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Professor Dr. David Laitin: Multidimensional Measure of Immigrant Integration

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International conference "My home, our home: what unites us in a multicultural community" 15th and 16th November in Tallinn, Estonia. Conference webpage: www.integrationconference.com

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Professor Dr. David Laitin: Multidimensional Measure of Immigrant Integration

  1. 1. Multidimensional Measure of Immigrant Integration The IPL-12 and IPL-24, PNAS 2018 Niklas Harder Lucila Figueroa Rachel Gillum Jens Hainmueller Dominik Hangartner David D. Laitin Duncan Lawrence Immigration Policy Lab, Stanford University, ETH Zurich November 2018
  2. 2. Introduction Measure Data Main Results The Immigration Policy Lab Measure of Immigrant Integration 2 / 17
  3. 3. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Goal To propose a standard measure of integration, defined as the degree to which immigrants have the knowledge and the capacity to achieve success in their host society. Measure of Immigrant Integration 3 / 17
  4. 4. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Why did we lack a standard measure? Integration is an essentially contested concept Many country specific measures Field dominated by qualitative researchers Measure of Immigrant Integration 4 / 17
  5. 5. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Criteria for a useful measure: Construct validity Clear directionality No presumption that the cultural repertoires of the dominant group(s) in the host society are a model for integration more Can be successfully employed across societies and over time Can be administered through different media (phone; internet; face-to-face survey) Can be answered by all subjects (i.e. no missing data) Face validity Measure of Immigrant Integration 5 / 17
  6. 6. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Research process Review of more than 50 surveys on integration more Selecting more than 200 questions with the potential to differentiate between high and low integration Trying to focus on questions that are also relevant in other research fields (i.e. political efficacy, social capital) Searching for a limited number of dimensions where there are expectations of differential rates of integration progress. Measure of Immigrant Integration 6 / 17
  7. 7. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Six Dimensions of Integration Success Navigational Political Linguistic Psychological Social Economic Measure of Immigrant Integration 7 / 17
  8. 8. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Six Dimensions of Integration Success Dimension IPL-12 IPL-24 Psychological Connection to host country Q Future plans Q Outsider Q Isolation Q Economic Household income Q Financial security Q Employment status Q Employment Satisfaction Q Political Subjective knowledge Q Knowledge quiz Q Political discussions Q Political action Q Social Dinners with locals Q Membership in organizations Q Social contacts Q Favors for locals Q Linguistic Reading level Q Writing level Q Speaking level Q Listening Q Navigational See doctor Q Legal help Q Find jobs Q Quiz Q Measure of Immigrant Integration 8 / 17
  9. 9. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Data Collection Preliminary data collection 1025 immigrants through SSI 187 immigrants through the REP program 1424 immigrants and natives through Qualtrics 128 refugees in Switzerland 273 ESL students in New York Data collection with final instrument 406 high income immigrants through YouGov d 238 immigrants in Germany through an online panel d 111 low income immigrants eligible for naturalization in New York d 109 ESL students through ALLIES d Ongoing data collection Representative refugee sample in France Measure of Immigrant Integration 9 / 17
  10. 10. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Surveys strategy Early samples to cull down our questions starting with around 60 with the goal of 12 Administer using different samples and medium of delivery to adjust ease of administration Matrices don’t work for those not adept on computers Acquiescence bias is problematic Knowledge of household income is not common in some populations In final pre-tests, assure maximum difference in predicted integration success through an approach "Contrasted Groups" to assure Construct Validity. Measure of Immigrant Integration 10 / 17
  11. 11. Introduction Measure Data Main Results IPL-12 and 24 in different surveys 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 YouGov Germany NewYork Allies Samples IPL−12Score IPL−12 IPL−24 Measure of Immigrant Integration 11 / 17
  12. 12. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Correlations q q q q q q q Naturalized Permanent Resident Residency (+1SD; 19y) Shared Language Education (+1SD; 5y) Female Age (+1SD; 18y) 0.000 0.025 0.050 0.075 0.100 Change in IPL−12 Integration Index Measure of Immigrant Integration 12 / 17
  13. 13. Introduction Measure Data Main Results IPL-12 and 24 over time in host country 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 0 20 40 60 80 Years in Country IPL−24Score Survey Germany NewYork YouGov Allies IPL−24 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 0 20 40 60 80 Years in Country IPL−12Score Survey Germany NewYork YouGov Allies IPL−12 Measure of Immigrant Integration 13 / 17
  14. 14. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Correlation between IPL-12 and 24 Pearson = 0.962 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 IPL−24 rescaled IPL−12rescaled survey Germany NewYork YouGov Allies Measure of Immigrant Integration 14 / 17
  15. 15. Introduction Measure Data Main Results The road ahead Seek "buy in" from state statistical bureaus and sociological researchers that would permit "cumulative knowledge". Initiate or ally with government agencies seeking to promote integration so that we can run RCT’s on their programs. Measure of Immigrant Integration 15 / 17
  16. 16. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Is this relevant for Estonia? No significant immigration since the restoration of statehood in 1991. But many of the Russian-speaking population have immigrant roots coming in the Soviet period. Question A: How well are they integrating, and where in society are the successes and where the failures? Question B: Are the predictions in Laitin (1998) that Estonia and Latvia would be integration successes (compared to the other former Soviet Union Republics) upheld? Measure of Immigrant Integration 16 / 17
  17. 17. Introduction Measure Data Main Results Thank you. Measure of Immigrant Integration 17 / 17
  18. 18. Assimilation and Integration Assimilation = / = Integration Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 1 / 38
  19. 19. List of surveys and studies consulted Abrams, Ando and Hinke (1998) "Psychological Attachment to the Group". American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, "NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements". American National Election Studies. Bagnall (2015) "Global Identity in Multicultural and International Educational Context". Beversluis, Schoeller-Diaz, Anderson, Anderson, Slaughter, Patel (2016) "Developing and Validating the Refugee Integration Scale in Nairobi, Kenya". Bergami and Bagozzi (2000) "Self-categorization, affective commitment and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization". Brantmeier, Vanderplank, and Strube (2012) "What about me? Individual self-assessment by skill and level of language instruction". Brashears (2011) "Small networks and high isolation? A reexamination of American discussion networks". Brysbaert (2013) "LexTALE_FR a Fast, Free, and Efficient Test to Measure Language Proficiency in French". Caselli (2012) "Measuring the Integration of Immigrants: Critical Notes from an Italian Experience". Portes (2017) Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Delgado et al. (1999) "Self-Assessment of Linguistic Skills by Bilingual Hispanics". DIALANG Project. Ethnic Diversity Survey. European Quality of Life Surveys (EQLS). European Social Survey Round 8. European Union minorities and discrimination survey. European Working Conditions Surveys (EWCS). Gaillard and Tremblay (2016) "Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research". Gallup Poll. General Social Survey (GSS). Hagerty and Patusky (1995) "Developing a measure of sense of belonging". Huddelston, Niessen, and Dag Tjaden (2013) "Using EU Indicators of Immigrant Integration". Immigrant Citizens Survey (ICS). International Social Survey Programme’s (ISSP) National Identity Survey. Kuo and Margalit (2012) "Measuring Individual Identity: Experimental Evidence". Latino National Survey (LNS). LeBlanc and Painchaud (1985) "Self-Assessment as a Second Language Placement Instrument". Measure of Immigrant Integration 2 / 38
  20. 20. List of surveys and studies consulted Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English (LexTALE). Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (LSIA). Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Longitudinal Survey of the Integration of First-time Arrivals (ELIPA). Incorporating Data Quality Information in Mapping American Community Survey Data. Mays and Cochran (2001) "Mental Health Correlates of Perceiv. ed Discrimination Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States". National Asian American Survey (NAAS). National Immigrant Survey. National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. National UnDACAmented Research Project. New Immigrant Survey. New York City Department of Consumer Affairs Neighborhood Financial Services Study. Pew Muslim American Survey. Pew National Survey of Latinos. Prentice and Miller (1994) "Asymmetries in Attachments to Groups and to their Members: Distinguishing between Common-Identity and Common-Bond Groups". Ross (1998) "Self-assessment in second language testing: a meta-analysis and analysis of experiential factors". Russell, Peplau, and Cutrona (1980) "The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: concurrent and discriminant validity evidence.". Science of Generosity Survey 2010. Six Country Immigrant Integration Comparative Survey (SCIICS). Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey. Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Exam. UK Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities (FNSEM). Wilson (1987) Urban Poverty and Family Life Survey of Chicago. World Values Survey (WVS). Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 3 / 38
  21. 21. Household income What is your household’s total annual income (before tax and deductions) from all sources? If you don’t know the exact figure, please give an estimate. Your household includes everyone with whom you share an apartment or house and with whom you are also related by birth, marriage, partnership, or adoption. Answer options are deciles of the host country’s household income distribution. Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 4 / 38
  22. 22. Employment Which of these descriptions best applies to what you have been doing for the last four weeks? Please select only one. In paid work (employee, self-employed, working for your family business) In school Unemployed and actively looking for a job Unemployed and not actively looking for a job Permanently sick or disabled Retired In military service In community service Doing unpaid housework, looking after children or other persons Other (please specify) Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 5 / 38
  23. 23. Expenses Please indicate whether your household currently can or cannot afford to pay an unexpected, but necessary, expense of $ 500 Yes/No (1/100 of highest value) $ 1,000 Yes/No (1/50 of highest value) $ 10,000 Yes/No (1/5 of highest value) $ 50,000 Yes/No (median household income in host country rounded to the next 10,000) Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 6 / 38
  24. 24. Employment Satisfaction How satisfied are you with your current employment situation? Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 7 / 38
  25. 25. Dinner In the last 12 months, how often did you eat dinner with Americans who are not part of your family? Never Once a year Once a month Once a week Almost every day Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 8 / 38
  26. 26. Contacts Please think about the Americans in your address book or your phone contacts. With how many of them did you have a conversation – either by phone, messenger chat, or text exchange – in the last 4 weeks? 0 1 to 2 3 to 6 7 to 14 15 or more Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 9 / 38
  27. 27. Organizations I People sometimes participate in different kinds of groups or associations. For each group listed below, how often do you participate in a group activity? A group related to your job, like a union, business, or professional organization A group related to your religious beliefs, like a church, mosque, synagogue, or other religious organization A group related to your hobbies, like a sports, leisure, or cultural group A group related to a social or political cause, such as a voluntary organization or political party Another voluntary organization Choices per group: Participate at least once per week Participate at least once per month Participate at least once per year Belong but do not actively participate Do not belong nor participate Measure of Immigrant Integration 10 / 38
  28. 28. Organizations II If you think about members of the groups you are participating in, how many of them are Americans? A group related to your job, like a union, business, or professional organization A group related to your religious beliefs, like a church, mosque, synagogue, or other religious organization A group related to your hobbies, like a sports, leisure, or cultural group A group related to a social or political cause, such as a voluntary organization or political party Another voluntary organization Choices per group: All of them Most of them About half of them Few of them None of them I do not participate in such a group Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 11 / 38
  29. 29. Favors Many people help each other with everyday favors, such as getting rides, borrowing a little money, or babysitting. In the last 12 months, how often have you provided such favors to Americans? Never Once a year Once a month Once a week Almost every day Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 12 / 38
  30. 30. Connection How connected do you feel with the United States? I feel an extremely close connection. I feel a very close connection. I feel a moderately close connection. I feel a weak connection. I do not feel a connection at all. Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 13 / 38
  31. 31. Outsider How often do you feel like an outsider in the United States? Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 14 / 38
  32. 32. Future Thinking about your future, where do you want to live? I definitely want to live in the United States for the rest of my life. I probably want to live in the United States for the rest of my life. I am unsure if I want to remain in the United States or if I want to move to another country. I probably want to move to another country. I definitely want to move to another country. Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 15 / 38
  33. 33. Isolation How often do you feel isolated from American society? Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 16 / 38
  34. 34. Understanding How well do you understand the important political issues facing the United States? Very well Well Moderately well Not well Not well at all Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 17 / 38
  35. 35. Political Discussions In the last 12 months, how often did you typically discuss major political issues facing the United States with others? Never Once a year Once a month Once a week Almost every day Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 18 / 38
  36. 36. Political Knowledge I In politics people often talk about a left-right dimension. Can you please tell me if the following sentence is true or not? (Only one statement is shown) The Republican Party is considered to be left of the Democratic Party. True False The Republican Party is considered to be right of the Democratic Party. True False Measure of Immigrant Integration 19 / 38
  37. 37. Political Knowledge II To which of the following parties does the current President of the United States belong? Republican Party Democratic Party Other Don’t know Measure of Immigrant Integration 20 / 38
  38. 38. Political Knowledge III Which of the following parties occupies the largest number of seats in the Senate? Republican Party Democratic Party Other Don’t know Measure of Immigrant Integration 21 / 38
  39. 39. Political Knowledge IV What is the minimum age that a person must be to be eligible to vote in a general election in the United States? 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 There is no minimum age Don’t know Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 22 / 38
  40. 40. Political Action There are different ways of trying to improve things in the United States or help prevent things from going wrong. During the last 12 months, have you done any of the following? Have you... ...tried to convince somebody to change their political opinion? ...tried to influence others on how to vote? ...made a political statement in a public setting or online regarding politics in the United States? ...engaged in public or online discussions regarding politics in the United States? ...contacted a politician, or a government official? ...worked in a political party or action group? ...worn or displayed a political badge, sticker, or sign? ...signed a petition? ...taken part in a lawful public demonstration? ...boycotted certain products? ...collected signatures for a petition? Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 23 / 38
  41. 41. Read I can read and understand the main points in simple newspaper articles on familiar subjects. Very well Well Moderately well Not well Not well at all Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 24 / 38
  42. 42. Speak In a conversation, I can speak about familiar topics and express personal opinions. Very well Well Moderately well Not well Not well at all Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 25 / 38
  43. 43. Write I can write letters about my experiences, feelings, and about events. Very well Well Moderately well Not well Not well at all Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 26 / 38
  44. 44. Understand I can listen to and understand the main points in radio or TV programs about familiar subjects. Very well Well Moderately well Not well Not well at all Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 27 / 38
  45. 45. See a Doctor In this country, how difficult or easy would it be for you to see a doctor? Very difficult Somewhat difficult Neither difficult, nor easy Somewhat easy Very easy Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 28 / 38
  46. 46. Find Jobs In this country, how difficult or easy would it be for you to search for a job (find the proper listings)? Very difficult Somewhat difficult Neither difficult, nor easy Somewhat easy Very easy Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 29 / 38
  47. 47. Public transport In this country, how difficult or easy would it be for you to get help for legal problems? Very difficult Somewhat difficult Neither difficult, nor easy Somewhat easy Very easy Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 30 / 38
  48. 48. Navigational Quiz I How many drinks (a can or glass of beer, a glass of wine, or a shot of liquor), in about an hour time span, can an average person have before he or she is too intoxicated to legally drive a car? No alcoholic drinks at all. Most people can legally drive after one or two drinks. A maximum of five drinks, as long as the person can drive safely. There is no limit, as long as the person can drive safely. Don’t know Measure of Immigrant Integration 31 / 38
  49. 49. Navigational Quiz II If you were sending a letter in the United States, what is the correct way to write the address on the envelope? Please select one format from the list below. 101 2nd Street, Mary Smith, Albany, 12204, NY Mary Smith, 101 2nd Street, Albany, NY, 12204 Mary Smith, 2nd Street 101, Albany, NY, 12204 Mary Smith, 101 2nd Street, 12204, Albany, NY Don’t know Measure of Immigrant Integration 32 / 38
  50. 50. Navigational Quiz III How do most people in the United States typically pay their income taxes? Taxes are automatically deducted from paychecks, and no special filing is necessary. Employers have the responsibility to file forms for their workers. People can pay their taxes at a bank or a municipal office. Workers must file their tax returns with the federal government. Don’t know Measure of Immigrant Integration 33 / 38
  51. 51. Navigational Quiz IV In the United States, how should you seek medical help for a condition like chronic back pain? Call an ambulance Go to the emergency room See your general practitioner Ask a supervisor at work Don’t know Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 34 / 38
  52. 52. Sample Descriptives YouGov Mean SD N 406 Age 59.36 14.72 Residency in Host Country 34.73 20.21 Household Size 2.42 1.18 % Female 36 Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 35 / 38
  53. 53. Sample Descriptives Germany Mean SD N 238 Age 37.92 12.68 Residency in Host Country 20.3 11.03 Household Size 2.77 1.47 % Female 63.9 Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 36 / 38
  54. 54. Sample Descriptives New York Mean SD N 111 Age 37.58 13.12 Residency in Host Country 13.15 9.54 Household Size 4 1.68 % Female 75 Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 37 / 38
  55. 55. Sample Descriptives Allies Mean SD N 100 Age 40.37 14.32 Residency in Host Country 4.82 4.97 Household Size 3.61 1.88 % Female 85 Back Measure of Immigrant Integration 38 / 38

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