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Ethics and politics as first practice in
early childhood education and care
                Professor Peter Moss
           Thomas Coram Research Unit
    Institute of Education University of London
               peter.moss@ioe.ac.uk
Personal introduction
1970s: Children’s Centre movement in
               England
 Problem: split and under-funded system; services
  fragmented, unresponsive & far too few
 Aim of the movement: to develop a ‘popular and
  effective’ service for all children 0-5 and families:
   o Serve small local catchment areas
   o Planned and supervised by one authority
   o Multi-purpose, responding to needs of local
     communities
   o Available on demand
   o Free
Children’s Centre movement
 Solution: Integrated, responsive, multi-
  purpose ‘Children’s Centres’ for all children
  and families...a holistic community service

Our criteria suggest that the basic form of
 service should be through multi-purpose
 children’s centres offering part and full-time
 care with medical and other services, to a
 very local catchment area, but there is much
 room for experimentation (Tizard, Moss and Perry,
  1976)
Image of the EC centre
 Children’s Centre is basis for my image of what
              the EC centre can be

 Common images today = parking space (for
  children) OR factory producing predefined
  outcomes OR business selling a commodity (e.g.
  ‘childcare’) to parent-consumers
 My image = public space or forum...a place of
  encounter for all citizens (children & adults)...a
  collaborative workshop for communities with the
  potential for many purposes and projects – some
  predefined, others not...
Many purposes and projects of
     the EC centre might include:
 Constructing knowledge, identities, values
 Providing family support
 Building community solidarity
 Sustaining cultures and languages
 Developing economy (including ‘childcare’)
 Promoting gender and other equalities
 Practicing democracy and active citizenship
 Resisting exclusion and other injustices
  (Add your purposes and projects)
1990s: The problem with ‘quality’
Quality in early childhood services is a
constructed concept, subjective in nature and
based on values, beliefs and interest, rather
than an objective and universal reality (Moss
& Pence, 1994)
If quality is a relative concept
If the process of defining quality should be
participatory and democratic
Then definitions of ‘quality’ will differ – due to
multiple perspectives
1990s: The problem with ‘quality’
Q: Can the concept of ‘quality’ accommodate
diversity of values, beliefs and interests? Can
you have multiple definitions of ‘quality’?
A: No. If value diversity, need to get ‘beyond
quality’...find another language to talk about
ECCE
2000s: Ethics and politics in ECCE
 Today ECCE is first and foremost a technical
  practice – seeking one right universal answer
  from experts, but...
 ECCE is first and foremost a political and ethical
  practice
 Political practice because ECCE should start
  from political questions – ‘not mere technical
  issues to be solved by experts...[but questions
  that] always involve decisions which require us
  to make choices between conflicting
  alternatives’ (Chantal Mouffe).
Some political questions
 What kind of world do we want? What do we want
  for our children?
 What is ECCE for?
 What is our image of the child? The EC centre? The
  EC educator?
 What values? What ethics?
 What paradigm? What theories?
 What do we mean by ‘education’ and by ‘care’?
 What is knowledge? How do we learn?
Democracy as a fundamental value
Democracy is multi-dimensional concept: representative and
procedural...but also participatory and everyday
[Democracy is] primarily a mode of associated living embedded
in the culture and social relationships of everyday life
[Democracy is] a way of personal life controlled not merely by
faith in human nature in general but by faith in the capacity of
human beings for intelligent judgment and action if proper
conditions are furnished
[Democracy] must be reborn in each generation and education
is the midwife (John Dewey)
Democracy in ECCE : decision-making; curriculum; learning;
evaluation; deciding projects etc etc
2000s: Ethics and politics in ECCE
 Ethical practice because education is a
  relational field – we need ethical basis for the
  relationship
 E.g. ethics of care and ethics of an
  encounter...how do we relate in ways that are
  caring? and in ways that respect ‘otherness’/
  diversity?
2010s: Relationship between ECCE
     and Compulsory Education
 Dominant relationship today: ECEC ‘readying’
  children for school...but there are alternatives,
  e.g. ‘strong and equal partnership’...‘pedagogical
  meeting place’

 Rather than ‘schoolification’, re-think education
  from 0-18 based on new, shared political and
  ethical practice
4 propositions
Proposition 1
We need to get ECCE into perspective. We are
in danger of over-stating the impact of ECCE
on reducing the damaging consequences of
inequality and injustice...while understating its
potential for individual, family and community
flourishing.
Putting ECCE in perspective
 Unrealistic claims made for ECCE...it can fix
  social and economic ills caused by inequality
  and injustice...v.high return on investment
 Claims often based on small local studies in
  US, a country where child poverty remains
  high after 40 years of early interventions
 ECCE by itself is not a magic potion or silver
  bullet – it is no short cut to a good society...we
  need to put it into perspective
Putting ECCE in perspective
Are we sure there is no magic potion that will
push poor children into the middle class? Only
if the potion contains health care, childcare,
good housing, sufficient income for every
family, child rearing environments free of
drugs and violence, support for parents in all
their roles, and equal education for all...
Without these necessities, only magic will
make that happen (Ed Ziegler)
Putting ECCE in perspective
Inequality has risen to alarming levels around
the world....Inequality should be at the centre
of our attention...
Investing in people...begin in early childhood
[and] it must be followed by formal
education...Tax and benefit policies [to]
promote a better distribution of income...High
quality public services...reducing regional
disparities (Angel Gurria, OECD Secretary-General, 19/3/2012)
Putting ECCE in perspective
 Successful countries (Nordics) have very good ECCE –
  but one part of a political and social system that is:
  democratic and egalitarian; sustained by a well-
  developed welfare state; with high taxes.
 EC centres – and schools – have an important part to
  play in a good society as part of a political and social
  system and if our image of them is a public space, a
  place of encounter for all citizens, a collaborative
  workshop for communities...a public resource of
  great potential and many possibilities
Proposition 2
We need to get beyond ‘quality’ and talk
instead about - what we really value and
desire...and in the process acknowledge,
welcome and work with diversity, complexity
and multiple perspectives
Getting ‘beyond’ quality
 ‘Quality’ becomes meaningless with overuse
 When we try to give it meaning, we end up
  with a set of supposedly universal and
  objective norms defined by experts and
  ignoring context, diversity and complexity
 ‘Quality’ cannot accommodate diversity and
  complexity...treats ECCE as technical practice
  NOT a political and ethical practice based on
  critical questions and conflicting alternatives
Getting ‘beyond quality’ means...
 Not talking about ‘good quality ECCE’
 Talking about answers to critical questions,
  what images? what concepts? what values
  and ethics; what paradigms and theories? Etc.
 (e.g.) ‘ECCE that values democracy and
  experimentation...works with the image of a
  rich child...strives for ‘education in its
  broadest sense’...adopts a post-structural
  paradigm and experiments with the theories
  of Delueze’
Getting ‘beyond quality’ means...
 No longer evaluating with standardised check-
  lists
 Using participatory methods including
  children, parents, educators, citizens, e.g.
  pedagogical documentation:
  making practice visible
  subject to dialogue, reflection and interpretation
  in relationship with others
Pedagogical documentation
Documenting what has been observed in work with the
children is one of the keys of Malaguzzi’s philosophy.
Behind this practice...is the ideological and ethical
concept of a transparent school and education...

[PD is] an extraordinary tool for dialogue, for exchange,
for sharing. For Malaguzzi it means the possibility to
discuss and to dialogue ‘everything with everyone’
(teachers, auxiliary staff, cooks, families, administrators,
citizens)…being able to discuss real, concrete things –
not just theories and words (Alfredo Hoyuelos, 2004)
Proposition 3
We cannot address ‘training’ of teachers,
educators etc until we have engaged with
critical questions and relational ethics, e.g.
‘what image of the child?’; ‘what relational
ethics will the teacher work with?’
What image of the child?
 Increasing interest in the social construction or
  image of the child, e.g. sociology of childhood
 Many social constructions/images of the child, e.g. as
  knowledge reproducer...innocent...nature
 Each image is ‘productive’ of policy, provision and
  practice
 Images are always present in policy and research –
  but implicit, unacknowledged, undiscussed...pretend
  there is an essential or true child...the political
  becomes technical
Reggio Emilia asks the question
 and gives an explicit answer
One of the strong points [of our schools] has always
been that of starting from a very open, explicit
declaration of our image of the child, where image is
understood as a strong and optimistic interpretation
of the child. A child born with many resources and
extraordinary potentials that have never ceased to
amaze us, with an autonomous capacity for
constructing thoughts, ideas, questions and attempts
at answers (Loris Malaguzzi)
              The image of the ‘rich child’
What image of the educator?
ubstitute mother...technician(applies a
programme) ...expert professional (knows the right
answers)

o-constructor of knowledge, researcher and
experimenter, working with the image of a rich child...


ore attentive to creating possibilities than pursuing
predefined goals… [with] responsibility to choose,
experiment, discuss, reflect and change, focusing on
the organisation of opportunities rather than the
What education for this image of
         the educator?
 Graduate 0-6 profession (what % of workforce?
  50% 80%) ...parity with school teachers
 Continuing education, including workplace and
  postgraduate studies
 Education to cover:
   Diversity, complexity, uncertainty, experimentation...
    ‘pleasure of amazement and wonder’ ...people and
    communities + paradigms and theories
   Democracy and participation: a democratic practitioner
   Critical thinking
   Relational ethics
 Diverse profession...20%+ men
Proposition 4
The process of engaging with political
and ethical questions should extend to
the whole education system and
provides a basis for a relationship
between ECCE and school that rejects
the discourse of ‘readying for school’
Relationship between ECCE and CSE
No.1.ECEC ‘readying’/‘preparing’ for school
 Dominant relationship today...and increasing
 Increases ‘schoolification’ - the downward
  reach of traditional compulsory schooling
 Concerns about relationship I: inappropriate
  content and methods...loss of identity and
  strengths of early childhood education...no
  change in the conservative school
Schoolification
Early education is assimilated, both conceptually and
administratively, to a traditional primary school
model...
Schoolified early childhood services are characterised
by age segregation, with children grouped by year of
birth; ...a predominantly knowledge transfer model
with whole class exercises; large numbers of young
children assigned to each group and insufficient
attention given to the needs, talents and agency of
the individual child; and often a neglect of children’s
play, family outreach and the social dimensions of
early education (John Bennett)
No.2. ‘Strong and equal partnership’
       (OECD Starting Strong)
A strong partnership with the education system
should provide the opportunity to bring
together the diverse perspectives and methods
of both ECE and CSE, focusing on their
respective strengths, such as the emphasis on
parental involvement and social development
in ECE and the focus on educational goals and
learning in CSE (John Bennett)
No.3. ‘The vision of a pedagogical
           meeting place’
ECCE and CSE come together to:
  understand different traditions, images, values,
   practices
  co-construct something new in response to critical
   questions...new shared images, values, goals,
   practices
  shared approach from 0 to 18...new, shared images,
   values, goals and practices (e.g. rich child, democracy,
   ethics of care) and ‘education in its broadest sense’...
   understood as a broad, holistic concept, concerned
   with all aspects of well-being and development.
Some concluding reflections on the
     concept paper and cases
 ‘Early Childhood: seeds for the future’ or
  ‘Early Childhood: one important ingredient for
  a flourishing life - here and now & in the
  future’
 ‘Quality ECCE’: drop ‘quality’ – instead
  talk/argue about what we value and desire
 (I)NGOs: important role in developing a
  democratic politics of early childhood...critical
  thinking to dominant discourses...asking and
  discussing political questions...resisting the
  ‘dictatorship of no alternative’
 ‘Creation of original, flexible and locally
  relevant ECCE provision’. Meaning? Why
  these? More work on image of the EC centre?
 ECCE for ‘improved school readiness’ – don’t
  take this relationship for granted...there are
  alternatives!
 Democracy as a fundamental value and
  democratic practice can support and enrich
  participation of parents/ families/
  communities.
 Technical practice does matter, e.g.
  structures, resources, methods...but always
  comes after political and ethical practice.
 Innovation/experimentation important, but as
  continuous movement, not occasional
  movement from one position to another...
  need to pay far more attention to sustaining
  experimentation over time.
 Where to? Without asking this question,
  danger of more of the same, reproducing
  dysfunctional systems.
Dahlberg, G. & Moss, P.(2005) Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. London:
   Routledge.
Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007, 2nd ed) Beyond Quality in Early Childhood
   Education and Care. London: Routledge.
Fielding, M. and Moss, P. (2010) Radical Education and the Common School: a
    Democratic Alternative. London: Routledge.
Fortunati, A. (2005) The Education of Young Children as a Community Project.
    Available from Children in Scotland,
    http://www.childreninscotland.org.uk/html/pub_tshow.php?ref=PUB0202
Kaga, Y., Bennett, J. and Moss, P. (2010) Caring and Learning Together. Paris: UNESCO
Moss, P. (2009) There are alternatives! Markets and democratic experimentalism in
  early childhood education and care. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation.
  http://www.bernardvanleer.org/publications_results?SearchableText=B-WOP-053
Rinaldi, C. (2006) In Dialogue with Reggio Emilia: Listening, researching and learning.
   London: Routledge.
Vecchi, V. (2010) Art and Creativity in Reggio Emilia. London: Routledge

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Peter mossunesco paris.11april

  • 1. Ethics and politics as first practice in early childhood education and care Professor Peter Moss Thomas Coram Research Unit Institute of Education University of London peter.moss@ioe.ac.uk
  • 3. 1970s: Children’s Centre movement in England  Problem: split and under-funded system; services fragmented, unresponsive & far too few  Aim of the movement: to develop a ‘popular and effective’ service for all children 0-5 and families: o Serve small local catchment areas o Planned and supervised by one authority o Multi-purpose, responding to needs of local communities o Available on demand o Free
  • 4. Children’s Centre movement  Solution: Integrated, responsive, multi- purpose ‘Children’s Centres’ for all children and families...a holistic community service Our criteria suggest that the basic form of service should be through multi-purpose children’s centres offering part and full-time care with medical and other services, to a very local catchment area, but there is much room for experimentation (Tizard, Moss and Perry, 1976)
  • 5. Image of the EC centre Children’s Centre is basis for my image of what the EC centre can be  Common images today = parking space (for children) OR factory producing predefined outcomes OR business selling a commodity (e.g. ‘childcare’) to parent-consumers  My image = public space or forum...a place of encounter for all citizens (children & adults)...a collaborative workshop for communities with the potential for many purposes and projects – some predefined, others not...
  • 6. Many purposes and projects of the EC centre might include:  Constructing knowledge, identities, values  Providing family support  Building community solidarity  Sustaining cultures and languages  Developing economy (including ‘childcare’)  Promoting gender and other equalities  Practicing democracy and active citizenship  Resisting exclusion and other injustices   (Add your purposes and projects)
  • 7. 1990s: The problem with ‘quality’ Quality in early childhood services is a constructed concept, subjective in nature and based on values, beliefs and interest, rather than an objective and universal reality (Moss & Pence, 1994) If quality is a relative concept If the process of defining quality should be participatory and democratic Then definitions of ‘quality’ will differ – due to multiple perspectives
  • 8. 1990s: The problem with ‘quality’ Q: Can the concept of ‘quality’ accommodate diversity of values, beliefs and interests? Can you have multiple definitions of ‘quality’? A: No. If value diversity, need to get ‘beyond quality’...find another language to talk about ECCE
  • 9. 2000s: Ethics and politics in ECCE  Today ECCE is first and foremost a technical practice – seeking one right universal answer from experts, but...  ECCE is first and foremost a political and ethical practice  Political practice because ECCE should start from political questions – ‘not mere technical issues to be solved by experts...[but questions that] always involve decisions which require us to make choices between conflicting alternatives’ (Chantal Mouffe).
  • 10. Some political questions  What kind of world do we want? What do we want for our children?  What is ECCE for?  What is our image of the child? The EC centre? The EC educator?  What values? What ethics?  What paradigm? What theories?  What do we mean by ‘education’ and by ‘care’?  What is knowledge? How do we learn?
  • 11. Democracy as a fundamental value Democracy is multi-dimensional concept: representative and procedural...but also participatory and everyday [Democracy is] primarily a mode of associated living embedded in the culture and social relationships of everyday life [Democracy is] a way of personal life controlled not merely by faith in human nature in general but by faith in the capacity of human beings for intelligent judgment and action if proper conditions are furnished [Democracy] must be reborn in each generation and education is the midwife (John Dewey) Democracy in ECCE : decision-making; curriculum; learning; evaluation; deciding projects etc etc
  • 12. 2000s: Ethics and politics in ECCE  Ethical practice because education is a relational field – we need ethical basis for the relationship  E.g. ethics of care and ethics of an encounter...how do we relate in ways that are caring? and in ways that respect ‘otherness’/ diversity?
  • 13. 2010s: Relationship between ECCE and Compulsory Education  Dominant relationship today: ECEC ‘readying’ children for school...but there are alternatives, e.g. ‘strong and equal partnership’...‘pedagogical meeting place’  Rather than ‘schoolification’, re-think education from 0-18 based on new, shared political and ethical practice
  • 15. Proposition 1 We need to get ECCE into perspective. We are in danger of over-stating the impact of ECCE on reducing the damaging consequences of inequality and injustice...while understating its potential for individual, family and community flourishing.
  • 16. Putting ECCE in perspective  Unrealistic claims made for ECCE...it can fix social and economic ills caused by inequality and injustice...v.high return on investment  Claims often based on small local studies in US, a country where child poverty remains high after 40 years of early interventions  ECCE by itself is not a magic potion or silver bullet – it is no short cut to a good society...we need to put it into perspective
  • 17. Putting ECCE in perspective Are we sure there is no magic potion that will push poor children into the middle class? Only if the potion contains health care, childcare, good housing, sufficient income for every family, child rearing environments free of drugs and violence, support for parents in all their roles, and equal education for all... Without these necessities, only magic will make that happen (Ed Ziegler)
  • 18. Putting ECCE in perspective Inequality has risen to alarming levels around the world....Inequality should be at the centre of our attention... Investing in people...begin in early childhood [and] it must be followed by formal education...Tax and benefit policies [to] promote a better distribution of income...High quality public services...reducing regional disparities (Angel Gurria, OECD Secretary-General, 19/3/2012)
  • 19. Putting ECCE in perspective  Successful countries (Nordics) have very good ECCE – but one part of a political and social system that is: democratic and egalitarian; sustained by a well- developed welfare state; with high taxes.  EC centres – and schools – have an important part to play in a good society as part of a political and social system and if our image of them is a public space, a place of encounter for all citizens, a collaborative workshop for communities...a public resource of great potential and many possibilities
  • 20. Proposition 2 We need to get beyond ‘quality’ and talk instead about - what we really value and desire...and in the process acknowledge, welcome and work with diversity, complexity and multiple perspectives
  • 21. Getting ‘beyond’ quality  ‘Quality’ becomes meaningless with overuse  When we try to give it meaning, we end up with a set of supposedly universal and objective norms defined by experts and ignoring context, diversity and complexity  ‘Quality’ cannot accommodate diversity and complexity...treats ECCE as technical practice NOT a political and ethical practice based on critical questions and conflicting alternatives
  • 22. Getting ‘beyond quality’ means...  Not talking about ‘good quality ECCE’  Talking about answers to critical questions, what images? what concepts? what values and ethics; what paradigms and theories? Etc.  (e.g.) ‘ECCE that values democracy and experimentation...works with the image of a rich child...strives for ‘education in its broadest sense’...adopts a post-structural paradigm and experiments with the theories of Delueze’
  • 23. Getting ‘beyond quality’ means...  No longer evaluating with standardised check- lists  Using participatory methods including children, parents, educators, citizens, e.g. pedagogical documentation: making practice visible subject to dialogue, reflection and interpretation in relationship with others
  • 24. Pedagogical documentation Documenting what has been observed in work with the children is one of the keys of Malaguzzi’s philosophy. Behind this practice...is the ideological and ethical concept of a transparent school and education... [PD is] an extraordinary tool for dialogue, for exchange, for sharing. For Malaguzzi it means the possibility to discuss and to dialogue ‘everything with everyone’ (teachers, auxiliary staff, cooks, families, administrators, citizens)…being able to discuss real, concrete things – not just theories and words (Alfredo Hoyuelos, 2004)
  • 25. Proposition 3 We cannot address ‘training’ of teachers, educators etc until we have engaged with critical questions and relational ethics, e.g. ‘what image of the child?’; ‘what relational ethics will the teacher work with?’
  • 26. What image of the child?  Increasing interest in the social construction or image of the child, e.g. sociology of childhood  Many social constructions/images of the child, e.g. as knowledge reproducer...innocent...nature  Each image is ‘productive’ of policy, provision and practice  Images are always present in policy and research – but implicit, unacknowledged, undiscussed...pretend there is an essential or true child...the political becomes technical
  • 27. Reggio Emilia asks the question and gives an explicit answer One of the strong points [of our schools] has always been that of starting from a very open, explicit declaration of our image of the child, where image is understood as a strong and optimistic interpretation of the child. A child born with many resources and extraordinary potentials that have never ceased to amaze us, with an autonomous capacity for constructing thoughts, ideas, questions and attempts at answers (Loris Malaguzzi) The image of the ‘rich child’
  • 28. What image of the educator? ubstitute mother...technician(applies a programme) ...expert professional (knows the right answers) o-constructor of knowledge, researcher and experimenter, working with the image of a rich child... ore attentive to creating possibilities than pursuing predefined goals… [with] responsibility to choose, experiment, discuss, reflect and change, focusing on the organisation of opportunities rather than the
  • 29. What education for this image of the educator?  Graduate 0-6 profession (what % of workforce? 50% 80%) ...parity with school teachers  Continuing education, including workplace and postgraduate studies  Education to cover:  Diversity, complexity, uncertainty, experimentation... ‘pleasure of amazement and wonder’ ...people and communities + paradigms and theories  Democracy and participation: a democratic practitioner  Critical thinking  Relational ethics  Diverse profession...20%+ men
  • 30. Proposition 4 The process of engaging with political and ethical questions should extend to the whole education system and provides a basis for a relationship between ECCE and school that rejects the discourse of ‘readying for school’
  • 31. Relationship between ECCE and CSE No.1.ECEC ‘readying’/‘preparing’ for school  Dominant relationship today...and increasing  Increases ‘schoolification’ - the downward reach of traditional compulsory schooling  Concerns about relationship I: inappropriate content and methods...loss of identity and strengths of early childhood education...no change in the conservative school
  • 32. Schoolification Early education is assimilated, both conceptually and administratively, to a traditional primary school model... Schoolified early childhood services are characterised by age segregation, with children grouped by year of birth; ...a predominantly knowledge transfer model with whole class exercises; large numbers of young children assigned to each group and insufficient attention given to the needs, talents and agency of the individual child; and often a neglect of children’s play, family outreach and the social dimensions of early education (John Bennett)
  • 33. No.2. ‘Strong and equal partnership’ (OECD Starting Strong) A strong partnership with the education system should provide the opportunity to bring together the diverse perspectives and methods of both ECE and CSE, focusing on their respective strengths, such as the emphasis on parental involvement and social development in ECE and the focus on educational goals and learning in CSE (John Bennett)
  • 34. No.3. ‘The vision of a pedagogical meeting place’ ECCE and CSE come together to:  understand different traditions, images, values, practices  co-construct something new in response to critical questions...new shared images, values, goals, practices  shared approach from 0 to 18...new, shared images, values, goals and practices (e.g. rich child, democracy, ethics of care) and ‘education in its broadest sense’... understood as a broad, holistic concept, concerned with all aspects of well-being and development.
  • 35. Some concluding reflections on the concept paper and cases
  • 36.  ‘Early Childhood: seeds for the future’ or ‘Early Childhood: one important ingredient for a flourishing life - here and now & in the future’  ‘Quality ECCE’: drop ‘quality’ – instead talk/argue about what we value and desire  (I)NGOs: important role in developing a democratic politics of early childhood...critical thinking to dominant discourses...asking and discussing political questions...resisting the ‘dictatorship of no alternative’
  • 37.  ‘Creation of original, flexible and locally relevant ECCE provision’. Meaning? Why these? More work on image of the EC centre?  ECCE for ‘improved school readiness’ – don’t take this relationship for granted...there are alternatives!  Democracy as a fundamental value and democratic practice can support and enrich participation of parents/ families/ communities.
  • 38.  Technical practice does matter, e.g. structures, resources, methods...but always comes after political and ethical practice.  Innovation/experimentation important, but as continuous movement, not occasional movement from one position to another... need to pay far more attention to sustaining experimentation over time.  Where to? Without asking this question, danger of more of the same, reproducing dysfunctional systems.
  • 39. Dahlberg, G. & Moss, P.(2005) Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. London: Routledge. Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007, 2nd ed) Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care. London: Routledge. Fielding, M. and Moss, P. (2010) Radical Education and the Common School: a Democratic Alternative. London: Routledge. Fortunati, A. (2005) The Education of Young Children as a Community Project. Available from Children in Scotland, http://www.childreninscotland.org.uk/html/pub_tshow.php?ref=PUB0202 Kaga, Y., Bennett, J. and Moss, P. (2010) Caring and Learning Together. Paris: UNESCO Moss, P. (2009) There are alternatives! Markets and democratic experimentalism in early childhood education and care. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation. http://www.bernardvanleer.org/publications_results?SearchableText=B-WOP-053 Rinaldi, C. (2006) In Dialogue with Reggio Emilia: Listening, researching and learning. London: Routledge. Vecchi, V. (2010) Art and Creativity in Reggio Emilia. London: Routledge