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A Home for Everyone?
Multiculturalism and Integration in Contemporary Democracies
Keith Banting
Queen’s University, Canada
Presentation to the International Integration Conference 2018, Tallin, Estonia
Politics of diversity in the 20th Century
• Nation-building: historic pattern
• Promoting a common language, culture and identity
• Suspicion of ethnic minorities
• Multiculturalism: second half of 20th century
• Acceptance of ethnic diversity as an enduring element of democratic societies
• Recognition, accommodation, and support of difference
• Three distinct policy models
• Immigrant minorities, national minorities, indigenous minorities
Multiculturalism for national minorities
Creating territorial autonomy
MCP Index
• Affirmation of ‘multination’ status
• Territorial autonomy for minority nation: full set of institutions/services
• Official language status of minority language
• Guaranteed representation in central institutions
• Public funding of minority language institutions
• Acceptance of minority role on international bodies
Canadian case
• National minority (Quebec) and indigenous peoples (First Nations)
• Acceptance of multiple national identities and cultures
Multiculturalism Policies for National Minorities
1980
Out of 6
2000
Out of 6
2010
Out of 6
Belgium 3.5 5.5 5.5
Canada 4.5 5 6
Finland 4 4.5 4.5
France 0 1 2
Greece 0 0 0
Italy 3.5 4 4.5
Japan 0 0 0
Spain 4 4.5 6
Switzerland 4 4 4
United
Kingdom
1.5 5 6
United States 3.5 3.5 3.5
Multiculturalism for Immigrant Minorities
Changing the terms of integration
MCP Index
• Affirmation of multiculturalism in the constitution or legislation
• Multiculturalism school curricula
• Mandate of broadcast media
• Exemptions from dress codes
• Allowing dual citizenship
• Funding ethnic groups
• Funding bilingual education
• Affirmative action programs
Canadian case
• Integrationist conception of multiculturalism
• Supplemented with strong integration programs
Politics of Diversity in the 21st Century
The strange “death” of multiculturalism
The Integrationist Turn
Multicultural integration (Sweden)
• Right to integrate: public support / voluntary participation
• Compatible with stronger multiculturalism policies
Mandatory integration (Denmark, Netherlands)
• Duty to integrate: but little public support
• Linked to residency/naturalization/access to social benefits
• Deeper tension with multiculturalism policies
• Canada:
• An “uncontrolled” experiment: Canada / Quebec
Outcomes
Multicultural integration
• Positive relationship with civic and political integration (Bloemraad)
• Multiculturalism policies do not erode solidarity/redistribution (Banting et al)
Mandatory integration
• Little tangible advantage in integration outcomes (Goodman and Wright)
• Undermining social trust? (Canada / Quebec)
Wider implications
• Identity change is a slow, multi-generational process
Estonian model: different or similar?
Estonian model
• Moving in same direction as in Western Europe from a different direction?
• Model at independence (1991): “non-territorial cultural autonomy”
• Close to national minority model: full set of Russian language institutions/services
• Binational/federal model off the table
• Evolving towards something closer to immigrant minority model
• Mix of voluntary and mandatory instruments
• More similar to Quebec model than the Canadian model
Common challenges / different choices
• National identity: core identity vs. multiple identities
• Integration as mutual adjustment: convincing the majority to change
• Mandatory/voluntary: implications for identity, trust and perceived fairness

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Prof. Dr. Keith Banting: A Home for Everyone?: Multiculturalism and Integration in Contemporary Democracies

  • 1. A Home for Everyone? Multiculturalism and Integration in Contemporary Democracies Keith Banting Queen’s University, Canada Presentation to the International Integration Conference 2018, Tallin, Estonia
  • 2. Politics of diversity in the 20th Century • Nation-building: historic pattern • Promoting a common language, culture and identity • Suspicion of ethnic minorities • Multiculturalism: second half of 20th century • Acceptance of ethnic diversity as an enduring element of democratic societies • Recognition, accommodation, and support of difference • Three distinct policy models • Immigrant minorities, national minorities, indigenous minorities
  • 3. Multiculturalism for national minorities Creating territorial autonomy MCP Index • Affirmation of ‘multination’ status • Territorial autonomy for minority nation: full set of institutions/services • Official language status of minority language • Guaranteed representation in central institutions • Public funding of minority language institutions • Acceptance of minority role on international bodies Canadian case • National minority (Quebec) and indigenous peoples (First Nations) • Acceptance of multiple national identities and cultures
  • 4. Multiculturalism Policies for National Minorities 1980 Out of 6 2000 Out of 6 2010 Out of 6 Belgium 3.5 5.5 5.5 Canada 4.5 5 6 Finland 4 4.5 4.5 France 0 1 2 Greece 0 0 0 Italy 3.5 4 4.5 Japan 0 0 0 Spain 4 4.5 6 Switzerland 4 4 4 United Kingdom 1.5 5 6 United States 3.5 3.5 3.5
  • 5. Multiculturalism for Immigrant Minorities Changing the terms of integration MCP Index • Affirmation of multiculturalism in the constitution or legislation • Multiculturalism school curricula • Mandate of broadcast media • Exemptions from dress codes • Allowing dual citizenship • Funding ethnic groups • Funding bilingual education • Affirmative action programs Canadian case • Integrationist conception of multiculturalism • Supplemented with strong integration programs
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  • 10. Politics of Diversity in the 21st Century
  • 11. The strange “death” of multiculturalism
  • 12. The Integrationist Turn Multicultural integration (Sweden) • Right to integrate: public support / voluntary participation • Compatible with stronger multiculturalism policies Mandatory integration (Denmark, Netherlands) • Duty to integrate: but little public support • Linked to residency/naturalization/access to social benefits • Deeper tension with multiculturalism policies • Canada: • An “uncontrolled” experiment: Canada / Quebec
  • 13. Outcomes Multicultural integration • Positive relationship with civic and political integration (Bloemraad) • Multiculturalism policies do not erode solidarity/redistribution (Banting et al) Mandatory integration • Little tangible advantage in integration outcomes (Goodman and Wright) • Undermining social trust? (Canada / Quebec) Wider implications • Identity change is a slow, multi-generational process
  • 14. Estonian model: different or similar? Estonian model • Moving in same direction as in Western Europe from a different direction? • Model at independence (1991): “non-territorial cultural autonomy” • Close to national minority model: full set of Russian language institutions/services • Binational/federal model off the table • Evolving towards something closer to immigrant minority model • Mix of voluntary and mandatory instruments • More similar to Quebec model than the Canadian model Common challenges / different choices • National identity: core identity vs. multiple identities • Integration as mutual adjustment: convincing the majority to change • Mandatory/voluntary: implications for identity, trust and perceived fairness