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Wright in 1954
Born June 8, 1867
Richland Center, Wisconsin, U.S.
Personal life and death subsection
Legacy subsection
selected works subsection
Further reading subsection
External links Early life and education
subsection
Career subsection
Midlife problems subsection
Later career subsection
Personal style and concepts subsection
Frank Lloyd Wright
Died April 9, 1959 (aged 91)
Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.
Alma mater University of Wisconsin–Madison
Occupation Architect
Spouses  Catherine Tobin
(m. 1889; div. 1922)​
 Miriam Noel

(m. 1923; div. 1927)​
 Olga Lazović
(m. 1928)​
Partner Mamah Borthwick Cheney (1909–1914 d.)
Children 8, including Lloyd Wright and John Lloyd Wright
Awards RIBA Gold Medal
AIA Gold Medal
Twenty-five Year Award (4)
Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity
Buildings Falling water
Kentuck Knob
•Falling water
Buildings Falling water
Kentuck Knob
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
J Johnson Wax Headquarters
Taliesin
Taliesin West
Robbie House
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo
Darwin D. Martin House
Unity Temple
Ennis House
Larkin Administration Building
Affleck House
Dana-Thomas House
Coonley House
Marin County Civic Center
First Unitarian Society of Madison
Price Tower
Westcott House
Monona Terrace
Meyer May House
Allen House
Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church
Graycliff
Westhope
Signature
Projects
Usonian Houses
Broad acre City
Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He
designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright played a key role in the architectural
movements of the twentieth century, influencing architects worldwide through his works and hundreds of apprentices in
his Taliesin Fellowship.[1][2] Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and the environment, a philosophy he
called organic architecture. This philosophy was exemplified in Falling water (1935), which has been called "the best all-
time work of American architecture".[3]
Wright was the pioneer of what came to be called the Prairie School movement of architecture and also developed the
concept of the Usonian home in Broad acre, his vision for urban
planning in the United States. He also designed original and innovative offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels,
museums, and other commercial projects. Wright-designed interior elements (including leaded glass windows, floors,
furniture and even tableware) were integrated into these structures. He wrote several books and numerous articles and was
a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe. Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of
Architects as "the greatest American architect of all time".[3] In 2019, a selection of his work became a listed World Heritage
Site as The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Raised in rural Wisconsin, Wright studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin and then apprenticed in Chicago,
briefly with Joseph Lyman Silsbee, and then with Louis Sullivan at Adler & Sullivan. Wright opened his own successful
Chicago practice in 1893 and established a studio in his Oak Park, Illinois home in 1898. His fame increased and his
personal life sometimes made headlines: leaving his first wife Catherine Tobin for Mamah Cheney in 1909; the murder of
Mamah and her children and others at his Taliesin estate by a staff member in 1914; his tempestuous marriage with second
wife Miriam Noel (m. 1923–1927); and his courtship and marriage with Olgivanna Lazović (m. 1928–1959).
Early life and education
Childhood (1867–1885)
Wright was born on June 8, 1867, in the town of Richland Center, Wisconsin, but maintained throughout his life that he was
born in 1869. In 1987 a biographer of Wright suggested that he may have been christened as "Frank Lincoln Wright" or
"Franklin Lincoln Wright" but these assertions were not supported by any evidence.
Wright's father, William Cary Wright (1825–1904), was a "gifted musician, orator, and sometime preacher who had been
admitted to the bar in 1857."]He was also a published composer.[8] Originally from Massachusetts, William Wright had been
a Baptist minister, but he later joined his wife's family in the Unitarian faith.
Wright's mother, Anna Lloyd Jones (1838/39–1923) was a teacher and a member of the Lloyd Jones clan; her parents had
emigrated from Wales to Wisconsin.[9] One of Anna's brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, an important figure in the spread of
the Unitarian faith in the Midwest.
According to Wright's autobiography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to
build beautiful buildings. She decorated his nursery with engravings of English cathedrals torn from a periodical to
encourage the infant's ambition.
Wright grew up in an "unstable household, [...] constant lack of resources, [...] unrelieved poverty and anxiety" and had a
"deeply disturbed and obviously unhappy childhood".[11] His father held pastorates in McGregor, Iowa (1869), Pawtucket,
Rhode Island (1871), and Weymouth, Massachusetts (1874). Because the Wright family struggled financially also in
Weymouth, they returned to Spring Green, where the supportive Lloyd Jones family could help William find employment. In
1877, they settled in Madison, where William gave music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed Unitarian
society. Although William was a distant parent, he shared his love of music with his children.[11]
In 1876, Anna saw an exhibit of educational blocks called the Froebel Gifts, the foundation of an
innovative kindergarten curriculum. Anna, a trained teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which the 9-
year old Wright spent much time playing. The blocks in the set were geometrically shaped and could be assembled in
various combinations to form two- and three-dimensional compositions. In his autobiography, Wright described the
influence of these exercises on his approach to design: "For several years, I sat at the little kindergarten table-top... and
played... with the cube, the sphere and the triangle – these smooth wooden maple blocks... All are in my fingers to this
day... "[12]
In 1881, soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated. In 1884, his father sued for a divorce from Anna on the grounds
of "... emotional cruelty and physical violence and spousal abandonment".[13] Wright attended Madison High School, but
there is no evidence that he graduated.[14] His father left Wisconsin after the divorce was granted in 1885. Wright said that
he never saw his father again.[15]
Education (1885–1887)
In 1886, at age 19, Wright wanted to become an architect; he was admitted to the University of Wisconsin–
Madison as a special student and worked under Allan D. Conover, a professor of civil engineering, before
leaving the school without taking a degree.[16] Wright was granted an honorary doctorate of fine arts from
the university in 1955.[17] In 1886 Wright collaborated with the Chicago architectural firm of Joseph Lyman
Silsbee – accredited as draftsman and construction supervisor – on the 1886 Unity Chapel for Wright's
family in Spring Green, Wisconsin.[18]
Career
Silsbee and other early work experience (1887–1888)
In 1887, Wright arrived in Chicago in search of employment. As a result of the devastating Great Chicago
Fire of 1871 and a population boom, new development was plentiful. Wright later recorded in his
autobiography that his first impression of Chicago was as an ugly and chaotic city.[19] Within days of his
arrival, and after interviews with several prominent firms, he was hired as a draftsman with Joseph Lyman
Silsbee.[20] While with the firm, he also worked on two other family projects: All Souls Church in Chicago
for his uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, and the Hillside Home School I in Spring Green for two of his
aunts.[21] Other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887 included future architects Cecil Corwin,George
W. Maher, and George G. Elmslie. Wright soon befriended Corwin, with whom he lived until he found a
Adler & Sullivan (1888–1893)
Wright's home in Oak Park, Illinois (1889)
The Walter Gale House in Oak Park, Illinois (1893). While a Queen Anne in style, it features window bands
and a cantilevered porch roof which hint at Wright's developing aesthetics.
Wright learned that the Chicago firm of Adler & Sullivan was "... looking for someone to make the finished drawings for the
interior of the Auditorium Building".[25] Wright demonstrated that he was a competent impressionist of Louis Sullivan's
ornamental designs and two short interviews later, was an official apprentice in the firm.[26] Wright did not get along well
with Sullivan's other draftsmen; he wrote that several violent altercations occurred between them during the first years of
his apprenticeship. For that matter, Sullivan showed very little respect for his own employees as well.[27] In spite of this,
"Sullivan took [Wright] under his wing and gave him great design responsibility."[28] As an act of respect, Wright would later
refer to Sullivan as Lieber Meister (German for "Dear Master").[28] He also formed a bond with office foreman Paul Mueller.
Wright later engaged Mueller in the construction of several of his public and commercial buildings between 1903 and
1923.[29]
By 1890, Wright had an office next to Sullivan's that he shared with friend and draftsman George Elmslie, who had been
hired by Sullivan at Wright's request.[29][30] Wright had risen to head draftsman and handled all residential design work in
the office. As a general rule, the firm of Adler & Sullivan did not design or build houses, but would oblige when asked by
the clients of their important commercial projects.[citation needed] Wright was occupied by the firm's major commissions during
office hours, so house designs were relegated to evening and weekend overtime hours at his home studio. He later claimed
total responsibility for the design of these houses, but a careful inspection of their architectural style (and accounts from
historian Robert Twombly) suggests that Sullivan dictated the overall form and motifs of the residential works; Wright's
design duties were often reduced to detailing the projects from Sullivan's sketches.[30] During this time, Wright worked
on Sullivan's bungalow (1890) and the James A. Charnley bungalow (1890) in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, the Berry-
MacHarg House, James A. Charnley House (both 1891), and the Louis Sullivan House (1892), all in Chicago.[31][32]
Despite Sullivan's loan and overtime salary, Wright was constantly short on funds. Wright admitted that his poor finances
were likely due to his expensive tastes in wardrobe and vehicles, and the extra luxuries he designed into his house.[citation
needed] To supplement his income and repay his debts, Wright accepted independent commissions for at least nine houses.
These "bootlegged" houses, as he later called them, were conservatively designed in variations of the fashionable Queen
Anne and Colonial Revival styles. Nevertheless, unlike the prevailing architecture of the period, each house emphasized
simple geometric massing and contained features such as bands of horizontal windows, occasional cantilevers, and open
floor plans, which would become hallmarks of his later work. Eight of these early houses remain today, including
the Thomas Gale, Robert Parker, George Blossom, and Walter Gale houses.[33]
As with the residential projects for Adler & Sullivan, he designed his bootleg houses on his own time. Sullivan knew
nothing of the independent works until 1893, when he recognized that one
of the houses was unmistakably a Frank Lloyd Wright design.[citation needed] This particular house, built for
Allison Harlan, was only blocks away from Sullivan's townhouse in the Chicago community
of Kenwood.[citation needed] Aside from the location, the geometric purity of the composition and
balcony tracery in the same style as the Charnley House likely gave away Wright's involvement.[citation
needed] Since Wright's five-year contract forbade any outside work, the incident led to his departure from
Sullivan's firm.[32] Several stories recount the break in the relationship
Transition and experimentation (1893–1900)
William H. Winslow House in River Forest, Illinois (1893)
Nathan G. Moore House in Oak Park, Illinois (1895)
Wright's studio viewed from Chicago Avenue (1898)
After leaving Adler & Sullivan, Wright established his own practice on the top floor of the
Sullivan-designed Schiller Building on Randolph Street in Chicago. Wright chose to locate
his office in the building because the tower location reminded him of the office of Adler &
Sullivan. Cecil Corwin followed Wright and set up his architecture practice in the same
office, but the two worked independently and did not consider themselves partners.[36]
In 1896, Wright moved from the Schiller Building to the nearby and newly
completed Steinway Hall building. The loft space was shared with Robert C. Spencer,
Jr., Myron Hunt, and Dwight H. Perkins.[37] These young architects, inspired by the Arts and
Crafts Movement and the philosophies of Louis Sullivan, formed what became known as the
Prairie School.[38] They were joined by Perkins' apprentice Marion Mahony, who in 1895
transferred to Wright's team of drafters and took over production of his presentation
drawings and watercolor renderings. Mahony, the third woman to be licensed as an architect
in Illinois and one of the first licensed female architects in the U.S., also designed furniture,
leaded glass windows, and light fixtures, among other features, for Wright's houses.
Between 1894 and the early 1910s, several other leading Prairie School architects and many
of Wright's future employees launched their careers in the offices of Steinway Hall.[39][40]
Wright's projects during this period followed two basic models. His first independent commission,
the Winslow House, combined Sullivanesque ornamentation with the emphasis on simple geometry and
horizontal lines. The Francis Apartments (1895, demolished 1971), Heller House (1896), Rollin Furbeck
House (1897) and Husser House (1899, demolished 1926) were designed in the same mode. For his more
conservative clients, Wright designed more traditional dwellings. These included the Dutch Colonial
Revival style Bagley House (1894), Tudor Revival style Moore House I (1895), and Queen
Anne style Charles E. Roberts House (1896).[41] While Wright could not afford to turn down clients over
disagreements in taste, even his most conservative designs retained simplified massing and occasional
Sullivan-inspired details.[42]
Soon after the completion of the Winslow House in 1894, Edward Waller, a friend and former client, invited
Wright to meet Chicago architect and planner Daniel Burnham. Burnham had been impressed by the
Winslow House and other examples of Wright's work; he offered to finance a four-year education at
the École des Beaux-Arts and two years in Rome. To top it off, Wright would have a position in Burnham's
firm upon his return. In spite of guaranteed success and support of his family, Wright declined the offer.
Burnham, who had directed the classical design of the World's Columbian Exposition and was a major
proponent of the Beaux Arts movement, thought that Wright was making a foolish mistake.[citation needed] Yet
for Wright, the classical education of the École lacked creativity and was altogether at odds with his vision
of modern American architecture.[43][44]
Wright relocated his practice to his home in 1898 to bring his work and family lives closer.
This move made further sense as the majority of the architect's projects at that time were in
Oak Park or neighboring River Forest. The birth of three more children prompted Wright to
sacrifice his original home studio space for additional bedrooms and necessitated his
design and construction of an expansive studio addition to the north of the main house. The
space, which included a hanging balcony within the two-story drafting room, was one of
Wright's first experiments with innovative structure. The studio embodied Wright's
developing aesthetics and would become the laboratory from which his next 10 years of
architectural creations would emerge.[45]
Prairie Style houses (1900–1914)
Arthur Heurtley House in Oak Park, Illinois (1902)
Hillside Home School, Taliesin in Spring Green,
Wisconsin (1902)
Darwin D. Martin House in Buffalo, New York (1904)
Meyer May House in Grand Rapids, Michigan (1909)
By 1901, Wright had completed about 50 projects, including many houses in Oak Park. As his son John Lloyd Wright
wrote:[46]
William Eugene Drummond, Francis Barry Byrne, Walter Burley Griffin, Albert Chase McArthur, Marion Mahony, Isabel
Roberts, and George Willis were the draftsmen. Five men, two women. They wore flowing ties, and smocks suitable to the
realm. The men wore their hair like Papa, all except Albert, he didn't have enough hair. They worshiped Papa! Papa liked
them! I know that each one of them was then making valuable contributions to the pioneering of the modern American
architecture for which my father gets the full glory, headaches, and recognition today!
Between 1900 and 1901, Frank Lloyd Wright completed four houses, which have since been identified as the onset of the
"Prairie Style". Two, the Hickox and Bradley Houses, were the last transitional step between Wright's early designs and the
Prairie creations.[47] Meanwhile, the Thomas House and Willits House received recognition as the first mature examples of
the new style.[48][49] At the same time, Wright gave his new ideas for the American house widespread awareness through
two publications in the Ladies' Home Journal. The articles were in response to an invitation from the president of Curtis
Publishing Company, Edward Bok, as part of a project to improve modern house design.[citation needed] "A Home in a Prairie
Town" and "A Small House with Lots of Room in it" appeared respectively in the February and July 1901 issues of the
journal. Although neither of the affordable house plans was ever constructed, Wright received increased requests for
similar designs in following years.[47] Wright came to Buffalo and designed homes for three of the company's executives:
the Darwin D. Martin House (1904), the William R. Heath House 1905), and the Walter V. Davidson House (1908). Other
Wright houses considered to be masterpieces of the Prairie Style are the Frederick Robie House in Chicago and the Avery
and Queene Coonley House in Riverside, Illinois. The Robie House, with its extended cantilevered roof lines supported by a
110-foot-long (34 m) channel of steel, is the most dramatic. Its living and dining areas form virtually one uninterrupted
space. With this and other buildings, included in the publication of the Wasmuth Portfolio (1910), Wright's work
Wright's residential designs of this era were known as "prairie houses" because the designs
complemented the land around Chicago.[citation needed] Prairie Style houses often have a combination of
these features: one or two stories with one-story projections, an open floor plan, low-pitched roofs with
broad, overhanging eaves, strong horizontal lines, ribbons of windows (often casements), a prominent
central chimney, built-in stylized cabinetry, and a wide use of natural materials – especially stone and
wood.[50]
By 1909, Wright had begun to reject the upper-middle-class Prairie Style single-family house model,
shifting his focus to a more democratic architecture.[51] Wright went to Europe in 1909 with a portfolio of
his work and presented it to Berlin publisher Ernst Wasmuth.[52] Studies and Executed Buildings of Frank
Lloyd Wright, published in 1911, was the first major exposure of Wright's work in Europe. The work
contained more than 100 lithographs of Wright's designs and is commonly known as the Wasmuth
Portfolio.[53]
Notable public works (1900–1917)
Wright designed the house of Cornell's chapter of Alpha Delta Phi literary society (1900),
the Hillside Home School II (built for his aunts) in Spring Green, Wisconsin (1901) and
the Unity Temple (1905) in Oak Park, Illinois.[54][55] As a lifelong Unitarian and member of
Unity Temple, Wright offered his services to the congregation after their church burned
down, working on the building from 1905 to 1909. Wright later said that Unity Temple was
the edifice in which he ceased to be an architect of structure, and became an architect of
space.[56]
Some other early notable public buildings and projects in this era: the Larkin Administration
Building (1905); the Geneva Inn (Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, 1911); the Midway
Gardens (Chicago, Illinois, 1913); the Banff National Park Pavilion (Alberta, Canada, 1914).
Designing in Japan (1917–1922)
Hotel Imperial, 1930s
Jiyu Gakuen Main Building
Yodoko Guesthouse
While working in Japan, Wright left an impressive architectural heritage.
The Imperial Hotel, completed in 1923, is the most important.[57] Thanks to its
solid foundations and steel construction, the hotel survived the Great Kanto
Earthquake almost unscathed.[58] The hotel was damaged during the bombing
of Tokyo and by the subsequent US military occupation of it after World War
II.[59] As land in the center of Tokyo increased in value the hotel was deemed
obsolete and was demolished in 1968 but the lobby was saved and later re-
constructed at the Meiji Mura architecture museum in Nagoya in 1976.[60]
Jiyu Gakuen was founded as a girls' school in 1921. The construction of the
main building began in 1921 under Wright's direction and, after his departure,
was continued by Endo.[61] The school building, like the Imperial Hotel, is
covered with Ōya stones.
The Yodoko Guesthouse (designed in 1918 and completed in 1924) was built
as the summer villa for Tadzaemon Yamamura.
Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture had a strong influence on young Japanese
architects. The Japanese architects Wright commissioned to carry out his
designs were Arata Endo, Takehiko Okami, Taue Sasaki and Kameshiro
Tsuchiura. Endo supervised the completion of the Imperial Hotel after Wright's
departure in 1922 and also supervised the construction of the Jiyu Gakuen
Girls' School and the Yodokō Guest House. Tsuchiura went on to create so-
called "light" buildings, which had similarities to Wright's later work.[62]
Textile concrete block system
See also: Mayan Revival architecture
Wright in 1926
In the early 1920s, Wright designed a "textile" concrete block system. The system of precast blocks, reinforced by an
internal system of bars, enabled "fabrication as infinite in color, texture, and variety as in that rug."[63] Wright first used his
textile block system on the Millard House in Pasadena, California, in 1923. Typically Wrightian is the joining of the structure
to its site by a series of terraces that reach out into and reorder the landscape, making it an integral part of the architect's
vision.[64] With the Ennis House and the Samuel Freeman House (both 1923), Wright had further opportunities to test the
limits of the textile block system, including limited use in the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in 1927.[65] The Ennis house is often
used in films, television, and print media to represent the future.[64] Wright's son, Lloyd Wright, supervised construction for
the Storer, Freeman, and Ennis Houses. Architectural historian Thomas Hines has suggested that Lloyd's contribution to
these projects is often overlooked.[66]
After World War II, Wright updated the concrete block system, calling it the Usonian Automatic system, resulting in the
construction of several notable homes. As he explained in The Natural House (1954), "The original blocks are made on the
site by ramming concrete into wood or metal wrap-around forms, with one outside face (which may be pattered), and one
rear or inside face, generally coffered, for lightness."[63]
Midlife problems Family turmoil
In 1903, while Wright was designing a house for Edwin Cheney (a neighbor in Oak Park), he
became enamored with Cheney's wife, Mamah. Mamah Borthwick Cheney was a modern woman
with interests outside the home. She was an early feminist, and Wright viewed her as his
intellectual equal. Their relationship became the talk of the town; they often could be seen taking
rides in Wright's automobile through Oak Park.[citation needed] In 1909, Wright and Mamah Cheney met
up in Europe, leaving their spouses and children behind. Wright remained in Europe for almost a
year, first in Florence, Italy (where he lived with his eldest son Lloyd) and, later, in Fiesole, Italy,
where he lived with Mamah. During this time, Edwin Cheney granted Mamah a divorce, though Kitty
still refused to grant one to her husband.[citation needed] After Wright returned to the United States in
October 1910, he persuaded his mother to buy land for him in Spring Green, Wisconsin. The land,
bought on April 10, 1911, was adjacent to land held by his mother's family, the Lloyd-Joneses.
Wright began to build himself a new home, which he called Taliesin, by May 1911. The recurring
theme of Taliesin also came from his mother's side: Taliesin in Welsh mythology was a poet,
magician, and priest. The family motto, "Y Gwir yn Erbyn y Byd" ("The Truth Against the World"),
was taken from the Welsh poet Iolo Morganwg, who also had a son named Taliesin. The motto is
still used today as the cry of the druids and chief bard of the Eisteddfod in Wales.[67]
Tragedy at Taliesin
On August 15, 1914, while Wright was working in Chicago, a servant (Julian Carlton) set fire to the
living quarters of Taliesin and then murdered seven people with an axe as the fire
burned.[68][69][70] The dead included Mamah; her two children, John and Martha Cheney; a gardener
(David Lindblom); a draftsman (Emil Brodelle); a workman (Thomas Brunker); and another
workman's son (Ernest Weston). Two people survived the mayhem, one of whom, William Weston,
helped to put out the fire that almost completely consumed the residential wing of the house.
Carlton swallowed hydrochloric acid immediately following the attack in an attempt to kill
himself.[69] He was nearly lynched on the spot, but was taken to the Dodgeville jail.[69] Carlton died
from starvation seven weeks after the attack, despite medical attention.[69]
Divorces
In 1922, Kitty Wright finally granted Wright a divorce. Under the terms of the divorce, Wright was
required to wait one year before he could marry his then-mistress, Maude "Miriam" Noel. In 1923,
Wright's mother, Anna (Lloyd Jones) Wright, died. Wright wed Miriam Noel in November
1923, but her addiction to morphine led to the failure of the marriage in less than one year.[71] In 1924, after the
separation, but while still married, Wright met Olga (Olgivanna) Lazovich Hinzenburg. They moved in together at
Taliesin in 1925, and soon after Olgivanna became pregnant. Their daughter, Iovanna, was born on December 3,
1925.[72][73]
On April 20, 1925, another fire destroyed the bungalow at Taliesin. Crossed wires from a newly installed telephone
system were deemed to be responsible for the blaze, which destroyed a collection of Japanese prints that Wright
estimated to be worth $250,000 to $500,000 ($3,863,000 to $7,726,000 in 2021).[74] Wright rebuilt the living
quarters, naming the home "Taliesin III".[75]
In 1926, Olga's ex-husband, Vlademar Hinzenburg, sought custody of his daughter, Svetlana. In October 1926,
Wright and Olgivanna were accused of violating the Mann Act and arrested in Tonka Bay, Minnesota.[76] The
charges were later dropped.[77]
Wright and Miriam Noel's divorce was finalized in 1927. Wright was again required to wait for one year before
remarrying. Wright and Olgivanna married in 1928.[78][79]
Later career[edit]
Taliesin Fellowship[edit]
In 1932, Wright and his wife Olgivanna put out a call for students to come to Taliesin to study and work under
Wright while they learned architecture and spiritual development. Olgivanna Wright had been a student of G. I.
Gurdjieff who had previously established a similar school. Twenty-three came to live and work that year,
including John (Jack) H. Howe, who would become Wright's chief draftsman.[80] A total of 625 people joined The
Fellowship in Wright's lifetime.[81] The Fellowship was a source of workers for Wright's later projects, including:
Fallingwater; The Johnson Wax Headquarters; and The Guggenheim Museum in New York City.[82]
Considerable controversy exists over the living conditions and education of the fellows.[83][84] Wright was reputedly
a difficult person to work with. One apprentice wrote: "He is devoid of consideration and has a blind spot regarding
others' qualities. Yet I believe, that a year in his studio would be worth any sacrifice."[85] The Fellowship evolved
into The School of Architecture at Taliesin which was an accredited school until it closed under acrimonious
circumstances in 2020.[86][87]Taking on the name "The School of Architecture" in June 2020, the school moved to
the Cosanti Foundation, which it had worked with in the past.[88]
Charles Weltzheimer Residence, Oberlin, Ohio (1948)
Usonian Houses
Main article: Usonia
Wright is responsible for a series of concepts of suburban development united under the term Broadacre
City. He proposed the idea in his book The Disappearing City in 1932 and unveiled a 12-square-foot
(1.1 m2) model of this community of the future, showing it in several
venues in the following years.[citation needed] Concurrent with the development of Broadacre
City, also referred to as Usonia, Wright conceived a new type of dwelling that came to be
known as the Usonian House. Although an early version of the form can be seen in
the Malcolm Willey House (1934) in Minneapolis, the Usonian ideal emerged most completely
in the Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House (1937) in Madison, Wisconsin.[citation
needed] Designed on a gridded concrete slab that integrated the house's radiant heating
system, the house featured new approaches to construction, including walls composed of a
"sandwich" of wood siding, plywood cores and building paper – a significant change from
typically framed walls.[citation needed] Usonian houses commonly featured flat roofs and were
usually constructed without basements or attics, all features that Wright had been
promoting since the early 20th century.[89]
Usonian houses were Wright's response to the transformation of domestic life that occurred
in the early 20th century when servants had become less prominent or completely absent
from most American households. By developing homes with progressively more open
plans, Wright allotted the woman of the house a "workspace", as he often called the kitchen,
where she could keep track of and be available for the children and/or guests in the dining
room.[90] As in the Prairie Houses, Usonian living areas had a fireplace as a point of focus.
Bedrooms, typically isolated and relatively small, encouraged the family to gather in the
main living areas. The conception of spaces instead of rooms was a development of the
Prairie ideal.[citation needed] The built-in furnishings related to the Arts and Crafts movement's
principles that influenced Wright's early work.[citation needed] Spatially and in terms of their
construction, the Usonian houses represented a new model for independent living and
allowed dozens of clients to live in a Wright-designed house at relatively low cost.[citation
needed] His Usonian homes set a new style for suburban design that influenced countless
postwar developers. Many features of modern American homes date back to Wright: open
plans, slab-on-grade foundations, and simplified construction techniques that allowed more
mechanization and efficiency in building.[91]
Significant later works
Fallingwater,
Mill Run, Pennsylvania (1937)
waterfall, it was designed according to Wright's
desire to place the occupants close to the natural
surroundings. The house was intended to be more
of a family getaway, rather than a live-in
home.[92] The construction is a series of cantilevered
balconies and terraces, using limestone for all
verticals and concrete for the horizontals. The house
cost $155,000 (equivalent to $2,922,000 in 2021),
including the architect's fee of $8,000 (equivalent to
$151,000 in 2021). It was one of Wright's most
expensive pieces.[92] Kaufmann's own engineers
argued that the design was not sound. They were
overruled by Wright, but the contractor secretly
added extra steel to the horizontal concrete
elements. In 1994, Robert Silman and Associates
examined the building and developed a plan to
restore the structure. In the late 1990s, steel
supports were added under the lowest cantilever
until a detailed structural analysis could be done. In
March 2002, post-tensioning of the lowest terrace
was completed.[citation needed]
Taliesin West, Wright's winter home and studio complex in Scottsdale, Arizona,
was a laboratory for Wright from 1937 to his death in 1959. It is now the home
of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation.[93]
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City (1959)
The design and construction of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City
occupied Wright from 1943 until 1959[94] and is probably his most recognized
masterpiece. The building's unique central geometry was meant to allow visitors to
easily experience Guggenheim's collection of nonobjective geometric paintings by taking
an elevator to the top level and then viewing artworks by walking down the slowly
descending, central spiral ramp.[citation needed
The only realized skyscraper designed by Wright is the Price Tower, a 19-story tower in Bartlesville,
Oklahoma. It is also one of the two existing vertically oriented Wright structures (the other is theS.C.
Johnson Wax Research Tower in Racine, Wisconsin). The Price Tower was commissioned by Harold C.
Price of the H. C. Price Company, a local oil pipeline and chemical firm. On March 29, 2007, Price Tower
was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior, one of only
20 such properties in Oklahoma.[95]
Monona Terrace, originally designed in 1937 as municipal offices for Madison, Wisconsin, was completed
in 1997 on the original site, using a variation of Wright's final design for the exterior, with the interior
design altered by its new purpose as a convention center. The "as-built" design was carried out by
Wright's apprentice Tony Puttnam. Monona Terrace was accompanied by controversy throughout the 60
years between the original design and the completion of the structure.[96]
Florida Southern College, located in Lakeland, Florida, constructed 12 (out of 18 planned) Frank Lloyd
Wright buildings between 1941 and 1958 as part of the Child of the Sun project. It is the world's largest
single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture.[97]
Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma (1956)
Design elements
An open office area in Wright's Johnson Wax Headquarters complex, Racine, Wisconsin (1939)
His Prairie houses use themed, coordinated design elements (often based on plant forms) that are
repeated in windows, carpets, and other fittings.[citation needed] He made innovative use of new building
materials such as precast concrete blocks, glass bricks, and zinc cames (instead of the traditional lead)
for his leadlight windows, and he famously used Pyrex glass tubing as a major element in the Johnson
Wax Headquarters.[citation needed] Wright was also one of the first architects to design and install custom-
made electric light fittings, including some of the first electric floor lamps, and his very early use of the
then-novel spherical glass lampshade (a design previously not possible due to the physical restrictions of
gas lighting).[citation needed] In 1897, Wright received a patent for "Prism Glass Tiles" that were used in
storefronts to direct light toward the interior.[98] Wright fully embraced glass in his designs and found that
it fit well into his philosophy of organic architecture. According to Wright's organic theory, all components
of the building should appear unified, as though they belong together. Nothing should be attached to it
without considering the effect on the whole. To unify the house to its site, Wright often used large
expanses of glass to blur the boundary between the indoors and outdoors.[99] Glass allowed for
interaction and viewing of the outdoors while still protecting from the elements. In 1928, Wright wrote an
essay on glass in which he compared it to the mirrors of nature: lakes, rivers and ponds.[100] One of
Wright's earliest uses of glass in his works was to string panes of glass along whole walls in an attempt to
create light screens to join solid walls. By using this large amount of
Influences and collaborations
Wright-designed window in Robie House, Chicago (1906)
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Presentation1111111.pptx

  • 1. Wright in 1954 Born June 8, 1867 Richland Center, Wisconsin, U.S. Personal life and death subsection Legacy subsection selected works subsection Further reading subsection External links Early life and education subsection Career subsection Midlife problems subsection Later career subsection Personal style and concepts subsection Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 2. Died April 9, 1959 (aged 91) Phoenix, Arizona, U.S. Alma mater University of Wisconsin–Madison Occupation Architect Spouses  Catherine Tobin (m. 1889; div. 1922)​  Miriam Noel  (m. 1923; div. 1927)​  Olga Lazović (m. 1928)​ Partner Mamah Borthwick Cheney (1909–1914 d.) Children 8, including Lloyd Wright and John Lloyd Wright Awards RIBA Gold Medal AIA Gold Medal Twenty-five Year Award (4) Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity Buildings Falling water Kentuck Knob •Falling water
  • 3. Buildings Falling water Kentuck Knob Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum J Johnson Wax Headquarters Taliesin Taliesin West Robbie House Imperial Hotel, Tokyo Darwin D. Martin House Unity Temple Ennis House Larkin Administration Building Affleck House Dana-Thomas House Coonley House Marin County Civic Center First Unitarian Society of Madison Price Tower Westcott House Monona Terrace Meyer May House Allen House Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church Graycliff Westhope Signature Projects Usonian Houses Broad acre City
  • 4. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright played a key role in the architectural movements of the twentieth century, influencing architects worldwide through his works and hundreds of apprentices in his Taliesin Fellowship.[1][2] Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and the environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This philosophy was exemplified in Falling water (1935), which has been called "the best all- time work of American architecture".[3] Wright was the pioneer of what came to be called the Prairie School movement of architecture and also developed the concept of the Usonian home in Broad acre, his vision for urban planning in the United States. He also designed original and innovative offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, museums, and other commercial projects. Wright-designed interior elements (including leaded glass windows, floors, furniture and even tableware) were integrated into these structures. He wrote several books and numerous articles and was a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe. Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American architect of all time".[3] In 2019, a selection of his work became a listed World Heritage Site as The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright. Raised in rural Wisconsin, Wright studied civil engineering at the University of Wisconsin and then apprenticed in Chicago, briefly with Joseph Lyman Silsbee, and then with Louis Sullivan at Adler & Sullivan. Wright opened his own successful Chicago practice in 1893 and established a studio in his Oak Park, Illinois home in 1898. His fame increased and his personal life sometimes made headlines: leaving his first wife Catherine Tobin for Mamah Cheney in 1909; the murder of Mamah and her children and others at his Taliesin estate by a staff member in 1914; his tempestuous marriage with second wife Miriam Noel (m. 1923–1927); and his courtship and marriage with Olgivanna Lazović (m. 1928–1959). Early life and education Childhood (1867–1885) Wright was born on June 8, 1867, in the town of Richland Center, Wisconsin, but maintained throughout his life that he was born in 1869. In 1987 a biographer of Wright suggested that he may have been christened as "Frank Lincoln Wright" or "Franklin Lincoln Wright" but these assertions were not supported by any evidence. Wright's father, William Cary Wright (1825–1904), was a "gifted musician, orator, and sometime preacher who had been admitted to the bar in 1857."]He was also a published composer.[8] Originally from Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, but he later joined his wife's family in the Unitarian faith. Wright's mother, Anna Lloyd Jones (1838/39–1923) was a teacher and a member of the Lloyd Jones clan; her parents had emigrated from Wales to Wisconsin.[9] One of Anna's brothers was Jenkin Lloyd Jones, an important figure in the spread of the Unitarian faith in the Midwest. According to Wright's autobiography, his mother declared when she was expecting that her first child would grow up to build beautiful buildings. She decorated his nursery with engravings of English cathedrals torn from a periodical to encourage the infant's ambition.
  • 5. Wright grew up in an "unstable household, [...] constant lack of resources, [...] unrelieved poverty and anxiety" and had a "deeply disturbed and obviously unhappy childhood".[11] His father held pastorates in McGregor, Iowa (1869), Pawtucket, Rhode Island (1871), and Weymouth, Massachusetts (1874). Because the Wright family struggled financially also in Weymouth, they returned to Spring Green, where the supportive Lloyd Jones family could help William find employment. In 1877, they settled in Madison, where William gave music lessons and served as the secretary to the newly formed Unitarian society. Although William was a distant parent, he shared his love of music with his children.[11] In 1876, Anna saw an exhibit of educational blocks called the Froebel Gifts, the foundation of an innovative kindergarten curriculum. Anna, a trained teacher, was excited by the program and bought a set with which the 9- year old Wright spent much time playing. The blocks in the set were geometrically shaped and could be assembled in various combinations to form two- and three-dimensional compositions. In his autobiography, Wright described the influence of these exercises on his approach to design: "For several years, I sat at the little kindergarten table-top... and played... with the cube, the sphere and the triangle – these smooth wooden maple blocks... All are in my fingers to this day... "[12] In 1881, soon after Wright turned 14, his parents separated. In 1884, his father sued for a divorce from Anna on the grounds of "... emotional cruelty and physical violence and spousal abandonment".[13] Wright attended Madison High School, but there is no evidence that he graduated.[14] His father left Wisconsin after the divorce was granted in 1885. Wright said that he never saw his father again.[15] Education (1885–1887) In 1886, at age 19, Wright wanted to become an architect; he was admitted to the University of Wisconsin– Madison as a special student and worked under Allan D. Conover, a professor of civil engineering, before leaving the school without taking a degree.[16] Wright was granted an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the university in 1955.[17] In 1886 Wright collaborated with the Chicago architectural firm of Joseph Lyman Silsbee – accredited as draftsman and construction supervisor – on the 1886 Unity Chapel for Wright's family in Spring Green, Wisconsin.[18] Career Silsbee and other early work experience (1887–1888) In 1887, Wright arrived in Chicago in search of employment. As a result of the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and a population boom, new development was plentiful. Wright later recorded in his autobiography that his first impression of Chicago was as an ugly and chaotic city.[19] Within days of his arrival, and after interviews with several prominent firms, he was hired as a draftsman with Joseph Lyman Silsbee.[20] While with the firm, he also worked on two other family projects: All Souls Church in Chicago for his uncle, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, and the Hillside Home School I in Spring Green for two of his aunts.[21] Other draftsmen who worked for Silsbee in 1887 included future architects Cecil Corwin,George W. Maher, and George G. Elmslie. Wright soon befriended Corwin, with whom he lived until he found a
  • 6. Adler & Sullivan (1888–1893) Wright's home in Oak Park, Illinois (1889) The Walter Gale House in Oak Park, Illinois (1893). While a Queen Anne in style, it features window bands and a cantilevered porch roof which hint at Wright's developing aesthetics.
  • 7. Wright learned that the Chicago firm of Adler & Sullivan was "... looking for someone to make the finished drawings for the interior of the Auditorium Building".[25] Wright demonstrated that he was a competent impressionist of Louis Sullivan's ornamental designs and two short interviews later, was an official apprentice in the firm.[26] Wright did not get along well with Sullivan's other draftsmen; he wrote that several violent altercations occurred between them during the first years of his apprenticeship. For that matter, Sullivan showed very little respect for his own employees as well.[27] In spite of this, "Sullivan took [Wright] under his wing and gave him great design responsibility."[28] As an act of respect, Wright would later refer to Sullivan as Lieber Meister (German for "Dear Master").[28] He also formed a bond with office foreman Paul Mueller. Wright later engaged Mueller in the construction of several of his public and commercial buildings between 1903 and 1923.[29] By 1890, Wright had an office next to Sullivan's that he shared with friend and draftsman George Elmslie, who had been hired by Sullivan at Wright's request.[29][30] Wright had risen to head draftsman and handled all residential design work in the office. As a general rule, the firm of Adler & Sullivan did not design or build houses, but would oblige when asked by the clients of their important commercial projects.[citation needed] Wright was occupied by the firm's major commissions during office hours, so house designs were relegated to evening and weekend overtime hours at his home studio. He later claimed total responsibility for the design of these houses, but a careful inspection of their architectural style (and accounts from historian Robert Twombly) suggests that Sullivan dictated the overall form and motifs of the residential works; Wright's design duties were often reduced to detailing the projects from Sullivan's sketches.[30] During this time, Wright worked on Sullivan's bungalow (1890) and the James A. Charnley bungalow (1890) in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, the Berry- MacHarg House, James A. Charnley House (both 1891), and the Louis Sullivan House (1892), all in Chicago.[31][32] Despite Sullivan's loan and overtime salary, Wright was constantly short on funds. Wright admitted that his poor finances were likely due to his expensive tastes in wardrobe and vehicles, and the extra luxuries he designed into his house.[citation needed] To supplement his income and repay his debts, Wright accepted independent commissions for at least nine houses. These "bootlegged" houses, as he later called them, were conservatively designed in variations of the fashionable Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. Nevertheless, unlike the prevailing architecture of the period, each house emphasized simple geometric massing and contained features such as bands of horizontal windows, occasional cantilevers, and open floor plans, which would become hallmarks of his later work. Eight of these early houses remain today, including the Thomas Gale, Robert Parker, George Blossom, and Walter Gale houses.[33] As with the residential projects for Adler & Sullivan, he designed his bootleg houses on his own time. Sullivan knew nothing of the independent works until 1893, when he recognized that one of the houses was unmistakably a Frank Lloyd Wright design.[citation needed] This particular house, built for Allison Harlan, was only blocks away from Sullivan's townhouse in the Chicago community of Kenwood.[citation needed] Aside from the location, the geometric purity of the composition and balcony tracery in the same style as the Charnley House likely gave away Wright's involvement.[citation needed] Since Wright's five-year contract forbade any outside work, the incident led to his departure from Sullivan's firm.[32] Several stories recount the break in the relationship
  • 8. Transition and experimentation (1893–1900) William H. Winslow House in River Forest, Illinois (1893) Nathan G. Moore House in Oak Park, Illinois (1895)
  • 9. Wright's studio viewed from Chicago Avenue (1898) After leaving Adler & Sullivan, Wright established his own practice on the top floor of the Sullivan-designed Schiller Building on Randolph Street in Chicago. Wright chose to locate his office in the building because the tower location reminded him of the office of Adler & Sullivan. Cecil Corwin followed Wright and set up his architecture practice in the same office, but the two worked independently and did not consider themselves partners.[36] In 1896, Wright moved from the Schiller Building to the nearby and newly completed Steinway Hall building. The loft space was shared with Robert C. Spencer, Jr., Myron Hunt, and Dwight H. Perkins.[37] These young architects, inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement and the philosophies of Louis Sullivan, formed what became known as the Prairie School.[38] They were joined by Perkins' apprentice Marion Mahony, who in 1895 transferred to Wright's team of drafters and took over production of his presentation drawings and watercolor renderings. Mahony, the third woman to be licensed as an architect in Illinois and one of the first licensed female architects in the U.S., also designed furniture, leaded glass windows, and light fixtures, among other features, for Wright's houses. Between 1894 and the early 1910s, several other leading Prairie School architects and many of Wright's future employees launched their careers in the offices of Steinway Hall.[39][40]
  • 10. Wright's projects during this period followed two basic models. His first independent commission, the Winslow House, combined Sullivanesque ornamentation with the emphasis on simple geometry and horizontal lines. The Francis Apartments (1895, demolished 1971), Heller House (1896), Rollin Furbeck House (1897) and Husser House (1899, demolished 1926) were designed in the same mode. For his more conservative clients, Wright designed more traditional dwellings. These included the Dutch Colonial Revival style Bagley House (1894), Tudor Revival style Moore House I (1895), and Queen Anne style Charles E. Roberts House (1896).[41] While Wright could not afford to turn down clients over disagreements in taste, even his most conservative designs retained simplified massing and occasional Sullivan-inspired details.[42] Soon after the completion of the Winslow House in 1894, Edward Waller, a friend and former client, invited Wright to meet Chicago architect and planner Daniel Burnham. Burnham had been impressed by the Winslow House and other examples of Wright's work; he offered to finance a four-year education at the École des Beaux-Arts and two years in Rome. To top it off, Wright would have a position in Burnham's firm upon his return. In spite of guaranteed success and support of his family, Wright declined the offer. Burnham, who had directed the classical design of the World's Columbian Exposition and was a major proponent of the Beaux Arts movement, thought that Wright was making a foolish mistake.[citation needed] Yet for Wright, the classical education of the École lacked creativity and was altogether at odds with his vision of modern American architecture.[43][44] Wright relocated his practice to his home in 1898 to bring his work and family lives closer. This move made further sense as the majority of the architect's projects at that time were in Oak Park or neighboring River Forest. The birth of three more children prompted Wright to sacrifice his original home studio space for additional bedrooms and necessitated his design and construction of an expansive studio addition to the north of the main house. The space, which included a hanging balcony within the two-story drafting room, was one of Wright's first experiments with innovative structure. The studio embodied Wright's developing aesthetics and would become the laboratory from which his next 10 years of architectural creations would emerge.[45]
  • 11. Prairie Style houses (1900–1914) Arthur Heurtley House in Oak Park, Illinois (1902)
  • 12. Hillside Home School, Taliesin in Spring Green, Wisconsin (1902) Darwin D. Martin House in Buffalo, New York (1904)
  • 13. Meyer May House in Grand Rapids, Michigan (1909) By 1901, Wright had completed about 50 projects, including many houses in Oak Park. As his son John Lloyd Wright wrote:[46] William Eugene Drummond, Francis Barry Byrne, Walter Burley Griffin, Albert Chase McArthur, Marion Mahony, Isabel Roberts, and George Willis were the draftsmen. Five men, two women. They wore flowing ties, and smocks suitable to the realm. The men wore their hair like Papa, all except Albert, he didn't have enough hair. They worshiped Papa! Papa liked them! I know that each one of them was then making valuable contributions to the pioneering of the modern American architecture for which my father gets the full glory, headaches, and recognition today! Between 1900 and 1901, Frank Lloyd Wright completed four houses, which have since been identified as the onset of the "Prairie Style". Two, the Hickox and Bradley Houses, were the last transitional step between Wright's early designs and the Prairie creations.[47] Meanwhile, the Thomas House and Willits House received recognition as the first mature examples of the new style.[48][49] At the same time, Wright gave his new ideas for the American house widespread awareness through two publications in the Ladies' Home Journal. The articles were in response to an invitation from the president of Curtis Publishing Company, Edward Bok, as part of a project to improve modern house design.[citation needed] "A Home in a Prairie Town" and "A Small House with Lots of Room in it" appeared respectively in the February and July 1901 issues of the journal. Although neither of the affordable house plans was ever constructed, Wright received increased requests for similar designs in following years.[47] Wright came to Buffalo and designed homes for three of the company's executives: the Darwin D. Martin House (1904), the William R. Heath House 1905), and the Walter V. Davidson House (1908). Other Wright houses considered to be masterpieces of the Prairie Style are the Frederick Robie House in Chicago and the Avery and Queene Coonley House in Riverside, Illinois. The Robie House, with its extended cantilevered roof lines supported by a 110-foot-long (34 m) channel of steel, is the most dramatic. Its living and dining areas form virtually one uninterrupted space. With this and other buildings, included in the publication of the Wasmuth Portfolio (1910), Wright's work Wright's residential designs of this era were known as "prairie houses" because the designs complemented the land around Chicago.[citation needed] Prairie Style houses often have a combination of these features: one or two stories with one-story projections, an open floor plan, low-pitched roofs with broad, overhanging eaves, strong horizontal lines, ribbons of windows (often casements), a prominent central chimney, built-in stylized cabinetry, and a wide use of natural materials – especially stone and wood.[50] By 1909, Wright had begun to reject the upper-middle-class Prairie Style single-family house model, shifting his focus to a more democratic architecture.[51] Wright went to Europe in 1909 with a portfolio of his work and presented it to Berlin publisher Ernst Wasmuth.[52] Studies and Executed Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright, published in 1911, was the first major exposure of Wright's work in Europe. The work contained more than 100 lithographs of Wright's designs and is commonly known as the Wasmuth Portfolio.[53]
  • 14. Notable public works (1900–1917) Wright designed the house of Cornell's chapter of Alpha Delta Phi literary society (1900), the Hillside Home School II (built for his aunts) in Spring Green, Wisconsin (1901) and the Unity Temple (1905) in Oak Park, Illinois.[54][55] As a lifelong Unitarian and member of Unity Temple, Wright offered his services to the congregation after their church burned down, working on the building from 1905 to 1909. Wright later said that Unity Temple was the edifice in which he ceased to be an architect of structure, and became an architect of space.[56] Some other early notable public buildings and projects in this era: the Larkin Administration Building (1905); the Geneva Inn (Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, 1911); the Midway Gardens (Chicago, Illinois, 1913); the Banff National Park Pavilion (Alberta, Canada, 1914). Designing in Japan (1917–1922)
  • 15. Hotel Imperial, 1930s Jiyu Gakuen Main Building
  • 16. Yodoko Guesthouse While working in Japan, Wright left an impressive architectural heritage. The Imperial Hotel, completed in 1923, is the most important.[57] Thanks to its solid foundations and steel construction, the hotel survived the Great Kanto Earthquake almost unscathed.[58] The hotel was damaged during the bombing of Tokyo and by the subsequent US military occupation of it after World War II.[59] As land in the center of Tokyo increased in value the hotel was deemed obsolete and was demolished in 1968 but the lobby was saved and later re- constructed at the Meiji Mura architecture museum in Nagoya in 1976.[60] Jiyu Gakuen was founded as a girls' school in 1921. The construction of the main building began in 1921 under Wright's direction and, after his departure, was continued by Endo.[61] The school building, like the Imperial Hotel, is covered with Ōya stones. The Yodoko Guesthouse (designed in 1918 and completed in 1924) was built as the summer villa for Tadzaemon Yamamura. Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture had a strong influence on young Japanese architects. The Japanese architects Wright commissioned to carry out his designs were Arata Endo, Takehiko Okami, Taue Sasaki and Kameshiro Tsuchiura. Endo supervised the completion of the Imperial Hotel after Wright's departure in 1922 and also supervised the construction of the Jiyu Gakuen Girls' School and the Yodokō Guest House. Tsuchiura went on to create so- called "light" buildings, which had similarities to Wright's later work.[62]
  • 17. Textile concrete block system See also: Mayan Revival architecture Wright in 1926 In the early 1920s, Wright designed a "textile" concrete block system. The system of precast blocks, reinforced by an internal system of bars, enabled "fabrication as infinite in color, texture, and variety as in that rug."[63] Wright first used his textile block system on the Millard House in Pasadena, California, in 1923. Typically Wrightian is the joining of the structure to its site by a series of terraces that reach out into and reorder the landscape, making it an integral part of the architect's vision.[64] With the Ennis House and the Samuel Freeman House (both 1923), Wright had further opportunities to test the limits of the textile block system, including limited use in the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in 1927.[65] The Ennis house is often used in films, television, and print media to represent the future.[64] Wright's son, Lloyd Wright, supervised construction for the Storer, Freeman, and Ennis Houses. Architectural historian Thomas Hines has suggested that Lloyd's contribution to these projects is often overlooked.[66] After World War II, Wright updated the concrete block system, calling it the Usonian Automatic system, resulting in the construction of several notable homes. As he explained in The Natural House (1954), "The original blocks are made on the site by ramming concrete into wood or metal wrap-around forms, with one outside face (which may be pattered), and one rear or inside face, generally coffered, for lightness."[63]
  • 18. Midlife problems Family turmoil In 1903, while Wright was designing a house for Edwin Cheney (a neighbor in Oak Park), he became enamored with Cheney's wife, Mamah. Mamah Borthwick Cheney was a modern woman with interests outside the home. She was an early feminist, and Wright viewed her as his intellectual equal. Their relationship became the talk of the town; they often could be seen taking rides in Wright's automobile through Oak Park.[citation needed] In 1909, Wright and Mamah Cheney met up in Europe, leaving their spouses and children behind. Wright remained in Europe for almost a year, first in Florence, Italy (where he lived with his eldest son Lloyd) and, later, in Fiesole, Italy, where he lived with Mamah. During this time, Edwin Cheney granted Mamah a divorce, though Kitty still refused to grant one to her husband.[citation needed] After Wright returned to the United States in October 1910, he persuaded his mother to buy land for him in Spring Green, Wisconsin. The land, bought on April 10, 1911, was adjacent to land held by his mother's family, the Lloyd-Joneses. Wright began to build himself a new home, which he called Taliesin, by May 1911. The recurring theme of Taliesin also came from his mother's side: Taliesin in Welsh mythology was a poet, magician, and priest. The family motto, "Y Gwir yn Erbyn y Byd" ("The Truth Against the World"), was taken from the Welsh poet Iolo Morganwg, who also had a son named Taliesin. The motto is still used today as the cry of the druids and chief bard of the Eisteddfod in Wales.[67]
  • 19. Tragedy at Taliesin On August 15, 1914, while Wright was working in Chicago, a servant (Julian Carlton) set fire to the living quarters of Taliesin and then murdered seven people with an axe as the fire burned.[68][69][70] The dead included Mamah; her two children, John and Martha Cheney; a gardener (David Lindblom); a draftsman (Emil Brodelle); a workman (Thomas Brunker); and another workman's son (Ernest Weston). Two people survived the mayhem, one of whom, William Weston, helped to put out the fire that almost completely consumed the residential wing of the house. Carlton swallowed hydrochloric acid immediately following the attack in an attempt to kill himself.[69] He was nearly lynched on the spot, but was taken to the Dodgeville jail.[69] Carlton died from starvation seven weeks after the attack, despite medical attention.[69] Divorces In 1922, Kitty Wright finally granted Wright a divorce. Under the terms of the divorce, Wright was required to wait one year before he could marry his then-mistress, Maude "Miriam" Noel. In 1923, Wright's mother, Anna (Lloyd Jones) Wright, died. Wright wed Miriam Noel in November 1923, but her addiction to morphine led to the failure of the marriage in less than one year.[71] In 1924, after the separation, but while still married, Wright met Olga (Olgivanna) Lazovich Hinzenburg. They moved in together at Taliesin in 1925, and soon after Olgivanna became pregnant. Their daughter, Iovanna, was born on December 3, 1925.[72][73] On April 20, 1925, another fire destroyed the bungalow at Taliesin. Crossed wires from a newly installed telephone system were deemed to be responsible for the blaze, which destroyed a collection of Japanese prints that Wright estimated to be worth $250,000 to $500,000 ($3,863,000 to $7,726,000 in 2021).[74] Wright rebuilt the living quarters, naming the home "Taliesin III".[75] In 1926, Olga's ex-husband, Vlademar Hinzenburg, sought custody of his daughter, Svetlana. In October 1926, Wright and Olgivanna were accused of violating the Mann Act and arrested in Tonka Bay, Minnesota.[76] The charges were later dropped.[77] Wright and Miriam Noel's divorce was finalized in 1927. Wright was again required to wait for one year before remarrying. Wright and Olgivanna married in 1928.[78][79]
  • 20. Later career[edit] Taliesin Fellowship[edit] In 1932, Wright and his wife Olgivanna put out a call for students to come to Taliesin to study and work under Wright while they learned architecture and spiritual development. Olgivanna Wright had been a student of G. I. Gurdjieff who had previously established a similar school. Twenty-three came to live and work that year, including John (Jack) H. Howe, who would become Wright's chief draftsman.[80] A total of 625 people joined The Fellowship in Wright's lifetime.[81] The Fellowship was a source of workers for Wright's later projects, including: Fallingwater; The Johnson Wax Headquarters; and The Guggenheim Museum in New York City.[82] Considerable controversy exists over the living conditions and education of the fellows.[83][84] Wright was reputedly a difficult person to work with. One apprentice wrote: "He is devoid of consideration and has a blind spot regarding others' qualities. Yet I believe, that a year in his studio would be worth any sacrifice."[85] The Fellowship evolved into The School of Architecture at Taliesin which was an accredited school until it closed under acrimonious circumstances in 2020.[86][87]Taking on the name "The School of Architecture" in June 2020, the school moved to the Cosanti Foundation, which it had worked with in the past.[88] Charles Weltzheimer Residence, Oberlin, Ohio (1948) Usonian Houses Main article: Usonia Wright is responsible for a series of concepts of suburban development united under the term Broadacre City. He proposed the idea in his book The Disappearing City in 1932 and unveiled a 12-square-foot (1.1 m2) model of this community of the future, showing it in several
  • 21. venues in the following years.[citation needed] Concurrent with the development of Broadacre City, also referred to as Usonia, Wright conceived a new type of dwelling that came to be known as the Usonian House. Although an early version of the form can be seen in the Malcolm Willey House (1934) in Minneapolis, the Usonian ideal emerged most completely in the Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House (1937) in Madison, Wisconsin.[citation needed] Designed on a gridded concrete slab that integrated the house's radiant heating system, the house featured new approaches to construction, including walls composed of a "sandwich" of wood siding, plywood cores and building paper – a significant change from typically framed walls.[citation needed] Usonian houses commonly featured flat roofs and were usually constructed without basements or attics, all features that Wright had been promoting since the early 20th century.[89] Usonian houses were Wright's response to the transformation of domestic life that occurred in the early 20th century when servants had become less prominent or completely absent from most American households. By developing homes with progressively more open plans, Wright allotted the woman of the house a "workspace", as he often called the kitchen, where she could keep track of and be available for the children and/or guests in the dining room.[90] As in the Prairie Houses, Usonian living areas had a fireplace as a point of focus. Bedrooms, typically isolated and relatively small, encouraged the family to gather in the main living areas. The conception of spaces instead of rooms was a development of the Prairie ideal.[citation needed] The built-in furnishings related to the Arts and Crafts movement's principles that influenced Wright's early work.[citation needed] Spatially and in terms of their construction, the Usonian houses represented a new model for independent living and allowed dozens of clients to live in a Wright-designed house at relatively low cost.[citation needed] His Usonian homes set a new style for suburban design that influenced countless postwar developers. Many features of modern American homes date back to Wright: open plans, slab-on-grade foundations, and simplified construction techniques that allowed more mechanization and efficiency in building.[91]
  • 22. Significant later works Fallingwater, Mill Run, Pennsylvania (1937) waterfall, it was designed according to Wright's desire to place the occupants close to the natural surroundings. The house was intended to be more of a family getaway, rather than a live-in home.[92] The construction is a series of cantilevered balconies and terraces, using limestone for all verticals and concrete for the horizontals. The house cost $155,000 (equivalent to $2,922,000 in 2021), including the architect's fee of $8,000 (equivalent to $151,000 in 2021). It was one of Wright's most expensive pieces.[92] Kaufmann's own engineers argued that the design was not sound. They were overruled by Wright, but the contractor secretly added extra steel to the horizontal concrete elements. In 1994, Robert Silman and Associates examined the building and developed a plan to restore the structure. In the late 1990s, steel supports were added under the lowest cantilever until a detailed structural analysis could be done. In March 2002, post-tensioning of the lowest terrace was completed.[citation needed]
  • 23. Taliesin West, Wright's winter home and studio complex in Scottsdale, Arizona, was a laboratory for Wright from 1937 to his death in 1959. It is now the home of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation.[93] Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City (1959) The design and construction of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City occupied Wright from 1943 until 1959[94] and is probably his most recognized masterpiece. The building's unique central geometry was meant to allow visitors to easily experience Guggenheim's collection of nonobjective geometric paintings by taking an elevator to the top level and then viewing artworks by walking down the slowly descending, central spiral ramp.[citation needed
  • 24. The only realized skyscraper designed by Wright is the Price Tower, a 19-story tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. It is also one of the two existing vertically oriented Wright structures (the other is theS.C. Johnson Wax Research Tower in Racine, Wisconsin). The Price Tower was commissioned by Harold C. Price of the H. C. Price Company, a local oil pipeline and chemical firm. On March 29, 2007, Price Tower was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior, one of only 20 such properties in Oklahoma.[95] Monona Terrace, originally designed in 1937 as municipal offices for Madison, Wisconsin, was completed in 1997 on the original site, using a variation of Wright's final design for the exterior, with the interior design altered by its new purpose as a convention center. The "as-built" design was carried out by Wright's apprentice Tony Puttnam. Monona Terrace was accompanied by controversy throughout the 60 years between the original design and the completion of the structure.[96] Florida Southern College, located in Lakeland, Florida, constructed 12 (out of 18 planned) Frank Lloyd Wright buildings between 1941 and 1958 as part of the Child of the Sun project. It is the world's largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture.[97] Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma (1956)
  • 25. Design elements An open office area in Wright's Johnson Wax Headquarters complex, Racine, Wisconsin (1939) His Prairie houses use themed, coordinated design elements (often based on plant forms) that are repeated in windows, carpets, and other fittings.[citation needed] He made innovative use of new building materials such as precast concrete blocks, glass bricks, and zinc cames (instead of the traditional lead) for his leadlight windows, and he famously used Pyrex glass tubing as a major element in the Johnson Wax Headquarters.[citation needed] Wright was also one of the first architects to design and install custom- made electric light fittings, including some of the first electric floor lamps, and his very early use of the then-novel spherical glass lampshade (a design previously not possible due to the physical restrictions of gas lighting).[citation needed] In 1897, Wright received a patent for "Prism Glass Tiles" that were used in storefronts to direct light toward the interior.[98] Wright fully embraced glass in his designs and found that it fit well into his philosophy of organic architecture. According to Wright's organic theory, all components of the building should appear unified, as though they belong together. Nothing should be attached to it without considering the effect on the whole. To unify the house to its site, Wright often used large expanses of glass to blur the boundary between the indoors and outdoors.[99] Glass allowed for interaction and viewing of the outdoors while still protecting from the elements. In 1928, Wright wrote an essay on glass in which he compared it to the mirrors of nature: lakes, rivers and ponds.[100] One of Wright's earliest uses of glass in his works was to string panes of glass along whole walls in an attempt to create light screens to join solid walls. By using this large amount of
  • 26. Influences and collaborations Wright-designed window in Robie House, Chicago (1906)