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UNIT 8: PREHISTORY
1. What is Prehistory?
We can define prehistory as the period
of human development during the time
before the discovery of writing.
Prehistory extends from
the emergence of our first ancestors ,
about five million years ago,
to the invention of writing,
about 5,000 years ago.
Prehistory is divided into three periods:
● The Palaeolithic Age extends from the appearance
of our first ancestors to about 11,000 years ago.
Human beings lived from hunting and gathering.
● The Neolithic Age began about 11,000 years ago.
Groups of human beings started to live in
villages. They practised agriculture and raised
cattle.
● The Metal Ages began about 7,000 years ago.
Human beings learned to use metals to make
objects.
2. What were early human beings like?
AUSTRALOPITHECUS
These appeared about five million years ago. They
were very similar to chimpanzees. However, the
Australopithecus normally walked on two feet.
HOMO HABILIS
These appeared two million years ago. Their
brain was bigger. Their name “habilis” means
skilful. They made stone tools and lived from
hunting and gathering
HOMO ERECTUS
These appeared one
and a half million
years ago. They
walked upright. This
was the first species
to live outside
Africa. They lived in
Europe and Asia.
They discovered fire.
HOMO ANTECESSOR
The
remains
oldest
in
appeared in
human
Europe
Atapuerca,
Spain. They are 800,000
years old.
NEANDERTHAL MAN
Neanderthals
species who
were
lived
a different
in Europe
150,000 years ago. They were
stronger than we are but
shorter. They were the first
species to bury their dead. It
seems they were able to speak.
HOMO SAPIENS
Our species appeared in Africa about
130,000 years ago. Homo sapiens were
slimmer but taller than Neanderthals.
They were able to make finer tools.
They also created art.
3. How did people live in the Palaeolithic Age?
Life in a cave
Many activities
were carried out
in the open air
during daytime
Life in the Palaeolithic Age
The first human beings:
● Lived from hunting, fishing and gathering wild fruit
● They were nomadic: they did not live in a fixed
place.
● They lived outdoors, in caves, or in wood huts.
● They were organised in small tribes, made up of
members of the same family.
Palaeolithic Stone Age
=
Men and women made tools and objects of
stone. They used them to hunt and cut
animals' skins and meat.
Fire was discovered about
half a million years ago. It
was an extremely important
discovery. Early human
beings used fire to heat
their caves, cook food and
drive wild animals away
Rites and beliefs
Our ancestors believed in supernatural forces
which helped them in hunting or when giving
birth. They also thought these divinities caused
disease and death. That is why they had
different rites to ask these divinities for help.
They buried the dead. They also buried
weapons, jewellery and food with the bodies.
4. What was Palaeolithic art like?
About 35,000 years ago, human beings started
decorating caves with paintings. This type of art is
called cave art.
Palaeolithic paintings had the following characteristics:
● Animals, such as deer, bison, horses and mammoths,
were often represented.
● The paintings were realistic. The relief surface of the
cave was used to give them volume.
● Several colours were used.
● Minerals were mixed with egg white to make the
colours. Animal hair was used to make brushes.
5. How did people live in the Neolithic Age?
In the Neolithic Age,
human beings learned
how to domesticate
animals and cultivate
plants
Neolithic means “new stone”
How did agriculture start?
The discovery of agriculture took place about
11,000 years ago. Human beings observed that
plants grew when seeds fell on the ground. This is
how agriculture started.
Cereals were cultivated:
● Wheat was cultivated in the Middle East and Europe
● Rice was cultivated in Asia
● Corn was cultivated in America
In this period, goats, sheep, oxen, horses and dogs
were domesticated
Farming and agriculture made it possible for people
to settle in a particular area. When they had enough
food, they started to store it.
A pot
They became sedentary and built villages, generally
located near rivers. Work become specialised in the
villages. Some people worked the land, other people
raised cattle, and the rest were artisans. This series
of changes is called the Neolitic revolution.
6. How did people live in the Metal Ages?
About 7,000 years ago, human beings began to make
metal objects. The first metal they used was copper,
but it was not very strong. Later, they used bronze and
iron to make tools, weapons, and jewellery.
7. What were Megalithic monuments?
In the last years of the Neolithic Age, and during the
Metal Ages, monuments were built with big blocks of
stone. These were called megaliths.
Menhir
Dolmen Stone circles

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prehistory-160107201447 (1).pptx

  • 2. 1. What is Prehistory? We can define prehistory as the period of human development during the time before the discovery of writing. Prehistory extends from the emergence of our first ancestors , about five million years ago, to the invention of writing, about 5,000 years ago.
  • 3.
  • 4. Prehistory is divided into three periods: ● The Palaeolithic Age extends from the appearance of our first ancestors to about 11,000 years ago. Human beings lived from hunting and gathering. ● The Neolithic Age began about 11,000 years ago. Groups of human beings started to live in villages. They practised agriculture and raised cattle. ● The Metal Ages began about 7,000 years ago. Human beings learned to use metals to make objects.
  • 5. 2. What were early human beings like?
  • 6. AUSTRALOPITHECUS These appeared about five million years ago. They were very similar to chimpanzees. However, the Australopithecus normally walked on two feet. HOMO HABILIS These appeared two million years ago. Their brain was bigger. Their name “habilis” means skilful. They made stone tools and lived from hunting and gathering
  • 7. HOMO ERECTUS These appeared one and a half million years ago. They walked upright. This was the first species to live outside Africa. They lived in Europe and Asia. They discovered fire.
  • 9. NEANDERTHAL MAN Neanderthals species who were lived a different in Europe 150,000 years ago. They were stronger than we are but shorter. They were the first species to bury their dead. It seems they were able to speak.
  • 10. HOMO SAPIENS Our species appeared in Africa about 130,000 years ago. Homo sapiens were slimmer but taller than Neanderthals. They were able to make finer tools. They also created art.
  • 11. 3. How did people live in the Palaeolithic Age? Life in a cave Many activities were carried out in the open air during daytime
  • 12. Life in the Palaeolithic Age The first human beings: ● Lived from hunting, fishing and gathering wild fruit ● They were nomadic: they did not live in a fixed place. ● They lived outdoors, in caves, or in wood huts. ● They were organised in small tribes, made up of members of the same family.
  • 13. Palaeolithic Stone Age = Men and women made tools and objects of stone. They used them to hunt and cut animals' skins and meat. Fire was discovered about half a million years ago. It was an extremely important discovery. Early human beings used fire to heat their caves, cook food and drive wild animals away
  • 14. Rites and beliefs Our ancestors believed in supernatural forces which helped them in hunting or when giving birth. They also thought these divinities caused disease and death. That is why they had different rites to ask these divinities for help. They buried the dead. They also buried weapons, jewellery and food with the bodies.
  • 15. 4. What was Palaeolithic art like? About 35,000 years ago, human beings started decorating caves with paintings. This type of art is called cave art.
  • 16. Palaeolithic paintings had the following characteristics: ● Animals, such as deer, bison, horses and mammoths, were often represented. ● The paintings were realistic. The relief surface of the cave was used to give them volume. ● Several colours were used. ● Minerals were mixed with egg white to make the colours. Animal hair was used to make brushes.
  • 17. 5. How did people live in the Neolithic Age? In the Neolithic Age, human beings learned how to domesticate animals and cultivate plants Neolithic means “new stone”
  • 18. How did agriculture start? The discovery of agriculture took place about 11,000 years ago. Human beings observed that plants grew when seeds fell on the ground. This is how agriculture started. Cereals were cultivated: ● Wheat was cultivated in the Middle East and Europe ● Rice was cultivated in Asia ● Corn was cultivated in America
  • 19. In this period, goats, sheep, oxen, horses and dogs were domesticated
  • 20. Farming and agriculture made it possible for people to settle in a particular area. When they had enough food, they started to store it. A pot
  • 21. They became sedentary and built villages, generally located near rivers. Work become specialised in the villages. Some people worked the land, other people raised cattle, and the rest were artisans. This series of changes is called the Neolitic revolution.
  • 22. 6. How did people live in the Metal Ages? About 7,000 years ago, human beings began to make metal objects. The first metal they used was copper, but it was not very strong. Later, they used bronze and iron to make tools, weapons, and jewellery.
  • 23. 7. What were Megalithic monuments? In the last years of the Neolithic Age, and during the Metal Ages, monuments were built with big blocks of stone. These were called megaliths. Menhir Dolmen Stone circles