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• Presented by:
Dange Omkar Abaji
PRN No.- 2262701612502
3D Printing:
Study And Performance
of 3D Printing
• Under the Guidance of
Prof. Aamir M. Shaikh
Karmaveer Bhaurao PatilCollege of Engineering, Satara.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere
Rayat Shikshan Sanstha’s
| 2
Content
• Introduction
• Terminology
• Types of 3D Printing
• The Applications of 3D Printing in Manufacturing Technology
• Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing
Industry
• Activity
• Conclusion
• Reference
| 3
Introduction
• 3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional
object is created by laying down successive layers of material..
• It is also known as Additive manufacturing..
• 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are
laid down in different shapes.[1]
| 4
-3D printing is an additive manufacturing process that creates 3 dimensional objects from 3
dimensional digital information.
-3 dimensional digital models are “sliced” into many 2 dimensional cross-sections that are then
“printed” one on top of the other.
-There are other 3D printers that are a subtractive manufacturing process (CNC, milling) but
these are usually considered a separate group and are often referred to as “machining.”[1]
Fig No. 1 – Three Basic Steps of 3D Printing (Additive
Manufacturing) [1]
| 5
Terminology
Additive manufacturing - refers to technologies that create objects through
sequential layering.
Rapid prototyping - is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model
of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD)
data.
Subtractive processes - removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling.
Stereolitho graphy was defined by Charles W. Hull as a "system for generating
three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be
formed“[1]
| 6
Additive Processes.
1. Extrusion deposition (Fused deposition modeling).
2. Granular materials binding.
3. Lamination.
4. Photopolymerization.
5. Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography.
| 7
Extrusion deposition
(Fused Deposition Modeling)
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used
for modeling, prototyping, and production applications.[2]
FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers; a plasticfilament or
metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a part.[2]
Various polymers are used
1. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
2. Polycarbonate (PC),
3. Polylactic Acid (PLA)
4. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
5. PC/ABS
6. Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU).[2]
| 8
1 - Nozzle ejecting molten plastic
2 - deposited material (modeled part)
3 - controlled movable table
Fig No. 2 - Extrusion deposition
(Fused Deposition Modeling)[2]
| 9
Granular Materials Binding.
1. The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area
downwards,adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece
has built up..
2. This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the
partbeing produced..
3. A laser is typically used to sinter the media into a solid.[3]
| 10
5. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) - uses lasers as its power source to sinter
powderedmaterial, binding it together to create a solid structure..
6. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) - uses 3D CAD data as a digital information
source andenergy in the form of a high powered laser to create three- dimensional
metal parts byfusing fine metallic powders together..
7. Electron beam melting (EBM) - EBM manufactures parts by melting metal
powderlayer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.[3]
Granular Materials Binding
| 11
Fig No. 3 - Granular Materials Binding.[3]
| 12
Lamination.
1. Sheet is adhered to a substrate with a heated roller..
2. Laser traces desired dimensions of prototype..
3. Laser cross hatches non-part area to facilitate waste removal..
4. Platform with completed layer moves down out of the way..
5. Fresh sheet of material is rolled into position..
6. Platform moves up into position to receive next layer.
7. The process is repeated.[4]
| 13
1. Foil supply
2. Heated roller
3. Laser beam
4. Scanning prism
5. Laser unit
6. Layers
7. Moving platform
8. Waste
Fig No. 4 - Laminated object Manufacturing(LOM)
| 14
Photopolymerization.
• Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography (SLA) to produce a solid part
from a liquid..
• In Digital Light Processing (DLP), a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP
projector under safelight conditions. The exposed liquid polymer hardens..
•
• The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again
exposed to light.. The process repeats until the model has been built..
• Inkjet printer systems like the Objet Poly Jet system spray photopolymer materials onto a
build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 um) until the part is completed.
| 15
Fig No. 5 - Photo polymerization
| 16
Applications of 3D Printing
 3D Printing has endless capabilities that can be applied to any industry
you can think of!
 Here are some examples of the various industries that 3D Printing is utilized.
• Automotive
• Consumer Goods
• Healthcare/Medical
• Gaming/Film
• Art/History
• Manufacturing
• Construction
• Food Fig No. 6 – Examples of 3D
Printing use in Various Industries
| 17
Applications of 3D Printing: Prototyping
 3D Printing helps bring ideas to life. Therefore, it is widely used during
the design, development and test stages of the design process.
 Prototype – physical model of a concept or idea.
 Since 3D Printing is inexpensive and easy to use, designers can create a
rendering of an idea for a project using software such as SolidWorks or Creo
and can print their idea to show to the team.
 Then they can make changes and print another prototype again to test their
designs before making the final product.
| 18
Automotive
 3D Printing is used in the automotive
industry to make…
• Special Tooling and Fixtures for unique parts
• Make prototypes for parts to test
• Can make customized pieces for specific cars
• Can create parts that have complex geometries
 Regular manufacturing machines could not produce
Fig No. 7 - Examples of 3D Printing
use in Automotive
| 19
Healthcare
 3D Printing is used in the
healthcare industry to make…
• Customized casts that fit perfectly to
each patient
• Research in 3D Printing human tissue!
• Make prototypes for parts to test
• Can 3D Print molds of teeth for
Orthodontics Fig No. 8 – Examples of 3D Printing
use in Healthcare
| 20
Construction
 3D Printing has been used to create
affordable housing by 3D printing houses
using cement and other building material.
 Need Industrial Sized 3D Printers
 Much faster than traditional methods
 More cost effective
Fig No. 9 - Examples of 3D Printing
use in Construction
| 21
Film, Entertainment & Gaming
 3D Printing is used by many make-up
artists in the film industry to create
unique props and characters
 For Example:
• Rick Baker – make up artist for Star Wars
• Using 3D printing to create monsters and props
• He was able to save so much time by printing
specific pieces
Fig No. 10 - Examples of 3D Printing
use in Film & Gaming
| 22
Food
 In 2006 NASA started testing 3D printed
food for astronauts who had long
missions in space
 So many opportunities for 3D Printing Food
Such as…
• Discovering different flavors, textures and
recipes
• Reducing Food Waste
 Already experimenting with pasta, vegetables and
chocolate.
Fig No. 11 - Photo Examples of 3D Printing
use in Food
| 23
• Metals
• Polymers
• Ceramics [12]
Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing
Industry
| 24
• Metals
Metal 3D printing technology gain many attentions in aerospace, automobile,
medical application and manufacturing industry because the advantages existing
by this process
The examples of this materials are aluminium alloys, cobalt-based alloys, nickel-
based alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys. Cobalt-based alloy is suitable to
use in the 3D printed dental application. This is because, it has high specific
stiffness, resilience, high recovery capacity, elongation and heat-treated conditions
[12]. Furthermore, 3D printing technology has capability to produce aerospace
parts by using nickel base alloys [13].
Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing
Industry
| 25
• Polymers
3D printing technologies are widely used for the production of polymer
components from prototypes to functional structures with difficult geometries [14].
By using fused deposition modelling (FDM), it can form a 3D printed through the
deposition of successive layers of extruded thermoplastic filament, such as
polylactic acid (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polypropylene (PP)
or polyethylene (PE) [13]. Lately, thermoplastics filaments with higher melting
temperatures such as PEEK and PMMA can already be used as materials for 3D
printing technology [13].
Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing
Industry
| 26
• Ceramics
3D printing technology can produce 3D printed object by using ceramics and
concrete without large pores or any cracks through optimization of the parameters
and setup the good mechanical properties [12]. Ceramic is strong, durable and fire
resistant. Due to its fluid state before setting, ceramics can be applied in practically
any geometry and shape and very suitable on the creation of future construction
and building [13]. According to, they said ceramics materials is useful in the dental
and aerospace application. The examples of this materials are alumina, bioactive
glasses and zirconia [12].
Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing
Industry
| 27
Activity
 How 3D Printing is helping to Combat Global Issues - Housing
Crisis
• A company called icon, created a 3D printer called the Vulcan which can create a
full-size 3D printed house!
• The company is partnering with multiple non-profits to create the worlds first 3D
printed housing community to help those in need.
• Watch the following video and answer the questions on the worksheet to see how 3D
printing is positively impacting the world. [9]
| 28
Conclusion
 There are SO many different applications of 3D printing, and it
can be applied to every industry! As 3D Printing expands, there
will be more and more opportunities to use 3D Printing to help
improve out lives!
| 29
[1] Tess, “Indian jewelry brand Isharya unveils ‘Infinite Petals’ 3D printer jewelry collection,” 3D Printer and 3D Printing News, 2017.
[Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20170412-indian-jewelry-brand-isharya-unveils-infinite-petals-3d-printed-kewelry-
collection.html. [Accessed 2019].
[2] Thomas, “GE Transportation to produce up to 250 3D printed locomotive parts by 2025,” 3D Printer and 3D Printing News, 2018 a.
[Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20180928-ge-transportation-to-produce-up-to-250-3d-printed-locomotive-parts-by-
2025.html
[3] Thomas, “Paul G. Allen's Stratolaunch space venture uses 3D printing to develop PGA rocket engine.”, 3D Printer and 3D Printing
News. 2018 b, [Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20181001-paul-g-allens-stratolaunch-space-venture-uses-3d-printing-to-
developpga-rocket-engine.html. [Accessed 2019].
[4] ISO/PRF 17296-1,"Additive manufacturing -- General principles -- Part 1: Terminology", 2015.
[5] P. Holzmann, J. Robert, A. Aqeel Breitenecker, Soomro, & J. S. Erich, “User entrepreneur business models in 3D printing,” Journal of
Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 75-94, 2017.
[6] Thomas, “3D printed jellyfish robots created to monitor fragile coral reefs,” 3D Printer and 3D Printing News, 2018. [Online].
Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20181003-3d-printed-jellyfish-robots-created-to-monitor-fragile-coral-reefs.html. [ Accessed
2019].
Reference
| 30
[7] S. Vikayavenkataraman, Y.H.F. Jerry, & F.L. Wen, “3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics,” Bioengineering, Vol. 4, No.63, pp. 1-
11, 2017
[8] M. Lang, “An overview of laser metal deposition,” A publication of the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, 2017. [Online].
Available: https://www.thefabricator.com/article/additive/an-overview-of-laser-metal-deposition. [Accessed 2019].
[9]Hasiuk, F., and Harding, C. (2016). Touchable Topography: 3D Printing Elevation Data and Structural Models to Overcome the Issue of
Scale. Geology. Today. 32, 16–20. doi:10.1111/gto.12125
[10] M. D. Ugur, B. Gharehpapagh, U. Yaman, & M. Dolen, “The role of additive manufacturing in the era of Industry 4.0,” Procedia
Manufacturing, Vol. 11, pp. 545-554, 2017.
[11] D.J. Horst, C.A. Duvoisin, & R.A. Viera, “Additive manufacturing at Industry 4.0: a review,” International Journal of Engineering and
Technical Research, Vol. 8, No.8, pp. 1-8, 2018.
[12] M. D. Ugur, B. Gharehpapagh, U. Yaman, & M. Dolen, “The role of additive manufacturing in the era of Industry 4.0,” Procedia
Manufacturing, Vol. 11, pp. 545-554, 2017.
[13] L. Hitzler, F. Alifui-Segbaya, P. William, B. Heine, M. Heitzmann, W. Hall, M. Merkel, & A. Ochner, “Additive manufacturing of
cobalt based dental alloys: analysis of microstructure and physicomechanical properties,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering,
Vol. 8, pp. 1-12, 2018.
Reference
| 31

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Presentation on 3D Printing.pptx presentation

  • 1. • Presented by: Dange Omkar Abaji PRN No.- 2262701612502 3D Printing: Study And Performance of 3D Printing • Under the Guidance of Prof. Aamir M. Shaikh Karmaveer Bhaurao PatilCollege of Engineering, Satara. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere Rayat Shikshan Sanstha’s
  • 2. | 2 Content • Introduction • Terminology • Types of 3D Printing • The Applications of 3D Printing in Manufacturing Technology • Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Industry • Activity • Conclusion • Reference
  • 3. | 3 Introduction • 3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material.. • It is also known as Additive manufacturing.. • 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes.[1]
  • 4. | 4 -3D printing is an additive manufacturing process that creates 3 dimensional objects from 3 dimensional digital information. -3 dimensional digital models are “sliced” into many 2 dimensional cross-sections that are then “printed” one on top of the other. -There are other 3D printers that are a subtractive manufacturing process (CNC, milling) but these are usually considered a separate group and are often referred to as “machining.”[1] Fig No. 1 – Three Basic Steps of 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) [1]
  • 5. | 5 Terminology Additive manufacturing - refers to technologies that create objects through sequential layering. Rapid prototyping - is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data. Subtractive processes - removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling. Stereolitho graphy was defined by Charles W. Hull as a "system for generating three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed“[1]
  • 6. | 6 Additive Processes. 1. Extrusion deposition (Fused deposition modeling). 2. Granular materials binding. 3. Lamination. 4. Photopolymerization. 5. Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography.
  • 7. | 7 Extrusion deposition (Fused Deposition Modeling) Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used for modeling, prototyping, and production applications.[2] FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers; a plasticfilament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a part.[2] Various polymers are used 1. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) 2. Polycarbonate (PC), 3. Polylactic Acid (PLA) 4. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) 5. PC/ABS 6. Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU).[2]
  • 8. | 8 1 - Nozzle ejecting molten plastic 2 - deposited material (modeled part) 3 - controlled movable table Fig No. 2 - Extrusion deposition (Fused Deposition Modeling)[2]
  • 9. | 9 Granular Materials Binding. 1. The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area downwards,adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up.. 2. This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the partbeing produced.. 3. A laser is typically used to sinter the media into a solid.[3]
  • 10. | 10 5. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) - uses lasers as its power source to sinter powderedmaterial, binding it together to create a solid structure.. 6. Selective Laser Melting (SLM) - uses 3D CAD data as a digital information source andenergy in the form of a high powered laser to create three- dimensional metal parts byfusing fine metallic powders together.. 7. Electron beam melting (EBM) - EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powderlayer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.[3] Granular Materials Binding
  • 11. | 11 Fig No. 3 - Granular Materials Binding.[3]
  • 12. | 12 Lamination. 1. Sheet is adhered to a substrate with a heated roller.. 2. Laser traces desired dimensions of prototype.. 3. Laser cross hatches non-part area to facilitate waste removal.. 4. Platform with completed layer moves down out of the way.. 5. Fresh sheet of material is rolled into position.. 6. Platform moves up into position to receive next layer. 7. The process is repeated.[4]
  • 13. | 13 1. Foil supply 2. Heated roller 3. Laser beam 4. Scanning prism 5. Laser unit 6. Layers 7. Moving platform 8. Waste Fig No. 4 - Laminated object Manufacturing(LOM)
  • 14. | 14 Photopolymerization. • Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography (SLA) to produce a solid part from a liquid.. • In Digital Light Processing (DLP), a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP projector under safelight conditions. The exposed liquid polymer hardens.. • • The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again exposed to light.. The process repeats until the model has been built.. • Inkjet printer systems like the Objet Poly Jet system spray photopolymer materials onto a build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 um) until the part is completed.
  • 15. | 15 Fig No. 5 - Photo polymerization
  • 16. | 16 Applications of 3D Printing  3D Printing has endless capabilities that can be applied to any industry you can think of!  Here are some examples of the various industries that 3D Printing is utilized. • Automotive • Consumer Goods • Healthcare/Medical • Gaming/Film • Art/History • Manufacturing • Construction • Food Fig No. 6 – Examples of 3D Printing use in Various Industries
  • 17. | 17 Applications of 3D Printing: Prototyping  3D Printing helps bring ideas to life. Therefore, it is widely used during the design, development and test stages of the design process.  Prototype – physical model of a concept or idea.  Since 3D Printing is inexpensive and easy to use, designers can create a rendering of an idea for a project using software such as SolidWorks or Creo and can print their idea to show to the team.  Then they can make changes and print another prototype again to test their designs before making the final product.
  • 18. | 18 Automotive  3D Printing is used in the automotive industry to make… • Special Tooling and Fixtures for unique parts • Make prototypes for parts to test • Can make customized pieces for specific cars • Can create parts that have complex geometries  Regular manufacturing machines could not produce Fig No. 7 - Examples of 3D Printing use in Automotive
  • 19. | 19 Healthcare  3D Printing is used in the healthcare industry to make… • Customized casts that fit perfectly to each patient • Research in 3D Printing human tissue! • Make prototypes for parts to test • Can 3D Print molds of teeth for Orthodontics Fig No. 8 – Examples of 3D Printing use in Healthcare
  • 20. | 20 Construction  3D Printing has been used to create affordable housing by 3D printing houses using cement and other building material.  Need Industrial Sized 3D Printers  Much faster than traditional methods  More cost effective Fig No. 9 - Examples of 3D Printing use in Construction
  • 21. | 21 Film, Entertainment & Gaming  3D Printing is used by many make-up artists in the film industry to create unique props and characters  For Example: • Rick Baker – make up artist for Star Wars • Using 3D printing to create monsters and props • He was able to save so much time by printing specific pieces Fig No. 10 - Examples of 3D Printing use in Film & Gaming
  • 22. | 22 Food  In 2006 NASA started testing 3D printed food for astronauts who had long missions in space  So many opportunities for 3D Printing Food Such as… • Discovering different flavors, textures and recipes • Reducing Food Waste  Already experimenting with pasta, vegetables and chocolate. Fig No. 11 - Photo Examples of 3D Printing use in Food
  • 23. | 23 • Metals • Polymers • Ceramics [12] Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Industry
  • 24. | 24 • Metals Metal 3D printing technology gain many attentions in aerospace, automobile, medical application and manufacturing industry because the advantages existing by this process The examples of this materials are aluminium alloys, cobalt-based alloys, nickel- based alloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys. Cobalt-based alloy is suitable to use in the 3D printed dental application. This is because, it has high specific stiffness, resilience, high recovery capacity, elongation and heat-treated conditions [12]. Furthermore, 3D printing technology has capability to produce aerospace parts by using nickel base alloys [13]. Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Industry
  • 25. | 25 • Polymers 3D printing technologies are widely used for the production of polymer components from prototypes to functional structures with difficult geometries [14]. By using fused deposition modelling (FDM), it can form a 3D printed through the deposition of successive layers of extruded thermoplastic filament, such as polylactic acid (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE) [13]. Lately, thermoplastics filaments with higher melting temperatures such as PEEK and PMMA can already be used as materials for 3D printing technology [13]. Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Industry
  • 26. | 26 • Ceramics 3D printing technology can produce 3D printed object by using ceramics and concrete without large pores or any cracks through optimization of the parameters and setup the good mechanical properties [12]. Ceramic is strong, durable and fire resistant. Due to its fluid state before setting, ceramics can be applied in practically any geometry and shape and very suitable on the creation of future construction and building [13]. According to, they said ceramics materials is useful in the dental and aerospace application. The examples of this materials are alumina, bioactive glasses and zirconia [12]. Materials Used for 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Industry
  • 27. | 27 Activity  How 3D Printing is helping to Combat Global Issues - Housing Crisis • A company called icon, created a 3D printer called the Vulcan which can create a full-size 3D printed house! • The company is partnering with multiple non-profits to create the worlds first 3D printed housing community to help those in need. • Watch the following video and answer the questions on the worksheet to see how 3D printing is positively impacting the world. [9]
  • 28. | 28 Conclusion  There are SO many different applications of 3D printing, and it can be applied to every industry! As 3D Printing expands, there will be more and more opportunities to use 3D Printing to help improve out lives!
  • 29. | 29 [1] Tess, “Indian jewelry brand Isharya unveils ‘Infinite Petals’ 3D printer jewelry collection,” 3D Printer and 3D Printing News, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20170412-indian-jewelry-brand-isharya-unveils-infinite-petals-3d-printed-kewelry- collection.html. [Accessed 2019]. [2] Thomas, “GE Transportation to produce up to 250 3D printed locomotive parts by 2025,” 3D Printer and 3D Printing News, 2018 a. [Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20180928-ge-transportation-to-produce-up-to-250-3d-printed-locomotive-parts-by- 2025.html [3] Thomas, “Paul G. Allen's Stratolaunch space venture uses 3D printing to develop PGA rocket engine.”, 3D Printer and 3D Printing News. 2018 b, [Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20181001-paul-g-allens-stratolaunch-space-venture-uses-3d-printing-to- developpga-rocket-engine.html. [Accessed 2019]. [4] ISO/PRF 17296-1,"Additive manufacturing -- General principles -- Part 1: Terminology", 2015. [5] P. Holzmann, J. Robert, A. Aqeel Breitenecker, Soomro, & J. S. Erich, “User entrepreneur business models in 3D printing,” Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 75-94, 2017. [6] Thomas, “3D printed jellyfish robots created to monitor fragile coral reefs,” 3D Printer and 3D Printing News, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://www.3ders.org/articles/20181003-3d-printed-jellyfish-robots-created-to-monitor-fragile-coral-reefs.html. [ Accessed 2019]. Reference
  • 30. | 30 [7] S. Vikayavenkataraman, Y.H.F. Jerry, & F.L. Wen, “3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics,” Bioengineering, Vol. 4, No.63, pp. 1- 11, 2017 [8] M. Lang, “An overview of laser metal deposition,” A publication of the Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.thefabricator.com/article/additive/an-overview-of-laser-metal-deposition. [Accessed 2019]. [9]Hasiuk, F., and Harding, C. (2016). Touchable Topography: 3D Printing Elevation Data and Structural Models to Overcome the Issue of Scale. Geology. Today. 32, 16–20. doi:10.1111/gto.12125 [10] M. D. Ugur, B. Gharehpapagh, U. Yaman, & M. Dolen, “The role of additive manufacturing in the era of Industry 4.0,” Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 11, pp. 545-554, 2017. [11] D.J. Horst, C.A. Duvoisin, & R.A. Viera, “Additive manufacturing at Industry 4.0: a review,” International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, Vol. 8, No.8, pp. 1-8, 2018. [12] M. D. Ugur, B. Gharehpapagh, U. Yaman, & M. Dolen, “The role of additive manufacturing in the era of Industry 4.0,” Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 11, pp. 545-554, 2017. [13] L. Hitzler, F. Alifui-Segbaya, P. William, B. Heine, M. Heitzmann, W. Hall, M. Merkel, & A. Ochner, “Additive manufacturing of cobalt based dental alloys: analysis of microstructure and physicomechanical properties,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 8, pp. 1-12, 2018. Reference
  • 31. | 31

Editor's Notes

  1. https://www.raise3d.com/case/3d-printing-in-automotive/
  2. https://www.raise3d.com/case/3d-printing-in-automotive/
  3. https://www.raise3d.com/case/monsters-and-makeup-effects-with-rick-baker/
  4. https://www.3dnatives.com/en/3d-printing-food-a-new-revolution-in-cooking/#!