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EclipseLink JPA
in GlassFish™
Doug Clarke
Director of Product Management
Oracle
Eclipse Persistence Services
“EclipseLink”

  Java SE   Java EE        OSGi          Spring       ADF




      JPA    MOXy           EIS           SDO        DBWS




            Eclipse Persistence Services Project
                       (EclipseLink)




Databases              XML Data                    Legacy Systems
History of EclipseLink




                            TopLink
                           Essentials




1996                                    2008
Significance of EclipseLink

• First comprehensive open source persistence solution
   • Object-Relational and much more
• Based upon product with 12 years of commercial
  usage
• Shared infrastructure
  • Easily share the same domain model with multiple
    persistence technologies
  • Leverage metadata for multiple services
• Important part of the GlassFish and Eclipse
 Ecosystems
EclipseLink JPA

• JPA 1.0 compliant implementation
• Java EE, Java SE, Web, Spring, and OSGi
• Any JDBC/SQL compliant database
   • Advanced database extensions: stored procedures, native SQL, …
• Key infrastructure:
   •   Caching, Locking, Query Framework, Mapping, …
   •   JDBC connection pooling
   •   Diagnostics: Logging, Profiling
   •   DDL Generation
   •   Customization callbacks
• Highly Extensible
• … plus many valuable advanced features
Caching

• Hold objects in-memory to avoid unnecessary
    database trips and object construction
•   Cache manages “identity” to support bidirectional and
    cyclical relationships
•   Flexible caching options ensure that you get
    maximum performance
•   Numerous locking, refreshing, and synchronization
    options are available to minimize cache staleness
•   Queries can be run in-memory only against the cache
•   Cache Coordination supports clustering
Cache Configuration

• Cache Shared (L2)/Isolated (L1 only)
   • Entity cache—not data cache
• <property
      name=“eclipselink.cache.shared.default“
      value=quot;truequot;/>
• Cache Type & Size
   • Soft/Hard Weak       @Cache(type = CacheType.HARD_WEAK,
                                 size = 500,
   • Weak                        isolated = true,
   • Full                        coordinationType =
   • None                        INVALIDATE_CHANGED_OBJECTS)
• <property
      name=“eclipselink.cache.type.default“
      value=quot;Fullquot;/>
EclipseLink JPA Caching




EntityManager   EntityManagerFactory

  L1 Cache            L2 Cache
                      (Shared )

                                       Cache Coordination
Minimize stale cache

• Configure the cache relative to application data’s
 usage
  • Is the data shared between users/processes?
  • Is the data volatile?
     • Only through JPA application?
     • Through direct DB modification?
• Ensure you protect any data that can be concurrently
 modified with a locking strategy
  • Must handle optimistic lock failures on flush/commit
• Use query refreshing to minimize optimistic lock
 failures
Leveraging the Shared Cache: Reading
        Client-1                                Client-2
           1                                      5

    EntityManager-1                   EntityManager-2

L1 Cache                       L1 Cache



           2                                      6
                                                           3
EntityManagerFactory
L2 Cache                Connection Pool                    7
                                   Connection
                                 Connection
                       4 8      Connection
                               Connection
                             Connection
Leveraging the Shared Cache: Writing
                                              Client-2
                                                1

                                    EntityManager-2

                             L1 Cache




                                                2

EntityManagerFactory                                     3
L2 Cache               Connection Pool
                                 Connection
                       4       Connection
                              Connection
                             Connection
                           Connection
Leveraging the Shared Cache: Writing




EntityManagerFactory
L2 Cache               Connection Pool
                               Connection
                             Connection
                            Connection
                           Connection
                         Connection
Advanced Mappings

• @Converter
• @BasicMap and @BasicCollection
• Mapping to database structures
  • @StructConverter – Structs, ADTs
  • XML types, PL/SQL Records
• Mapping features
  • Private Owned
  • Join/Batch Fetch
  • Returning
Advanced Mapping Example


@Entity
@Cache(type=SOFT_WEAK, coordinationType=SEND_OBJECT_CHANGES)
@Converter(name=“money”, converterClass=MoneyConverter.class)
@OptimisticLocking(type=CHANGED_COLUMNS)
public class Employee {
  @Id
  private int id;

    private String name;

    @OneToMany(mappedBy=“owner”)
    private List<PhoneNumbers> phones;
    @Convert(“money”)
    private Money salary
    …
}
Advanced Querying

• Support for supplying customizing queries
   • Native SQL
   • @NamedStoredProcQuery
• Graph Loading Optimizations
  • Join and Batch Fetch – multi-level
• Cache Usage: In-memory
• Result caching
Transactions

• Java apps typically support many clients sharing
  small number of db connections
• Ideally would like to minimize length of transaction on
  database



            Begin Txn
     Time




                                    Begin Txn
            Commit Txn
                                    Commit Txn
Transaction Features

• Minimizes database interactions
  • Only the minimal updates are sent to the database
• Respect database integrity
   • Orders INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE statements
• JTA and RESOURCE_LOCAL support
• Attribute-level change tracking
• EntityManager flush SQL prior to commit
• Bulk Update and Delete
   • Cached entities effected
Concurrency Protection - Locking

• Optimistic concurrency included in JPA 1.0, but no
  support for pessimistic locking is specified
• EclipseLink has advanced optimistic locking
  strategies
  • Numeric, Timestamp, All fields, Selected fields, Changed field
• EntityManager lock() method can be used with
  optimistic locking, and error handling
• EclipseLink supports pessimistic locking through
  query hints

   query.setHint(PESSIMISTIC_LOCK, LockNoWait);
Weaving

• EclipseLink makes use of Weaving (ASM) to
 introduce additional functionality into the JPA entity
 classes
  • Needed for M:1 and 1:1 lazy fetching
  • Integrated with Java EE compliant App Servers and Spring
    2.0
  • Available for Java SE using JDK/JRE’s –javaagent:
  • Optional
  • Static weaving also supported
     • Weaving of .class files before deployment
JPA Configuration Options

• Annotations
   • JPA
   • EclipseLink
• ORM.XML
  • JPA
  • EclipseLink
  • JPA + EclipseLink
• Defaults – Configuration by Exception
Database Platform

XML:
<properties>
<property
     name=“eclipselink.target-databasequot;
      value=quot;Derbyquot;/>
</properties>

API:
 properties.put(
  EclipseLinkProperties.TARGET_DATABASE,
  TargetDatabase.ORACLE);
Target Database Platform

• TargetDatabase (org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.config)
   • Auto (Default)
   • Oracle, Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle10g, Oracle11, TimesTen
   • DB2, DB2Mainframe
   • Derby, JavaDB, MySQL
   • Informix
   • HSQL, PointBase
   • PostgreSQL
   • SQLAnyWhere
   • SQLServer, DBase
   • Sybase
Server Platform

• Enables simplified configuration of the target
  application server
• Used to enable integration with:
  • JTA transaction manager
  • Logging
  • JDBC connection un-wrapping

• <property name=“eclipselink.target-serverquot;
   value=“SunAS9quot;/>
Target Server Options

• TargetServer (org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.config)
   • None (Default)
   • OC4J, OC4J_10_1_3, OC4J_11_1_1
   • SunAS9
   • WebSphere
   • WebSphere_6_1
   • WebLogic, WebLogic_9, WebLogic_10
   • JBoss
JDBC Connection Settings

<properties>
...
<property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.driver”
  value=“oracle.jdbc.Driver”/>

<property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.url”
  value=“jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:XE”/>

<property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.user” value=“scott”/>

<property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.password”
  value=“tiger”/>
Logging

<properties>
  ...

 <property
     name=“eclipselink.logging.levelquot;
     value=quot;FINEquot;/>
 ...

</properties>
DDL Generation

• Standard enables it but does not currently dictate that
  providers support it
• Mapping metadata specifies how DDL should be
  generated
• Vendors may offer differing levels of support,
  including:
  • Generating DDL to a file only
  • Generating and executing DDL in DB
  • Dropping existing tables before creating new ones
DDL Generation

<properties>
  ...
  <property
      name=“eclipselink.ddl-generationquot;
      value=quot;create-tablesquot;/>
  ...
</properties>
Customization Using Properties

<properties>
  ...
 <property
    name=quot;eclipselink.session.customizerquot;
    value=quot;acme.MySessionCustomizerquot;/>
  <property

 name=quot;eclipselink.descriptor.customizer.Employe
 equot;
    value=quot;acme.MyDescriptorCustomizerquot;/>
  ...
</properties>
Descriptor & Session Customizers


public class MySessionCustomizer
                implements SessionCustomizer {

    public void customize(Session session) {
       session.setProfiler(new PerformanceProfiler());
    }
}

public class MyDescriptorCustomizer
                implements DescriptorCustomizer {

    public void customize(ClassDescriptor desc) {
      desc.disableCacheHits();
    }
}
Performance and Tuning

• Highly configurable and tunable
   • Guiding principle – minimize and optimize database
     interactions
   • No two applications are the same, EclipseLink allows for
     decisions on what specific behavior needs to be configurable
     depending on situation
• Flexibility of EclipseLink allows efficient business
  models and relational schemas to be used
• Leverages underlying performance tuning features
  •   Java, JDBC and the underlying database technology
  •   Batch Writing
  •   Parameter Binding
  •   Statement Caching
Performance and Tuning


    Minimal Writes, Updates     
                                 “Just in Time” reading

    Batch Reading, Writing      
                                 Automatic change detection

    SQL ordering                
                                 Caching policies and sizes

    Transformation support      
                                 Parameterized SQL (binding)

    Existence checks            
                                 Pre-allocation of sequence

    Stored procedures           numbers

    Statement Caching           
                                 Cache Coordination

    Scrolling cursors           
                                 Optimistic, Pessimistic locking

    Projection Queries          
                                 Joining object retrieval

    Partial Attribute Queries   optimization
                                
                                 In memory querying
                                
                                 Dynamic queries

                 AND MUCH MORE!
EclipseLink Status

• Incubating Technology Project
  •   Initial contribution of Oracle TopLink complete
  •   Full documentation available on Wiki
  •   Producing Monthly Milestone builds
  •   Milestones included in GlassFish V3 Milestones
• 1.0 release planned for July 2008
  • JPA 1.0, SDO 2.1, JAXB
  • Simplified XML and annotation config of advanced features
  • Packaged for Java SE/EE and OSGi bundles
• Beyond 1.0
  •   JPA 2.0 (Reference Implementation)
  •   Database Web Services
  •   Data Access Service (DAS) 1.0
  •   and much more …
Getting Started with EclipseLink JPA


• EclipseLink Project
 http://www.eclipse.org/eclipselink
 Eclipse newsgroup: eclipse.technology.eclipselink

• GlassFish V3
 https://glassfish.dev.java.net/

• Open Source JPA Tools
  • NetBeans—http://www.netbeans.org

  • Dali JPA Tools—http://www.eclipse.org/dali
Orcale Presentation

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Orcale Presentation

  • 1.
  • 2. EclipseLink JPA in GlassFish™ Doug Clarke Director of Product Management Oracle
  • 3. Eclipse Persistence Services “EclipseLink” Java SE Java EE OSGi Spring ADF JPA MOXy EIS SDO DBWS Eclipse Persistence Services Project (EclipseLink) Databases XML Data Legacy Systems
  • 4. History of EclipseLink TopLink Essentials 1996 2008
  • 5. Significance of EclipseLink • First comprehensive open source persistence solution • Object-Relational and much more • Based upon product with 12 years of commercial usage • Shared infrastructure • Easily share the same domain model with multiple persistence technologies • Leverage metadata for multiple services • Important part of the GlassFish and Eclipse Ecosystems
  • 6. EclipseLink JPA • JPA 1.0 compliant implementation • Java EE, Java SE, Web, Spring, and OSGi • Any JDBC/SQL compliant database • Advanced database extensions: stored procedures, native SQL, … • Key infrastructure: • Caching, Locking, Query Framework, Mapping, … • JDBC connection pooling • Diagnostics: Logging, Profiling • DDL Generation • Customization callbacks • Highly Extensible • … plus many valuable advanced features
  • 7. Caching • Hold objects in-memory to avoid unnecessary database trips and object construction • Cache manages “identity” to support bidirectional and cyclical relationships • Flexible caching options ensure that you get maximum performance • Numerous locking, refreshing, and synchronization options are available to minimize cache staleness • Queries can be run in-memory only against the cache • Cache Coordination supports clustering
  • 8. Cache Configuration • Cache Shared (L2)/Isolated (L1 only) • Entity cache—not data cache • <property name=“eclipselink.cache.shared.default“ value=quot;truequot;/> • Cache Type & Size • Soft/Hard Weak @Cache(type = CacheType.HARD_WEAK, size = 500, • Weak isolated = true, • Full coordinationType = • None INVALIDATE_CHANGED_OBJECTS) • <property name=“eclipselink.cache.type.default“ value=quot;Fullquot;/>
  • 9. EclipseLink JPA Caching EntityManager EntityManagerFactory L1 Cache L2 Cache (Shared ) Cache Coordination
  • 10. Minimize stale cache • Configure the cache relative to application data’s usage • Is the data shared between users/processes? • Is the data volatile? • Only through JPA application? • Through direct DB modification? • Ensure you protect any data that can be concurrently modified with a locking strategy • Must handle optimistic lock failures on flush/commit • Use query refreshing to minimize optimistic lock failures
  • 11. Leveraging the Shared Cache: Reading Client-1 Client-2 1 5 EntityManager-1 EntityManager-2 L1 Cache L1 Cache 2 6 3 EntityManagerFactory L2 Cache Connection Pool 7 Connection Connection 4 8 Connection Connection Connection
  • 12. Leveraging the Shared Cache: Writing Client-2 1 EntityManager-2 L1 Cache 2 EntityManagerFactory 3 L2 Cache Connection Pool Connection 4 Connection Connection Connection Connection
  • 13. Leveraging the Shared Cache: Writing EntityManagerFactory L2 Cache Connection Pool Connection Connection Connection Connection Connection
  • 14. Advanced Mappings • @Converter • @BasicMap and @BasicCollection • Mapping to database structures • @StructConverter – Structs, ADTs • XML types, PL/SQL Records • Mapping features • Private Owned • Join/Batch Fetch • Returning
  • 15. Advanced Mapping Example @Entity @Cache(type=SOFT_WEAK, coordinationType=SEND_OBJECT_CHANGES) @Converter(name=“money”, converterClass=MoneyConverter.class) @OptimisticLocking(type=CHANGED_COLUMNS) public class Employee { @Id private int id; private String name; @OneToMany(mappedBy=“owner”) private List<PhoneNumbers> phones; @Convert(“money”) private Money salary … }
  • 16. Advanced Querying • Support for supplying customizing queries • Native SQL • @NamedStoredProcQuery • Graph Loading Optimizations • Join and Batch Fetch – multi-level • Cache Usage: In-memory • Result caching
  • 17. Transactions • Java apps typically support many clients sharing small number of db connections • Ideally would like to minimize length of transaction on database Begin Txn Time Begin Txn Commit Txn Commit Txn
  • 18. Transaction Features • Minimizes database interactions • Only the minimal updates are sent to the database • Respect database integrity • Orders INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE statements • JTA and RESOURCE_LOCAL support • Attribute-level change tracking • EntityManager flush SQL prior to commit • Bulk Update and Delete • Cached entities effected
  • 19. Concurrency Protection - Locking • Optimistic concurrency included in JPA 1.0, but no support for pessimistic locking is specified • EclipseLink has advanced optimistic locking strategies • Numeric, Timestamp, All fields, Selected fields, Changed field • EntityManager lock() method can be used with optimistic locking, and error handling • EclipseLink supports pessimistic locking through query hints query.setHint(PESSIMISTIC_LOCK, LockNoWait);
  • 20. Weaving • EclipseLink makes use of Weaving (ASM) to introduce additional functionality into the JPA entity classes • Needed for M:1 and 1:1 lazy fetching • Integrated with Java EE compliant App Servers and Spring 2.0 • Available for Java SE using JDK/JRE’s –javaagent: • Optional • Static weaving also supported • Weaving of .class files before deployment
  • 21. JPA Configuration Options • Annotations • JPA • EclipseLink • ORM.XML • JPA • EclipseLink • JPA + EclipseLink • Defaults – Configuration by Exception
  • 22. Database Platform XML: <properties> <property name=“eclipselink.target-databasequot; value=quot;Derbyquot;/> </properties> API: properties.put( EclipseLinkProperties.TARGET_DATABASE, TargetDatabase.ORACLE);
  • 23. Target Database Platform • TargetDatabase (org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.config) • Auto (Default) • Oracle, Oracle8i, Oracle9i, Oracle10g, Oracle11, TimesTen • DB2, DB2Mainframe • Derby, JavaDB, MySQL • Informix • HSQL, PointBase • PostgreSQL • SQLAnyWhere • SQLServer, DBase • Sybase
  • 24. Server Platform • Enables simplified configuration of the target application server • Used to enable integration with: • JTA transaction manager • Logging • JDBC connection un-wrapping • <property name=“eclipselink.target-serverquot; value=“SunAS9quot;/>
  • 25. Target Server Options • TargetServer (org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.config) • None (Default) • OC4J, OC4J_10_1_3, OC4J_11_1_1 • SunAS9 • WebSphere • WebSphere_6_1 • WebLogic, WebLogic_9, WebLogic_10 • JBoss
  • 26. JDBC Connection Settings <properties> ... <property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.driver” value=“oracle.jdbc.Driver”/> <property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.url” value=“jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:XE”/> <property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.user” value=“scott”/> <property name=“eclipselink.jdbc.password” value=“tiger”/>
  • 27. Logging <properties> ... <property name=“eclipselink.logging.levelquot; value=quot;FINEquot;/> ... </properties>
  • 28. DDL Generation • Standard enables it but does not currently dictate that providers support it • Mapping metadata specifies how DDL should be generated • Vendors may offer differing levels of support, including: • Generating DDL to a file only • Generating and executing DDL in DB • Dropping existing tables before creating new ones
  • 29. DDL Generation <properties> ... <property name=“eclipselink.ddl-generationquot; value=quot;create-tablesquot;/> ... </properties>
  • 30. Customization Using Properties <properties> ... <property name=quot;eclipselink.session.customizerquot; value=quot;acme.MySessionCustomizerquot;/> <property name=quot;eclipselink.descriptor.customizer.Employe equot; value=quot;acme.MyDescriptorCustomizerquot;/> ... </properties>
  • 31. Descriptor & Session Customizers public class MySessionCustomizer implements SessionCustomizer { public void customize(Session session) { session.setProfiler(new PerformanceProfiler()); } } public class MyDescriptorCustomizer implements DescriptorCustomizer { public void customize(ClassDescriptor desc) { desc.disableCacheHits(); } }
  • 32. Performance and Tuning • Highly configurable and tunable • Guiding principle – minimize and optimize database interactions • No two applications are the same, EclipseLink allows for decisions on what specific behavior needs to be configurable depending on situation • Flexibility of EclipseLink allows efficient business models and relational schemas to be used • Leverages underlying performance tuning features • Java, JDBC and the underlying database technology • Batch Writing • Parameter Binding • Statement Caching
  • 33. Performance and Tuning  Minimal Writes, Updates  “Just in Time” reading  Batch Reading, Writing  Automatic change detection  SQL ordering  Caching policies and sizes  Transformation support  Parameterized SQL (binding)  Existence checks  Pre-allocation of sequence  Stored procedures numbers  Statement Caching  Cache Coordination  Scrolling cursors  Optimistic, Pessimistic locking  Projection Queries  Joining object retrieval  Partial Attribute Queries optimization  In memory querying  Dynamic queries AND MUCH MORE!
  • 34. EclipseLink Status • Incubating Technology Project • Initial contribution of Oracle TopLink complete • Full documentation available on Wiki • Producing Monthly Milestone builds • Milestones included in GlassFish V3 Milestones • 1.0 release planned for July 2008 • JPA 1.0, SDO 2.1, JAXB • Simplified XML and annotation config of advanced features • Packaged for Java SE/EE and OSGi bundles • Beyond 1.0 • JPA 2.0 (Reference Implementation) • Database Web Services • Data Access Service (DAS) 1.0 • and much more …
  • 35. Getting Started with EclipseLink JPA • EclipseLink Project http://www.eclipse.org/eclipselink Eclipse newsgroup: eclipse.technology.eclipselink • GlassFish V3 https://glassfish.dev.java.net/ • Open Source JPA Tools • NetBeans—http://www.netbeans.org • Dali JPA Tools—http://www.eclipse.org/dali