Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Prof. Dr. Keith Banting: A Home for Everyone?: Multiculturalism and Integration in Contemporary Democracies


Published on

Integration conference "My home, our home: what unites us in a multicultural community" on 15th and 16th November in Tallinn, Estonia. Conference webpage:

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Prof. Dr. Keith Banting: A Home for Everyone?: Multiculturalism and Integration in Contemporary Democracies

  1. 1. A Home for Everyone? Multiculturalism and Integration in Contemporary Democracies Keith Banting Queen’s University, Canada Presentation to the International Integration Conference 2018, Tallin, Estonia
  2. 2. Politics of diversity in the 20th Century • Nation-building: historic pattern • Promoting a common language, culture and identity • Suspicion of ethnic minorities • Multiculturalism: second half of 20th century • Acceptance of ethnic diversity as an enduring element of democratic societies • Recognition, accommodation, and support of difference • Three distinct policy models • Immigrant minorities, national minorities, indigenous minorities
  3. 3. Multiculturalism for national minorities Creating territorial autonomy MCP Index • Affirmation of ‘multination’ status • Territorial autonomy for minority nation: full set of institutions/services • Official language status of minority language • Guaranteed representation in central institutions • Public funding of minority language institutions • Acceptance of minority role on international bodies Canadian case • National minority (Quebec) and indigenous peoples (First Nations) • Acceptance of multiple national identities and cultures
  4. 4. Multiculturalism Policies for National Minorities 1980 Out of 6 2000 Out of 6 2010 Out of 6 Belgium 3.5 5.5 5.5 Canada 4.5 5 6 Finland 4 4.5 4.5 France 0 1 2 Greece 0 0 0 Italy 3.5 4 4.5 Japan 0 0 0 Spain 4 4.5 6 Switzerland 4 4 4 United Kingdom 1.5 5 6 United States 3.5 3.5 3.5
  5. 5. Multiculturalism for Immigrant Minorities Changing the terms of integration MCP Index • Affirmation of multiculturalism in the constitution or legislation • Multiculturalism school curricula • Mandate of broadcast media • Exemptions from dress codes • Allowing dual citizenship • Funding ethnic groups • Funding bilingual education • Affirmative action programs Canadian case • Integrationist conception of multiculturalism • Supplemented with strong integration programs
  6. 6. Politics of Diversity in the 21st Century
  7. 7. The strange “death” of multiculturalism
  8. 8. The Integrationist Turn Multicultural integration (Sweden) • Right to integrate: public support / voluntary participation • Compatible with stronger multiculturalism policies Mandatory integration (Denmark, Netherlands) • Duty to integrate: but little public support • Linked to residency/naturalization/access to social benefits • Deeper tension with multiculturalism policies • Canada: • An “uncontrolled” experiment: Canada / Quebec
  9. 9. Outcomes Multicultural integration • Positive relationship with civic and political integration (Bloemraad) • Multiculturalism policies do not erode solidarity/redistribution (Banting et al) Mandatory integration • Little tangible advantage in integration outcomes (Goodman and Wright) • Undermining social trust? (Canada / Quebec) Wider implications • Identity change is a slow, multi-generational process
  10. 10. Estonian model: different or similar? Estonian model • Moving in same direction as in Western Europe from a different direction? • Model at independence (1991): “non-territorial cultural autonomy” • Close to national minority model: full set of Russian language institutions/services • Binational/federal model off the table • Evolving towards something closer to immigrant minority model • Mix of voluntary and mandatory instruments • More similar to Quebec model than the Canadian model Common challenges / different choices • National identity: core identity vs. multiple identities • Integration as mutual adjustment: convincing the majority to change • Mandatory/voluntary: implications for identity, trust and perceived fairness