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Characterizations of lignins and PLA composites
Cone calorimeter tests were performed at an external heat flux of 35 kW/m², using a FTT
cone calorimeter, according to ISO 5660 standard.
UL-94 vertical burning tests were performed on a FIRE apparatus according to ASTM D
3801 standard procedure.
Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the thermal behavior of PLA/lignin
composites: 20 °C/min from 100°C to 700°C, under air, using a TGA Q50 device from TA
Instruments.
FTIR spectra of the lignins were recorded using a Bruker IFS 66V/S spectrometer.
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis was performed, with an IRIS Intrepid II from
Thermo Fisher Scientific, to determine the phosphorus content in the modified lignins and
in the residues obtained after cone calorimeter test.
PLA composites processing
PLA composites containing 20 wt% of lignin were prepared by melt blending in a
Brabender internal mixer at 160 °C (7 min mixing at 70 rpm).
Plates (100x100x4 mm³ and 100x150x3 mm³) for cone calorimeter and UL-94 tests were
compression moulded at 160 °C using an Agila PE20 hydraulic press.
Lucie COSTES(1,2)
, Fouad LAOUTID(1)
, Mario AGUEDO(3)
, Aurore RICHEL(3)
, Sylvain BROHEZ(2)
, Philippe DUBOIS(1)
and Christian DELVOSALLE(2)
(1) Center of Innovation and Research in Materials & Polymers (CIRMAP), Laboratory of Polymeric and Composite Materials (LPCM),
University of Mons & Materia Nova Research Center, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium
(2) Laboratory of chemical process engineering, Faculty of engineering of Mons, Rue de l’Epargne 56, 7000 Mons, Belgium
(3) Laboratory of Biological and Industrial Chemistry, University of Liège - Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech; Passage des Déportés, 2 B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)
Lignin, which is the second most abundant constituent of the biomass, presents potential as sustainable flame retardant additive for polymers. Thanks to its aromatic
structure, lignin has been advantageously used as char promotor agent in polymer materials allowing some reduction of the combustion rate. This protective effect is
increased when lignin is associated with other flame retardant additives1
, especially phosphorous additives2
. In the present work, two lignins, i. e. kraft and organosolv,
have been chemically modified by phosphorus and nitrogen derivatives. The effect of the chemical modification on both structure and properties of lignins is deeply
investigated. Results show that the incorporation of untreated lignins in PLA leads to significant reduction of the thermal stability during TGA experiment, important
decrease of the time to ignition while only organosolv lignin allows a significant reduction of the pHRR. In contrast, both treated lignins are found to limit PLA thermal
degradation and also to significantly improve its fire properties allowing to reach V-0 classification at UL-94 test.
Step 2
+ NH4OH
In H2O
Room
temperature, 2h
Precipitation of the
soluble fraction in
acetone
Separation of the
soluble and the
insoluble fractions
Lignin-PONH4
Step 1
Lignin - OH +
In CHCl3
60°C,17h
Washings
with CHCl3
Chemical modification of lignin
Characterization of Phosphorus nitrogen lignin derivatives
Phosphorus and nitrogen lignin derivatives for sustainable fire retarded PLAPhosphorus and nitrogen lignin derivatives for sustainable fire retarded PLA
Thermal and fire behaviours of PLA/lignin composites
ICP analysis of residues Conclusion
References
[1] Flammability properties of intumescent PLA including starch and lignin. C. Réti, M. Casetta, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, R. Delobel. 2008, Polymers for advanced
technologies, Vol. 19, pp. 628-635
[2] Chemical modification of lignin by phosphorus molecules to improve the fire behavior of polybutylene succinate. Ferry L., Dorez G., Taguet A., Otazaghine B., Lopez-
Cuesta J.M. 2014, Polymer Degradation and Stability
Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the TTI, pHRR reduction
 no classification at UL-94
Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  TTI maintained, pHRR reduction
 V-0 at UL-94
Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the TTI, pHRR reduction
 no classification at UL-94
Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  TTI maintained, pHRR reduction
 V-0 at UL-94
Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the thermal stability of PLA
 Char formation
Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  Similar thermal stability than PLA
 Char formation
Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the thermal stability of PLA
 Char formation
Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  Similar thermal stability than PLA
 Char formation
Grafting of phosphorous-nitrogen groups on lignin hydroxyl functionsGrafting of phosphorous-nitrogen groups on lignin hydroxyl functions
FTIR analysis
ICP analysis
Kraft lignin-PONH4
 9,1 wt% of P
Organosolv lignin-
PONH4
 10,4 wt% of P
Cone calorimeter test results of lignins
No ignintion of modified lignin
 reduction of the flammability
of lignin by its derivatization
No ignintion of modified lignin
 reduction of the flammability
of lignin by its derivatization
Kraft lignin
Kraft lignin-
PONH4
Organosolv lignin
Organosolv lignin-
PONH4
N-H
P-O-C
TG analysis
Fire behaviour analysis
PLA
20 org lignin
20 org lignin-PONH4
PLA
20 kraft lignin
20 kraft lignin-
PONH4
PLA
20 kraft lignin
20 kraft lignin-PONH4
PLA
20 org lignin
20 org lignin-PONH4
Action of the phosphorous groups
in the condensed phase
Action of the phosphorous groups
in the condensed phase
Lignin is a complex molecule which composition and properties mainly depend on it botanic origin and extraction mode are related with
its plant origin and mode of extraction. The incorporation of lignin into PLA induce some improvement of the fire behavior owing to the
formation of a char during the combustion. However, fire performances are very low (no classification at UL-94 test and reduced time to
ignition). The chemical modification of lignin by grafting phosphorus and nitrogen results in the improvement of its flame retardant
properties by reducing its flammability and its thermo-degradant effect in PLA. PLA/20 lignin-PONH4 displays a maintained thermal
stability and TTI in respect to neat PLA and it is rated V-0 at UL-94.
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18
0,20
0,22
0,24
0,26
0,28
0,30
0,32
Absorbance
100015002000250030003500
Wav enumber s (cm-1)
0,04
0,06
0,08
0,10
0,12
0,14
0,16
0,18
0,20
0,22
Absorbance
100015002000250030003500
Wav enumbers (cm-1)
Kraft lignin
Organosolv lignin
Kraft lignin-PONH4
Organosolv lignin-PONH4

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Phosphorus and nitrogen lignin derivatives for sustainable fire retarded PLA

  • 1. Characterizations of lignins and PLA composites Cone calorimeter tests were performed at an external heat flux of 35 kW/m², using a FTT cone calorimeter, according to ISO 5660 standard. UL-94 vertical burning tests were performed on a FIRE apparatus according to ASTM D 3801 standard procedure. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the thermal behavior of PLA/lignin composites: 20 °C/min from 100°C to 700°C, under air, using a TGA Q50 device from TA Instruments. FTIR spectra of the lignins were recorded using a Bruker IFS 66V/S spectrometer. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis was performed, with an IRIS Intrepid II from Thermo Fisher Scientific, to determine the phosphorus content in the modified lignins and in the residues obtained after cone calorimeter test. PLA composites processing PLA composites containing 20 wt% of lignin were prepared by melt blending in a Brabender internal mixer at 160 °C (7 min mixing at 70 rpm). Plates (100x100x4 mm³ and 100x150x3 mm³) for cone calorimeter and UL-94 tests were compression moulded at 160 °C using an Agila PE20 hydraulic press. Lucie COSTES(1,2) , Fouad LAOUTID(1) , Mario AGUEDO(3) , Aurore RICHEL(3) , Sylvain BROHEZ(2) , Philippe DUBOIS(1) and Christian DELVOSALLE(2) (1) Center of Innovation and Research in Materials & Polymers (CIRMAP), Laboratory of Polymeric and Composite Materials (LPCM), University of Mons & Materia Nova Research Center, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium (2) Laboratory of chemical process engineering, Faculty of engineering of Mons, Rue de l’Epargne 56, 7000 Mons, Belgium (3) Laboratory of Biological and Industrial Chemistry, University of Liège - Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech; Passage des Déportés, 2 B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium) Lignin, which is the second most abundant constituent of the biomass, presents potential as sustainable flame retardant additive for polymers. Thanks to its aromatic structure, lignin has been advantageously used as char promotor agent in polymer materials allowing some reduction of the combustion rate. This protective effect is increased when lignin is associated with other flame retardant additives1 , especially phosphorous additives2 . In the present work, two lignins, i. e. kraft and organosolv, have been chemically modified by phosphorus and nitrogen derivatives. The effect of the chemical modification on both structure and properties of lignins is deeply investigated. Results show that the incorporation of untreated lignins in PLA leads to significant reduction of the thermal stability during TGA experiment, important decrease of the time to ignition while only organosolv lignin allows a significant reduction of the pHRR. In contrast, both treated lignins are found to limit PLA thermal degradation and also to significantly improve its fire properties allowing to reach V-0 classification at UL-94 test. Step 2 + NH4OH In H2O Room temperature, 2h Precipitation of the soluble fraction in acetone Separation of the soluble and the insoluble fractions Lignin-PONH4 Step 1 Lignin - OH + In CHCl3 60°C,17h Washings with CHCl3 Chemical modification of lignin Characterization of Phosphorus nitrogen lignin derivatives Phosphorus and nitrogen lignin derivatives for sustainable fire retarded PLAPhosphorus and nitrogen lignin derivatives for sustainable fire retarded PLA Thermal and fire behaviours of PLA/lignin composites ICP analysis of residues Conclusion References [1] Flammability properties of intumescent PLA including starch and lignin. C. Réti, M. Casetta, S. Duquesne, S. Bourbigot, R. Delobel. 2008, Polymers for advanced technologies, Vol. 19, pp. 628-635 [2] Chemical modification of lignin by phosphorus molecules to improve the fire behavior of polybutylene succinate. Ferry L., Dorez G., Taguet A., Otazaghine B., Lopez- Cuesta J.M. 2014, Polymer Degradation and Stability Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the TTI, pHRR reduction  no classification at UL-94 Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  TTI maintained, pHRR reduction  V-0 at UL-94 Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the TTI, pHRR reduction  no classification at UL-94 Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  TTI maintained, pHRR reduction  V-0 at UL-94 Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the thermal stability of PLA  Char formation Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  Similar thermal stability than PLA  Char formation Untreated lignin incorporation  Decrease of the thermal stability of PLA  Char formation Lignin-PONH4 incorporation  Similar thermal stability than PLA  Char formation Grafting of phosphorous-nitrogen groups on lignin hydroxyl functionsGrafting of phosphorous-nitrogen groups on lignin hydroxyl functions FTIR analysis ICP analysis Kraft lignin-PONH4  9,1 wt% of P Organosolv lignin- PONH4  10,4 wt% of P Cone calorimeter test results of lignins No ignintion of modified lignin  reduction of the flammability of lignin by its derivatization No ignintion of modified lignin  reduction of the flammability of lignin by its derivatization Kraft lignin Kraft lignin- PONH4 Organosolv lignin Organosolv lignin- PONH4 N-H P-O-C TG analysis Fire behaviour analysis PLA 20 org lignin 20 org lignin-PONH4 PLA 20 kraft lignin 20 kraft lignin- PONH4 PLA 20 kraft lignin 20 kraft lignin-PONH4 PLA 20 org lignin 20 org lignin-PONH4 Action of the phosphorous groups in the condensed phase Action of the phosphorous groups in the condensed phase Lignin is a complex molecule which composition and properties mainly depend on it botanic origin and extraction mode are related with its plant origin and mode of extraction. The incorporation of lignin into PLA induce some improvement of the fire behavior owing to the formation of a char during the combustion. However, fire performances are very low (no classification at UL-94 test and reduced time to ignition). The chemical modification of lignin by grafting phosphorus and nitrogen results in the improvement of its flame retardant properties by reducing its flammability and its thermo-degradant effect in PLA. PLA/20 lignin-PONH4 displays a maintained thermal stability and TTI in respect to neat PLA and it is rated V-0 at UL-94. 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20 0,22 0,24 0,26 0,28 0,30 0,32 Absorbance 100015002000250030003500 Wav enumber s (cm-1) 0,04 0,06 0,08 0,10 0,12 0,14 0,16 0,18 0,20 0,22 Absorbance 100015002000250030003500 Wav enumbers (cm-1) Kraft lignin Organosolv lignin Kraft lignin-PONH4 Organosolv lignin-PONH4