 40 50 Riga Oslo Prague Vilnius Helsinki Tallinn Budapest Stockholm Athens Madrid Amsterdam London Milan IndexofDissimilarity 2001 2011 Medium Low High
  • 8. Key drivers of inequality in Europe: Globalisation and Technology Less skills More skills
  • 9. Less skills More skills Global hunt for Talent Key drivers of inequality in Europe: Globalisation and Technology
  • 10. Less skills More skills Global competition Global hunt for Talent Key drivers of inequality in Europe: Globalisation and Technology
  • 11. Top SES neighbourhoods Middle SES neighbourhoods Bottom SES neighbourhoods Low socioecnomic inequality Low socioeconomic segregation Top SES neighbourhoods Middle SES neighbourhoods Bottom SES neighbourhoods High socioeconomic inequality High socioeconomic segregation Socio-spatialmobility Low income inequality: Low income inequality:
  • 13. Factors leading to perfect segregation:  High level of income inequality  Inter-generational transmission of poverty  High immigration focussing on labour needs  Low level of public interventions  Existence of homogenous neighbourhoods in the city
  • 14. What about Estonia?:  Income inequality has increased significantly  Share of ethnic minorities is high  Kids are segregated from age three to different educational systems  School segregation transmits to the labour market  Differences on the labour market are transmitting to the housing market