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THE LADIES WALDEGRAVE, SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS (1780)
NATIONAL GALLERIES OF SCOTLAND, © NATIONAL GALLERIES OF SCOTLAND?
OPEN ACCESS TO
ART IMAGES
Andrea Wallace, University of Exeter
Simon Tanner, King’s College London
1. THE GLOBAL STATE OF (GLAM)
OPEN ACCESS
2. WHY?! THE GLOBAL STATE OF
LEGAL PRECEDENT
3. SO, WHERE ARE WE NOW?
4. GAPS IN THE NEW LEGAL
FRAMEWORKS
5. WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT IT?
GLOBAL STATE
OF OPEN ACCESS
AMARA: DAWNL ON THE TIGRIS, DONALD MAXWELL (FIRST WORLD WAR)
IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, © IWM (ART.AWM ART 1853)
http://bit.ly/OpenGLAMsurvey
Why we started the survey
● Information gap
○ Lack of up-to-date information on this topic
○ No ‘shared place’ to see/add relevant data
○ Perceived European & North American bias in the field;
we are motivated to discover the global picture
● To develop a resource for
○ people who want to find & use open content or data
○ GLAMs exploring open access data & policy
Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector
Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
Definition of open access
‘Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and
share for any purpose.’ (The Open Definition)
Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector
Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
Conformant licences & rights statements
● Public Domain Mark
● CC0
● CC BY
● CC BY-SA
● No Known Copyright
and equivalents
Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector
Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
Scope
● The survey covers data that GLAMs make available on their
websites and/or external platforms such as Github,
Europeana, German Digital Library or Wikimedia Commons
● The survey only covers digital surrogates of objects in the
public domain, where any term of copyright for the material
object has expired or never existed in the first place
● Only open access data is eligible (no NC or ND licences)
Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector
Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
Global GLAMs Compared to UK GLAMs
Rest of world UK: some eligibledata UK: all eligible data
• 10 CC BY-SA
• 20 CC BY
• 7 No known copyright restrictions
• 1 CC0
• 2 Public Domain
• 1 CC BY-SA
• Brighton Art Museum
• 1 CC BY
• Welcome Collection
• 2 Public Domain
• York Museums Trust
• National Library of Wales
605 43
Some
eligible
data
4
39
All
417 Some eligible data
187 All eligible data
647
Total
But the ticket income! Global Museums & Galleries only:
Free entry < €5 €5 to < €10 €10 to < €15 €15 to < €20 €20 +
39
11
17
14
11
4 All eligible data:
39 FREE
11 less than €5
17 from €5 to less than €10
14 from €10 to less than €15
11 from €15 to less than €20
4 from €20 +
Rijksmuseum
0 PD / CC0
275 CC BY
136 CC BY-SA
460 CC BY-ND
2,304 CC BY-NC
3,539 CC BY-NC-SA
18,312 CC BY-NC-ND
220,298 IMAGES
25,027 CC LICENSED
411 OPEN CC
460 OPEN BUT ND
S U R R O G AT E S : I N - C O PY R I G H T v P U B L I C D O M A I N
© David Hockney
License this image
© Tate, CC BY-NC-ND
License this image
The Fall of Man, Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, No risk / © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
WHY?! THE
STATE OF LEGAL
PRECEDENT
ORIGINALITY IN REPRODUCTIONS
United Kingdom United States European Union Germany
Threshold “skill, labour, and
judgment”
“modicum of
creativity”
“author’s own intellectual
creation”
“personal intellectual
creation”
Relevant law Copyright Designs
and Patent Act
US Constitution
and Copyright Act
Article 6 of the Copyright
Directive
German Copyright Act
Most
relevant
case
Graves’ Case,
1869
( + Temple Island)
Bridgeman Art
Library v Corel I
(1998) and II
(1999)
Eva Maria Painer v Standard
VerlagsGmbH (2011)
Reiss Engelhorn
Museum v Wikimedia
(2018)
How do we
measure it?
no difference in
substance
between UK and
EU thresholds AKA
“free and creative
choices” =
personal stamp
(Painer)
Framing of subject
matter, lighting,
background,
position of
camera, moment
of capture, etc.,
but NO “slavish
reproduction”
“free and creative choices”
during the preparation
(back-ground, pose, and
lighting), capture (framing,
angle, atmosphere), printing
(techniques or computer
editing)”
= personal stamp
“free and creative
choices” = personal
stamp (Painer)
YES,photographic
reproductionsofartworks
areoriginal
NO,photographic
reproductionsofartworks
arenotoriginal
YES,portraitphotographs
areoriginal
NO,photographicreproductions
ofartworksarenotoriginal,but
canbeprotectedas“other
photographs”
OTHER PHOTOGRAPHS Austria 50 years
Denmark 50 years
Finland 50 years
Germany 50 years
Iceland 50 years
Italy 20 years
Norway 15 years
Spain 25 years
Sweden 50 years
“Significant skill and labour […] cannot justify [copyright] protection
if they do not express any originality” (Football Dataco, 2012)
Reiss Engelhorn Museum v. Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia Deutschland
Rudolf Stricker, Wikimedia Commons
© Reiss Engelhorn Museum
ORIGINAL PHOTO
O T H E R
P H O T O
A U T H O R ’ S
O W N
I N T E L L E C T U A L
C R E AT I O N
WHAT IS REQUIRED
OTHER PHOTO
YES
NO
REPRODUCTIONS = “other photographs”
Protected as “simple light photographs” with “minimum
personal intellectual input” Article 72 of German Copyright Act
FREE AND CREATIVE CHOICES
Austria 50 years
Denmark 50 years
Finland 50 years
Germany 50 years
Iceland 50 years
Italy 20 years
Norway 15 years
Spain 25 years
Sweden 50 years
A GENERAL VIEW IN OOTACAMUND, ROBERT HAVELL, RICHARD BARRON (1826)
BRITISH LIBRARY, PUBLIC DOMAIN, © BRITISH LIBRARY
EUROPEAN
DEVELOPMENTS &
WIDER EFFECTS
ARTICLE 14 OF THE
(REVISED) DSM DIRECTIVE !
A YOUNG WOMAN STANDING AT A VIRGINAL, JOHANNES VERMEER (1670-2)
THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, © THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, CC BY-NC-ND
SO…
WHERE ARE WE
NOW?
ORIGINAL PHOTO
O T H E R
P H O T O
A U T H O R ’ S
O W N
I N T E L L E C T U A L
C R E AT I O N
WHAT IS REQUIRED
OTHER PHOTO
YES
NO
REPRODUCTIONS = “other photographs”
Protected as “simple light photographs” with “minimum
personal intellectual input” Article 72 of German Copyright Act
FREE AND CREATIVE CHOICES
Austria 50 years
Denmark 50 years
Finland 50 years
Germany 50 years
Iceland 50 years
Italy 20 years
Norway 15 years
Spain 25 years
Sweden 50 years
ORIGINAL PHOTO
O T H E R
P H O T O
A U T H O R ’ S
O W N
I N T E L L E C T U A L
C R E AT I O N
WHAT IS REQUIRED
OTHER PHOTO
YES
NO
REPRODUCTIONS = “other photographs”
Protected as “simple light photographs” with “minimum
personal intellectual input” Article 72 of German Copyright Act
FREE AND CREATIVE CHOICES
Austria 50 years
Denmark 50 years
Finland 50 years
Germany 50 years
Iceland 50 years
Italy 20 years
Norway 15 years
Spain 25 years
Sweden 50 years
‘Crowd looking at the Mona Lisa at the Louvre,’ by Victor Grigas, CC BY-SA 4.0, available at:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=40250423
Installation view of Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain (1917), James Broad, Flickr
U K I P O C O PY R I G H T N OT I C E 2 0 1 5
• Cites CJEU
• Originality “seems unlikely”
• Guidance is not binding
MONTGOMERYSHIRE WAR WEAPONS WEEK (1511246), GEOFF CHARLES (1941)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF WALES, NO KNOWN COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS | FLICKR COMMONS
GAPS:
ARTICLE 14 &
PSI DIRECTIVE
• “considerable differences
…relating to the exploitation
of public cultural resources,”
• “very different regulatory and
cultural environments”
• “hinder the smooth
functioning of the internal
market and the proper
development of an
information society.”
(Recitals 22-24)
”principle of ‘open by design
and by default’” and to “go
beyond the minimum
requirements set out”
A WHEATFIELD, WITH CYPRESSES, VINCENT VAN GOGH (1889)
THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, © ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | ARTUK
MIND YOUR
Ts AND Cs
(AND ARTICLE 17)
STUDY OF A DOG, FRANCIS BACON (1952)
TATE, MODERN, © TATE
• SORT OUT COPYRIGHT IN 2D
REPRODUCTIONS OF 2D WORKS
ALREADY
• OPEN ACCESS 2.0 IS HERE AND
THE UK IS FALLING BEHIND
• WHAT IS THE GREATER IMPACT OF
CLOSED ACCESS ON KNOWLEDGE
AND CULTURAL MEMORY?
https://openglam.org/principles/
Art for All works to support UK cultural heritage institutions to
open digital collections for unrestricted public reuse. We take the
position that no new rights should arise in faithful reproductions
of public domain works and other non-original data. We advocate
for the government to increase public funding for digitization and
release the heritage sector from obligations to generate revenue
from images.
Evidence shows that open access galvanises the development of
new knowledge and creative works, and has a transformative
effect on the institutions that adopt it. But the path to open
access can be overwhelming. Our goal is to aid the movement by
campaigning for the necessary support at government and
institutional levels. In doing so, Art for All seeks to help clear the
path toward meaningful access to the breadth of cultural
materials cared for by UK institutions.
Open Access to Art Images

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Open Access to Art Images

  • 1. THE LADIES WALDEGRAVE, SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS (1780) NATIONAL GALLERIES OF SCOTLAND, © NATIONAL GALLERIES OF SCOTLAND? OPEN ACCESS TO ART IMAGES Andrea Wallace, University of Exeter Simon Tanner, King’s College London
  • 2. 1. THE GLOBAL STATE OF (GLAM) OPEN ACCESS 2. WHY?! THE GLOBAL STATE OF LEGAL PRECEDENT 3. SO, WHERE ARE WE NOW? 4. GAPS IN THE NEW LEGAL FRAMEWORKS 5. WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT IT?
  • 3. GLOBAL STATE OF OPEN ACCESS AMARA: DAWNL ON THE TIGRIS, DONALD MAXWELL (FIRST WORLD WAR) IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM, © IWM (ART.AWM ART 1853)
  • 5. Why we started the survey ● Information gap ○ Lack of up-to-date information on this topic ○ No ‘shared place’ to see/add relevant data ○ Perceived European & North American bias in the field; we are motivated to discover the global picture ● To develop a resource for ○ people who want to find & use open content or data ○ GLAMs exploring open access data & policy Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
  • 6. Definition of open access ‘Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose.’ (The Open Definition) Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
  • 7. Conformant licences & rights statements ● Public Domain Mark ● CC0 ● CC BY ● CC BY-SA ● No Known Copyright and equivalents Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
  • 8. Scope ● The survey covers data that GLAMs make available on their websites and/or external platforms such as Github, Europeana, German Digital Library or Wikimedia Commons ● The survey only covers digital surrogates of objects in the public domain, where any term of copyright for the material object has expired or never existed in the first place ● Only open access data is eligible (no NC or ND licences) Open GLAM around the world: developing a global survey of open access policy and practice in the GLAM sector Andrea Wallace and Douglas McCarthy, CC BY
  • 9.
  • 10. Global GLAMs Compared to UK GLAMs Rest of world UK: some eligibledata UK: all eligible data • 10 CC BY-SA • 20 CC BY • 7 No known copyright restrictions • 1 CC0 • 2 Public Domain • 1 CC BY-SA • Brighton Art Museum • 1 CC BY • Welcome Collection • 2 Public Domain • York Museums Trust • National Library of Wales 605 43 Some eligible data 4 39 All 417 Some eligible data 187 All eligible data 647 Total
  • 11. But the ticket income! Global Museums & Galleries only: Free entry < €5 €5 to < €10 €10 to < €15 €15 to < €20 €20 + 39 11 17 14 11 4 All eligible data: 39 FREE 11 less than €5 17 from €5 to less than €10 14 from €10 to less than €15 11 from €15 to less than €20 4 from €20 + Rijksmuseum
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. 0 PD / CC0 275 CC BY 136 CC BY-SA 460 CC BY-ND 2,304 CC BY-NC 3,539 CC BY-NC-SA 18,312 CC BY-NC-ND 220,298 IMAGES 25,027 CC LICENSED 411 OPEN CC 460 OPEN BUT ND
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. S U R R O G AT E S : I N - C O PY R I G H T v P U B L I C D O M A I N © David Hockney License this image © Tate, CC BY-NC-ND License this image
  • 18.
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  • 22. The Fall of Man, Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, No risk / © Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam WHY?! THE STATE OF LEGAL PRECEDENT
  • 23. ORIGINALITY IN REPRODUCTIONS United Kingdom United States European Union Germany Threshold “skill, labour, and judgment” “modicum of creativity” “author’s own intellectual creation” “personal intellectual creation” Relevant law Copyright Designs and Patent Act US Constitution and Copyright Act Article 6 of the Copyright Directive German Copyright Act Most relevant case Graves’ Case, 1869 ( + Temple Island) Bridgeman Art Library v Corel I (1998) and II (1999) Eva Maria Painer v Standard VerlagsGmbH (2011) Reiss Engelhorn Museum v Wikimedia (2018) How do we measure it? no difference in substance between UK and EU thresholds AKA “free and creative choices” = personal stamp (Painer) Framing of subject matter, lighting, background, position of camera, moment of capture, etc., but NO “slavish reproduction” “free and creative choices” during the preparation (back-ground, pose, and lighting), capture (framing, angle, atmosphere), printing (techniques or computer editing)” = personal stamp “free and creative choices” = personal stamp (Painer) YES,photographic reproductionsofartworks areoriginal NO,photographic reproductionsofartworks arenotoriginal YES,portraitphotographs areoriginal NO,photographicreproductions ofartworksarenotoriginal,but canbeprotectedas“other photographs”
  • 24. OTHER PHOTOGRAPHS Austria 50 years Denmark 50 years Finland 50 years Germany 50 years Iceland 50 years Italy 20 years Norway 15 years Spain 25 years Sweden 50 years “Significant skill and labour […] cannot justify [copyright] protection if they do not express any originality” (Football Dataco, 2012)
  • 25. Reiss Engelhorn Museum v. Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia Deutschland Rudolf Stricker, Wikimedia Commons
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  • 28. ORIGINAL PHOTO O T H E R P H O T O A U T H O R ’ S O W N I N T E L L E C T U A L C R E AT I O N WHAT IS REQUIRED OTHER PHOTO YES NO REPRODUCTIONS = “other photographs” Protected as “simple light photographs” with “minimum personal intellectual input” Article 72 of German Copyright Act FREE AND CREATIVE CHOICES Austria 50 years Denmark 50 years Finland 50 years Germany 50 years Iceland 50 years Italy 20 years Norway 15 years Spain 25 years Sweden 50 years
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  • 33. A GENERAL VIEW IN OOTACAMUND, ROBERT HAVELL, RICHARD BARRON (1826) BRITISH LIBRARY, PUBLIC DOMAIN, © BRITISH LIBRARY EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS & WIDER EFFECTS
  • 34. ARTICLE 14 OF THE (REVISED) DSM DIRECTIVE !
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  • 37. A YOUNG WOMAN STANDING AT A VIRGINAL, JOHANNES VERMEER (1670-2) THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, © THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, CC BY-NC-ND SO… WHERE ARE WE NOW?
  • 38. ORIGINAL PHOTO O T H E R P H O T O A U T H O R ’ S O W N I N T E L L E C T U A L C R E AT I O N WHAT IS REQUIRED OTHER PHOTO YES NO REPRODUCTIONS = “other photographs” Protected as “simple light photographs” with “minimum personal intellectual input” Article 72 of German Copyright Act FREE AND CREATIVE CHOICES Austria 50 years Denmark 50 years Finland 50 years Germany 50 years Iceland 50 years Italy 20 years Norway 15 years Spain 25 years Sweden 50 years
  • 39. ORIGINAL PHOTO O T H E R P H O T O A U T H O R ’ S O W N I N T E L L E C T U A L C R E AT I O N WHAT IS REQUIRED OTHER PHOTO YES NO REPRODUCTIONS = “other photographs” Protected as “simple light photographs” with “minimum personal intellectual input” Article 72 of German Copyright Act FREE AND CREATIVE CHOICES Austria 50 years Denmark 50 years Finland 50 years Germany 50 years Iceland 50 years Italy 20 years Norway 15 years Spain 25 years Sweden 50 years
  • 40. ‘Crowd looking at the Mona Lisa at the Louvre,’ by Victor Grigas, CC BY-SA 4.0, available at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=40250423
  • 41. Installation view of Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain (1917), James Broad, Flickr
  • 42. U K I P O C O PY R I G H T N OT I C E 2 0 1 5 • Cites CJEU • Originality “seems unlikely” • Guidance is not binding
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  • 46. MONTGOMERYSHIRE WAR WEAPONS WEEK (1511246), GEOFF CHARLES (1941) NATIONAL LIBRARY OF WALES, NO KNOWN COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS | FLICKR COMMONS GAPS: ARTICLE 14 & PSI DIRECTIVE
  • 47. • “considerable differences …relating to the exploitation of public cultural resources,” • “very different regulatory and cultural environments” • “hinder the smooth functioning of the internal market and the proper development of an information society.” (Recitals 22-24) ”principle of ‘open by design and by default’” and to “go beyond the minimum requirements set out”
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  • 54. A WHEATFIELD, WITH CYPRESSES, VINCENT VAN GOGH (1889) THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, © ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | ARTUK MIND YOUR Ts AND Cs (AND ARTICLE 17)
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  • 58. STUDY OF A DOG, FRANCIS BACON (1952) TATE, MODERN, © TATE • SORT OUT COPYRIGHT IN 2D REPRODUCTIONS OF 2D WORKS ALREADY • OPEN ACCESS 2.0 IS HERE AND THE UK IS FALLING BEHIND • WHAT IS THE GREATER IMPACT OF CLOSED ACCESS ON KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURAL MEMORY?
  • 60.
  • 61. Art for All works to support UK cultural heritage institutions to open digital collections for unrestricted public reuse. We take the position that no new rights should arise in faithful reproductions of public domain works and other non-original data. We advocate for the government to increase public funding for digitization and release the heritage sector from obligations to generate revenue from images. Evidence shows that open access galvanises the development of new knowledge and creative works, and has a transformative effect on the institutions that adopt it. But the path to open access can be overwhelming. Our goal is to aid the movement by campaigning for the necessary support at government and institutional levels. In doing so, Art for All seeks to help clear the path toward meaningful access to the breadth of cultural materials cared for by UK institutions.