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PLA NANOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED BY CELLULOSE NANOWHISKERS:
INFLUENCE OF THE PREPARATION ON THE FINAL PROPERTIES
B. Ruelle2, L. Bonnaud2, Ph. Dubois1,2
1.Center of Innovation and Research in MAterials & Polymers (CIRMAP), University of Mons, 20 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons – Belgium
2. Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons - Belgium
ILLUSTRATION OF THE DIFFERENT COMPOSITES
[1] G. Siqueira, J. Bras, et A. Dufresne, “Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications,”
Polymers, vol. 2, n°. 4, p. 728-765, 2010.
[2] A.-L. Goffin, " Polymer bionanocomposites reinforced by functionalized nanoparticles: impact of nanofiller size, nature and
composition", PhD thesis, University of Mons, 2010
MELT
BLENDING
REACTIVE
EXTRUSION
PLA
Keeping in mind environmental problems and the consequence of the fossil resources rarefaction, a new category of materials has been developed
over the last years: the cellulosic bionanocomposites which designate biopolymer combinated with cellulosic nanofillers. Besides the low cost of the
raw material, the use of cellulose nanoparticles as a reinforcing phase in nanocomposites has numerous advantages such as low density, high
availability through the world, high specific properties, reactive surface or biodegradability of the cellulose [1]. However, the cellulose nanoparticles
present also some disadvantages, mainly, high moisture absorption, relative low degradation temperature and incompatibility with hydrophobic
polymers due to strong hydrophilic interactions between nanoparticles.
Polylactide (PLA, Nature Works, Mn=130000g/mol, 4.4%-D) nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose nanowhiskers extracted from ramie (CNW)
were prepared through different ways and their morphological and mechanical properties were characterized. The different ways of preparation are
melt blending, reactive extrusion, solvent casting, and compatibilization of the cellulose surface with PLA chains grafting [2].
Evidence of the good CNWs dispersion in the
composite filled with CNW-g-PLA
EFFECTS OF PLA GRAFTING ON THE
DISPERSION OF CNWS IN PLA
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
(YOUNG’S MODULUS)
Authors highly thank the « La Wallonie » for the financial support in the frame of the project MODICELL and
Dr K. Xiaoxing, Dr C. Bittencourt and Prof G. Van Tendeloo from EMAT, University of Antwerp for the HR-TEM images.
CIRMAP thanks the Belgian Federal Government Office Policy of Science (SSTC) for general support in the frame of the
PAI-6/27.
Different ways of preparation of PLA filled with 5wt% of CNW have been considered such as melt
blending, reactive extrusion, solvent casting and melt blending using PLA-grafted CNW.
The rigidity and crystallinity remain unmodified. The best dispersion state of CNW is obtained after
addition of PLA grafted NWC as observed macro- and microscopically.
It will be interesting to determine the barrier properties of these highly NWC dispersed materials.
2 cm
1cm
PLA +
5wt% CNW
1 cm
PLA +
5wt% PLA-g-MA +
5wt% CNW
PLA +
5wt% CNW
SOLVENT
CASTING
1 cm
CNW COMPATIBILIZATION:
PLA CHAINS GRAFTING
1 cm
PLA +
CNW-g-PLA
(5wt% CNW)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Young’sModulus(Mpa)
%crystallinity
No effect of CNW (5wt%) introduction
on the rigidity and the crystallinity of PLA
100nm
20nm
100nm
20nm
MELT
BLENDING
CNW COMPATIBILIZATION:
PLA CHAINS GRAFTING
Presence of macroscopic CNW aggregates in every
samples except for composite filled with CNW-g-PLA
Solvent :chloroform
16 hours magnetic stirring
Drying at ambient temperature
Experimental
conditions
Mini-extruder at 165°C
at 100 rpm for 5 minutes
Mini-extruder at 165°C
at 100 rpm for 5 minutes
With addition of 5wt% PLA-MA
Preparation of CNW-g-PLA by ROP of L-Lactide
in toluene with SnOct2 at 80°C for 24h
Precipitation in heptane, drying
Mini-extruder at 165°C
at 100 rpm for 5 minutes
High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy images
EMAT, University of Antwerp

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PLA NANOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED BY CELLULOSE NANOWHISKERS: INFLUENCE OF THE PREPARATION ON THE FINAL PROPERTIE

  • 1. PLA NANOCOMPOSITES REINFORCED BY CELLULOSE NANOWHISKERS: INFLUENCE OF THE PREPARATION ON THE FINAL PROPERTIES B. Ruelle2, L. Bonnaud2, Ph. Dubois1,2 1.Center of Innovation and Research in MAterials & Polymers (CIRMAP), University of Mons, 20 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons – Belgium 2. Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons - Belgium ILLUSTRATION OF THE DIFFERENT COMPOSITES [1] G. Siqueira, J. Bras, et A. Dufresne, “Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications,” Polymers, vol. 2, n°. 4, p. 728-765, 2010. [2] A.-L. Goffin, " Polymer bionanocomposites reinforced by functionalized nanoparticles: impact of nanofiller size, nature and composition", PhD thesis, University of Mons, 2010 MELT BLENDING REACTIVE EXTRUSION PLA Keeping in mind environmental problems and the consequence of the fossil resources rarefaction, a new category of materials has been developed over the last years: the cellulosic bionanocomposites which designate biopolymer combinated with cellulosic nanofillers. Besides the low cost of the raw material, the use of cellulose nanoparticles as a reinforcing phase in nanocomposites has numerous advantages such as low density, high availability through the world, high specific properties, reactive surface or biodegradability of the cellulose [1]. However, the cellulose nanoparticles present also some disadvantages, mainly, high moisture absorption, relative low degradation temperature and incompatibility with hydrophobic polymers due to strong hydrophilic interactions between nanoparticles. Polylactide (PLA, Nature Works, Mn=130000g/mol, 4.4%-D) nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose nanowhiskers extracted from ramie (CNW) were prepared through different ways and their morphological and mechanical properties were characterized. The different ways of preparation are melt blending, reactive extrusion, solvent casting, and compatibilization of the cellulose surface with PLA chains grafting [2]. Evidence of the good CNWs dispersion in the composite filled with CNW-g-PLA EFFECTS OF PLA GRAFTING ON THE DISPERSION OF CNWS IN PLA MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (YOUNG’S MODULUS) Authors highly thank the « La Wallonie » for the financial support in the frame of the project MODICELL and Dr K. Xiaoxing, Dr C. Bittencourt and Prof G. Van Tendeloo from EMAT, University of Antwerp for the HR-TEM images. CIRMAP thanks the Belgian Federal Government Office Policy of Science (SSTC) for general support in the frame of the PAI-6/27. Different ways of preparation of PLA filled with 5wt% of CNW have been considered such as melt blending, reactive extrusion, solvent casting and melt blending using PLA-grafted CNW. The rigidity and crystallinity remain unmodified. The best dispersion state of CNW is obtained after addition of PLA grafted NWC as observed macro- and microscopically. It will be interesting to determine the barrier properties of these highly NWC dispersed materials. 2 cm 1cm PLA + 5wt% CNW 1 cm PLA + 5wt% PLA-g-MA + 5wt% CNW PLA + 5wt% CNW SOLVENT CASTING 1 cm CNW COMPATIBILIZATION: PLA CHAINS GRAFTING 1 cm PLA + CNW-g-PLA (5wt% CNW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Young’sModulus(Mpa) %crystallinity No effect of CNW (5wt%) introduction on the rigidity and the crystallinity of PLA 100nm 20nm 100nm 20nm MELT BLENDING CNW COMPATIBILIZATION: PLA CHAINS GRAFTING Presence of macroscopic CNW aggregates in every samples except for composite filled with CNW-g-PLA Solvent :chloroform 16 hours magnetic stirring Drying at ambient temperature Experimental conditions Mini-extruder at 165°C at 100 rpm for 5 minutes Mini-extruder at 165°C at 100 rpm for 5 minutes With addition of 5wt% PLA-MA Preparation of CNW-g-PLA by ROP of L-Lactide in toluene with SnOct2 at 80°C for 24h Precipitation in heptane, drying Mini-extruder at 165°C at 100 rpm for 5 minutes High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy images EMAT, University of Antwerp