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Old Maps, Annotations, and Open
Data Networks
Bernhard Haslhofer (Cornell University)
...with input from Rainer Simon (Austrian Institute of Technology)

Harvard University, January 2013
My plan for today...

                  • Background and Context
                  • Annotations on Historical Maps
                  • Maphub Demo + Technical Details
                  • yuma.min.js / Annotorious
                  • Next Steps, Ideas, ...
                  • Related Projects
Harvard, January 2013                2
About me...


                  •     Postdoc at Cornell

                  •     Research in the area of global data networks

                        •   how can open data support scholarship?

                        •   how can scholarly knowledge flow back into
                            open data networks?



Harvard, January 2013                        3
The big picture...
                                                                                          W3C Open Annotations

                                                                                        maphub
                              Semantic Tagging                                          (Zoomable) Historic Maps
                                                                                        JavaScript, Ruby on Rails




       LEMO                           YUMA                                 yuma.min.js / Annotorious
       Linked Data Annotation Model   OAC Model                            Audio, (Zoomable) Images
       Audio,Video, Images            Audio,Video, Images                  JavaScript
       Server + Flash Clients         Server + GWT Clients


                                                             yuma4j
                                                             Storage Server (Java)
                            Open Annotation                  OAC Model               Open Knowledge
                            Collaboration (OAC)                                      Foundation Annotator



             2007                                                                                               2013


Harvard, January 2013                                         4
Annotations on Historical Maps




Harvard, January 2013       5
Annotations on Historical Maps




Harvard, January 2013       6
Annotations on Historical Maps




Harvard, January 2013       7
Annotations on Historical Maps




Harvard, January 2013       8
Possible Benefits


                  • Engage people; let them tell their stories
                  • Collect knowledge; enhance metadata
                        records
                  • Connect digitized maps with other Web
                        resources



Harvard, January 2013                   9
Maphub Demo + Technical Details




Harvard, January 2013        10
Maphub Screencast




                  • http://vimeo.com/46114369


Harvard, January 2013                11
Maphub Features


                  • Geo References + Map Overlays
                  • Comments + Semantic Tagging
                  • Multilingual Search
                  • (Open Annotation) API

Harvard, January 2013                12
Geo References




Harvard, January 2013      13
Geo References

                            Affine Transformation
                                   Model
   y                         x = a*lat + b*lng + c
                             y = d*lat + e*lng + f


                             lat = a*x + b*y + c
                             lng = d*x + e*y + f


                        x



Harvard, January 2013                 14
Map Overlays
                  • Generate overlay tilesets using GDAL and
                        gdal2tiles.py



       /raw
       /thumbnails
       /ts_zoomify
       /ts_google

       /scripts/convert.rb
                                    new control points?
       ...

Harvard, January 2013                            15
Harvard, January 2013
Harvard, January 2013
Harvard, January 2013
Comments on map regions




Harvard, January 2013      19
Semantic Tagging




                            annotation text

                        extracted named entities
      Wikipedia            (Wikipedia Links)
      Miner



Harvard, January 2013                         20
Semantic Tagging
                 Label-based Tagging Model                              Semantic Tagging Model

              Resources                Tags             Users        Resources       Semantic        Users
                                                                                       Tags

                          t1, t2, t3

                             t1, t4, t5
                                  t1
                                               t6, t7


                                          t1, t6, t7


                                                                                 Knowledge Context


              based on Marlow et al. (2006)




Harvard, January 2013                                           21
Multilingual Search




                                                      (a
                                                        bs
                                                         fe ct +
                                                           tr
                                                            tc l
                                                              a
                                                               h ab
                                                                en el
                                                                  ric tr
                                                                     hm an
                                                                       en slat
                                                                         ts ion
                                                                                s)
                        index map metadata + annotations + enrichments


                                      search & retrieval




Harvard, January 2013                                      22
Maphub API

                  •     Central Maphub information entities:
                        maps, annotations (comments), control points

                  •     Each instance of these entities becomes a first-
                        class Web resource, identified by a URI

                        •   http://maphub.herokuapp.com/maps/355

                        •   http://maphub.herokuapp.com/annotations/1

                        •   http://maphub.herokuapp.com/control_points/1


Harvard, January 2013                         23
Maphub API




Harvard, January 2013      24
Open Annotation API
                        "bernhard.haslhofer@          oa:             oax:            maphub:                    "2012-07-18T02:
                             cornell.edu"          Annotation       Tagging         GeoReference                     01:07Z"


                                               "behas"
                                                                                rdf:type                         "2012-07-18T02:
                             foaf:mbox                     rdf:type rdf:type                                         01:07Z"
                                                                                           oa:annotated
                                   foaf:name
                                                                                             oa:generated
                                                                    http://
                                                                                                                 http://maphubdev.
                             uuid:1235                    maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                                                                                                                 mminf.univie.ac.at
                                                               control_points/1
                                          oa:annotator                                       oa:generator


                                         oax:hasSemanticTag                                       oa:Specific
                                                                 oa:hasTarget                      Resource
                                                                                  rdf:type
                              http://
                                                                                                                     oa:Fragment
                        sws.geonames.org/                         uuid:4567                                            Selector
                             2643743/

                                                                                   oa:hasSelector              rdf:type
                                                                 oa:hasSource
                                                                                                         uuid:8910


                                                                  http://                                      rdf:value
                                                          samos.mminf.univie.ac.
                                                              at/maps/raw/
                                                           g3200.ct000725C.jp2                                 xywh=6550,6228,1,1



                                                                   dc:format                  rdf:type




                                                                   image/jp2                                    dcterms:StillImage



Harvard, January 2013                                                  25
Open Annotation API
                                                  "bernhard.haslhofer@                             oa:                                      "2012-07-18T02:
                                                       cornell.edu"                             Annotation                                      01:07Z"


                                                                             "behas"
                                                                                                                                            "2012-07-18T02:
                                                         foaf:mbox                               rdf:type                                       01:07Z"
                                                                                                                        oa:annotated
                                                                 foaf:name
                                                                                                                         oa:generated
                                                                                                 http://
                                                                                                                                            http://maphubdev.
                                                        uuid:1235                      maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                                                                                                                                            mminf.univie.ac.at
                                                                                             annotations/1
                                                                        oa:annotator                                     oa:generator


                                               oax:hasSemanticTag        oax:hasSemanticTag
                                                                                                             oa:hasTarget                          oa:Specific                                             ct:ContentAs
                                                                                                                                                    Resource                  rdf:type                        Text
                         dbpedia:                                                                                                  rdf:type
                                                                   dbpedia:
                   Pillars_of_Hercules                        Strait_of_Gibraltar                                      uuid:4567                                                dcterms:
                                                                                                                                              oa:hasSelector
                                                                                                                                                                                 format
                                                                                                                                                                                                       image/svg

                         cnt:Content                                               oa:hasBody                                                                    uuid:2752
                                                                                                                   oa:hasSource
                           AsText                                                                                                       oa:hasSelector
                                            rdf:type
                                                          uuid:2751
                                                                                                                                                                      ct:chars                         <svg…..>
                          "text/plain"                                                                               http://
                                                                                                             samos.mminf.univie.ac.                                                rdf:type
                                                                      cnt:chars                                                                        uuid:2753
                                            dc:format                                                            at/maps/raw/
                                                                                                              g3200.ct000725C.jp2
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ct:ContentAs
                                                                                                                                                                                         dcterms:
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Text
              In antiquity, the Strait of Gibraltar (which                                                                                                                                format
                                                                                                                       dc:format
              connects the Atlantic Ocean with the                                                                                      rdf:type
              Mediterranean Sea) was also known by the
              name "The Pillars of Hercules". This is the
              reason for this inscription!                                                                             image/jp2                                                                     application/wkt



                                                                                                                                                                   ct:chars
                                                                                                                                                                                                    POLYGON((5315
                                                                                                                                        dcterms:StillImage
                                                                                                                                                                                                     5639,5444….)




Harvard, January 2013                                                                                         26
Controlpoint Index
                                   ore:
                                Aggregation




                                  rdf:type
                                                                             Maphub Controlpoints
                                                              dc:title
                                  http://
                        maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                              control_points
                                                           ore:aggregates
                                                                                      http://
                                                                            maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                                                                                 control_points/1


                                                        ore:aggregates


                                                                                      http://
                                                                            maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                                                                                 control_points/....




Harvard, January 2013                                           27
Annotation Index

                                   ore:
                                Aggregation




                                  rdf:type
                                                                             Maphub Commentarial
                                                                             Annotations
                                                              dc:title
                                  http://
                        maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                               annotations
                                                           ore:aggregates
                                                                                      http://
                                                                            maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                                                                                  annotations/1


                                                        ore:aggregates


                                                                                      http://
                                                                            maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/
                                                                                  annotations/5




Harvard, January 2013                                           28
Next Steps, Ideas, ...




Harvard, January 2013             29
Semantic Tagging Study


                  • Effects of semantic tagging on
                   • comments, tag usage / types
                   • user satisfaction
                  • in-lab user experiment
                  • currently in-progress @ Cornell
Harvard, January 2013                 30
Maphub Construction Areas

                  • Infrastructure stability
                  • GIS functionality + overlay generation
                  • Learning from Semantic Tagging (accept/
                        reject)
                  • Annotation moderation
                  • ...
Harvard, January 2013                  31
Possible Extensions

                  • Semi-automatic annotation (toponym
                        detection) (http://rsimon.github.com/
                        toponym_identification/)




                             Josephinische Landesaufnahme: Gebiet von Mooskirchen bis Grazer Feld, Steiermark, Österreich, 1764-1787. Wikimedia Commons.

Harvard, January 2013                                                 32
Possible Extensions

                  • Semantic Tagging with placenames from
                        different Gazetteers
                  • http://pleiades.stoa.org
                  • Pleiades dataset            (http://thedatahub.org/dataset/pleiades)

                        •   34,000+ ancient places

                        •   cool URIs for these resources

                  •     http://pelagios-project.blogspot.com



Harvard, January 2013                                33
Related Projects




Harvard, January 2013          34
Annotorious

                  •     Light-weight image annotation library; no big client/
                        server framework

                  •     Adds annotation features to existing Web pages
    <html>

         <head>
           <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/annotorious.css" />
           <script type="text/javascript" src="annotorious.min.js"></script>
         </head>

         <body>
           <img src="example.jpg" class="annotatable" />
         </body>

    </html>



Harvard, January 2013                           35
Annotorious

                  •     Plugin-Framework

                        •   Different storage backends and GUI components
                            (Tags, Replies)

                        •   Additional selectors

                  •     Interoperable with OKFN Annotator


             https://github.com/annotorious/annotorious


Harvard, January 2013                              36
Lucene-SKOS

                  •     Plugin for Apache Lucene / Solr

                  •     Works with SKOS-based knowledge contexts

                  •     Uses semantic tags (links to SKOS concepts)
                        for query expansion

                        •   query time

                        •   indexing time

           https://github.com/behas/lucene-SKOS

Harvard, January 2013                       37
References
                  •     Haslhofer et al. (2007): The LEMO annotation
                        framework: weaving annotations with the Web (IJDL)

                  •     Haslhofer et al. (2010): Augmenting Europeana Content
                        with Linked Data Resources (I-Semantics)

                  •     Simon et al. (2011): Semantically augmented annotations
                        in digitized map collections (JCDL)

                  •     Haslhofer et al. (2012): Open Annotations on Multimedia
                        Web Resources (MTAP)

                  •     Haslhofer et al. (2013): Old Maps and Open Data
                        Networks (iConference Demo / Poster)

Harvard, January 2013                            38
Further Information



              http://maphub.github.com




                                              Thank you!


Harvard, January 2013                    39
Acknowledgements (Maphub)

                  • Rainer Simon
                  • Werner Robitza
                  • Keith Newman
                  • Amanda Stefanik
                  • Carl Lagoze
                  • Francois Guimbretiere
Harvard, January 2013                 40

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Old Maps, Annotations, and Open Data Networks

  • 1. Old Maps, Annotations, and Open Data Networks Bernhard Haslhofer (Cornell University) ...with input from Rainer Simon (Austrian Institute of Technology) Harvard University, January 2013
  • 2. My plan for today... • Background and Context • Annotations on Historical Maps • Maphub Demo + Technical Details • yuma.min.js / Annotorious • Next Steps, Ideas, ... • Related Projects Harvard, January 2013 2
  • 3. About me... • Postdoc at Cornell • Research in the area of global data networks • how can open data support scholarship? • how can scholarly knowledge flow back into open data networks? Harvard, January 2013 3
  • 4. The big picture... W3C Open Annotations maphub Semantic Tagging (Zoomable) Historic Maps JavaScript, Ruby on Rails LEMO YUMA yuma.min.js / Annotorious Linked Data Annotation Model OAC Model Audio, (Zoomable) Images Audio,Video, Images Audio,Video, Images JavaScript Server + Flash Clients Server + GWT Clients yuma4j Storage Server (Java) Open Annotation OAC Model Open Knowledge Collaboration (OAC) Foundation Annotator 2007 2013 Harvard, January 2013 4
  • 5. Annotations on Historical Maps Harvard, January 2013 5
  • 6. Annotations on Historical Maps Harvard, January 2013 6
  • 7. Annotations on Historical Maps Harvard, January 2013 7
  • 8. Annotations on Historical Maps Harvard, January 2013 8
  • 9. Possible Benefits • Engage people; let them tell their stories • Collect knowledge; enhance metadata records • Connect digitized maps with other Web resources Harvard, January 2013 9
  • 10. Maphub Demo + Technical Details Harvard, January 2013 10
  • 11. Maphub Screencast • http://vimeo.com/46114369 Harvard, January 2013 11
  • 12. Maphub Features • Geo References + Map Overlays • Comments + Semantic Tagging • Multilingual Search • (Open Annotation) API Harvard, January 2013 12
  • 14. Geo References Affine Transformation Model y x = a*lat + b*lng + c y = d*lat + e*lng + f lat = a*x + b*y + c lng = d*x + e*y + f x Harvard, January 2013 14
  • 15. Map Overlays • Generate overlay tilesets using GDAL and gdal2tiles.py /raw /thumbnails /ts_zoomify /ts_google /scripts/convert.rb new control points? ... Harvard, January 2013 15
  • 19. Comments on map regions Harvard, January 2013 19
  • 20. Semantic Tagging annotation text extracted named entities Wikipedia (Wikipedia Links) Miner Harvard, January 2013 20
  • 21. Semantic Tagging Label-based Tagging Model Semantic Tagging Model Resources Tags Users Resources Semantic Users Tags t1, t2, t3 t1, t4, t5 t1 t6, t7 t1, t6, t7 Knowledge Context based on Marlow et al. (2006) Harvard, January 2013 21
  • 22. Multilingual Search (a bs fe ct + tr tc l a h ab en el ric tr hm an en slat ts ion s) index map metadata + annotations + enrichments search & retrieval Harvard, January 2013 22
  • 23. Maphub API • Central Maphub information entities: maps, annotations (comments), control points • Each instance of these entities becomes a first- class Web resource, identified by a URI • http://maphub.herokuapp.com/maps/355 • http://maphub.herokuapp.com/annotations/1 • http://maphub.herokuapp.com/control_points/1 Harvard, January 2013 23
  • 25. Open Annotation API "bernhard.haslhofer@ oa: oax: maphub: "2012-07-18T02: cornell.edu" Annotation Tagging GeoReference 01:07Z" "behas" rdf:type "2012-07-18T02: foaf:mbox rdf:type rdf:type 01:07Z" oa:annotated foaf:name oa:generated http:// http://maphubdev. uuid:1235 maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ mminf.univie.ac.at control_points/1 oa:annotator oa:generator oax:hasSemanticTag oa:Specific oa:hasTarget Resource rdf:type http:// oa:Fragment sws.geonames.org/ uuid:4567 Selector 2643743/ oa:hasSelector rdf:type oa:hasSource uuid:8910 http:// rdf:value samos.mminf.univie.ac. at/maps/raw/ g3200.ct000725C.jp2 xywh=6550,6228,1,1 dc:format rdf:type image/jp2 dcterms:StillImage Harvard, January 2013 25
  • 26. Open Annotation API "bernhard.haslhofer@ oa: "2012-07-18T02: cornell.edu" Annotation 01:07Z" "behas" "2012-07-18T02: foaf:mbox rdf:type 01:07Z" oa:annotated foaf:name oa:generated http:// http://maphubdev. uuid:1235 maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ mminf.univie.ac.at annotations/1 oa:annotator oa:generator oax:hasSemanticTag oax:hasSemanticTag oa:hasTarget oa:Specific ct:ContentAs Resource rdf:type Text dbpedia: rdf:type dbpedia: Pillars_of_Hercules Strait_of_Gibraltar uuid:4567 dcterms: oa:hasSelector format image/svg cnt:Content oa:hasBody uuid:2752 oa:hasSource AsText oa:hasSelector rdf:type uuid:2751 ct:chars <svg…..> "text/plain" http:// samos.mminf.univie.ac. rdf:type cnt:chars uuid:2753 dc:format at/maps/raw/ g3200.ct000725C.jp2 ct:ContentAs dcterms: Text In antiquity, the Strait of Gibraltar (which format dc:format connects the Atlantic Ocean with the rdf:type Mediterranean Sea) was also known by the name "The Pillars of Hercules". This is the reason for this inscription! image/jp2 application/wkt ct:chars POLYGON((5315 dcterms:StillImage 5639,5444….) Harvard, January 2013 26
  • 27. Controlpoint Index ore: Aggregation rdf:type Maphub Controlpoints dc:title http:// maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ control_points ore:aggregates http:// maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ control_points/1 ore:aggregates http:// maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ control_points/.... Harvard, January 2013 27
  • 28. Annotation Index ore: Aggregation rdf:type Maphub Commentarial Annotations dc:title http:// maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ annotations ore:aggregates http:// maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ annotations/1 ore:aggregates http:// maphubdev.mminf.univie.ac.at/ annotations/5 Harvard, January 2013 28
  • 29. Next Steps, Ideas, ... Harvard, January 2013 29
  • 30. Semantic Tagging Study • Effects of semantic tagging on • comments, tag usage / types • user satisfaction • in-lab user experiment • currently in-progress @ Cornell Harvard, January 2013 30
  • 31. Maphub Construction Areas • Infrastructure stability • GIS functionality + overlay generation • Learning from Semantic Tagging (accept/ reject) • Annotation moderation • ... Harvard, January 2013 31
  • 32. Possible Extensions • Semi-automatic annotation (toponym detection) (http://rsimon.github.com/ toponym_identification/) Josephinische Landesaufnahme: Gebiet von Mooskirchen bis Grazer Feld, Steiermark, Österreich, 1764-1787. Wikimedia Commons. Harvard, January 2013 32
  • 33. Possible Extensions • Semantic Tagging with placenames from different Gazetteers • http://pleiades.stoa.org • Pleiades dataset (http://thedatahub.org/dataset/pleiades) • 34,000+ ancient places • cool URIs for these resources • http://pelagios-project.blogspot.com Harvard, January 2013 33
  • 35. Annotorious • Light-weight image annotation library; no big client/ server framework • Adds annotation features to existing Web pages <html> <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/annotorious.css" /> <script type="text/javascript" src="annotorious.min.js"></script> </head> <body> <img src="example.jpg" class="annotatable" /> </body> </html> Harvard, January 2013 35
  • 36. Annotorious • Plugin-Framework • Different storage backends and GUI components (Tags, Replies) • Additional selectors • Interoperable with OKFN Annotator https://github.com/annotorious/annotorious Harvard, January 2013 36
  • 37. Lucene-SKOS • Plugin for Apache Lucene / Solr • Works with SKOS-based knowledge contexts • Uses semantic tags (links to SKOS concepts) for query expansion • query time • indexing time https://github.com/behas/lucene-SKOS Harvard, January 2013 37
  • 38. References • Haslhofer et al. (2007): The LEMO annotation framework: weaving annotations with the Web (IJDL) • Haslhofer et al. (2010): Augmenting Europeana Content with Linked Data Resources (I-Semantics) • Simon et al. (2011): Semantically augmented annotations in digitized map collections (JCDL) • Haslhofer et al. (2012): Open Annotations on Multimedia Web Resources (MTAP) • Haslhofer et al. (2013): Old Maps and Open Data Networks (iConference Demo / Poster) Harvard, January 2013 38
  • 39. Further Information http://maphub.github.com Thank you! Harvard, January 2013 39
  • 40. Acknowledgements (Maphub) • Rainer Simon • Werner Robitza • Keith Newman • Amanda Stefanik • Carl Lagoze • Francois Guimbretiere Harvard, January 2013 40