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Risk Management for PFASs in China
Jianguo Liu
College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,
Peking University
OECD Global Forum on PFAS, February 11-12, 2024, Paris, France
 Fluorochemical Industry in China
 PFASs in the Environment
 Risk management approaches
Content
Fluorochemical Industry in China
 Started in 1950s, grown significantly over the past 20 years
 ~5000,000 tons/y of production capacity, ~50% of the world
 Increasing production & use of types of PFAS related compounds
(Yang et al., Fine and Specialty Chemicals, 2020; China Chemical Industry News, Sept. 21,2021; (Zhao, Chemical Industry, 2018)
Production and Use of PFASs in China
 PFOS: production in ~50-250 tons/y, mainly used for fire-fighting foams,
metal plating, sulfluramid formulation, etc., totally banned by Dec. 31, 2023.
 PFHxS: production in ~10-65 tons/y from, used mainly as substitute to PFOS,
totally banned by Dec. 31, 2023
 PFOA: produced ~30-90 tons/y from 2004-2012; mostly used for fluoropolymer
manufacturing and processing; banned production & use since Mar. 1, 2023,
except for certain specific exemptions
 More PFASs of emerging concern: no statistics yet.
(Zhang et al., 2012; Li et al., 2015; MEE, 2023; POPRC, 2016, 2018, 2023)
Emerging PFASs in the Environment
89 PFASs were identified in 17 municipal WWTPs across China, the concentrations of
short-chain PFASs and many other emerging PFASs were comparable to legacy PFASs.
102 PFASs totally were identified in Taihu lake located in major fluorochemicals
industrial area, including 83 emerging PFASs with increasing trends both in types and
concentrations.
(Wang et al., Water Res., 2020; Yao et al., ES&T, 2022)
Chemicals Management in China
The State Council
Regulation on Safe Management of
Hazardous Chemicals(No.591/2011)
State Council Decrees, Notifications,
Action plans
MEM
Ministry of
Emergency
Management,
(Work Safety, incl.
Management of
Hazardous
Chemicals )
NDRC
National
Development and
Reform Commission
Economic &
Industrial Policies,
incl. Cleaner
Production
NHC
National
Health
Commission
Standards on
drinking water,
foods,
cosmetics
MEE
Ministry of Ecology and
Environment
New substances
Notification, Expt&Impt of
Hazardous Chemicals,
International Conventions,
“New pollutants”
MIIT
Ministry of
Industry and
Information
Technology
Industry
Development incl.
GHS
Others
Agriculture(MOA),
Market(SAMR),
Commerce(MOC),
Custom(GAC)
…
Pesticides,
Quality,
Expt&Impt
…
Regulatory Catalogs/Lists:
 “Catalog of Hazardous Chemicals”(containing ~2800 chemicals)
 “Industrial Restructuring Catalog”(Phase-out/Restriction/Encourage)
 “List of Strictly Restricted Toxic Chemicals in China”(Export & Import)
 “List of priority new pollutants for control”(2023, incl. POPs,EDCs,
PPCPs)
…
Bans, rules, Guidelines, Standards:
 Announcements on the Prohibition of the Production, Use, Import
and Export of certain Persistent Organic Pollutants,
 Measures for new substances registration, Import & export of
certain toxic chemicals
 Series of guidelines or standards for cleaner production,
environmental protection or public health
…
PFAS Risk Management in China
Ban Announcements on the production, use, import & export of certain new
POPs listed by the Stockholm Convention (Jointly by MEE and other 11 ministries)
 Announcement 2014:
Ban on PFOS, except for certain specific exemptions and acceptable purposes:
Specific exemptions(8/8 in SC)
① Photo masks in the semiconductor and liquid crystal display
② (LCD) industries
③ Metal plating (hard metal plating)
④ Metal plating (decorative plating)
⑤ Electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and
⑥ colour copy machines
⑦ Insecticides for control of red imported fire ants and termites
⑧ Chemically driven oil production
Acceptable purposes(8/12 in SC)
① Photo-imaging
② Photo-resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi-conductors
③ Etching agent for compound semi-conductors and ceramic filters
④ Aviation hydraulic fluids
⑤ Metal plating (hard metal plating) only in closed-loop systems
⑥ ETFE production for certain medical devices
⑦ in-vitro diagnostic medical devices, and CCD color filters)
⑧ Fire-fighting foam
 Announcement 2019:
Ban on PFOS, except for acceptable uses under the Stockholm Convention
Approaches on Production, Use, Import and Export (1/3)
The State Council: New Pollutants Control Action Plan (2022)
(Remarkable Approach to control emerging contaminants such as POPs, EDCs, PPCPs)
List of Priority New Pollutants for Control
(2023-the first batch, 14 chemicals including POPs, EDCs, PPCPs)
① Photolithography or etch processes in semiconductor manufacturing
② Photographic coatings applied to films
③ Textiles for oil and water repellency for the protection of workers
④ Invasive and implantable medical devices
⑤ Production of perfluorooctyl bromide for the purpose of producing pharmaceutical products
⑥ Manufacture of PTFE and PVDF for the production of: High-performance, corrosion-resistant gas filter membranes,
water filter membranes and membranes for medical textiles; Industrial waste heat exchanger equipment; Industrial
sealants capable of preventing leakage of volatile organic compounds and PM2.5 particulates
⑦ Manufacture of FEP for the production of high-voltage electrical wire and cables for power transmission
Approaches on Production, Use, Import and Export (2/3)
 Totally ban on PFOS and PFHxS (Production, Use, Import and Export )
 Ban on PFOA except for specific exemptions(7/9 in SC):
PFAS Risk Management in China
 Guiding catalog for industrial restructuring
(NRDC: 2011, 2013, 2019, 2024)
 List of Toxic Chemicals for Strict Restriction in China
(MEE-MOC-GAC:2013, 2018, 2020)
 List of Banned and Restricted Pesticides in China
(MOA, 2019)
Approaches on Production, Use, Import and Export(3/3)
PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were included in regulatory catalogs:
 Phase-out or Restrict the production and use of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS
 Strict Restriction on the Import and Export of PFOS and PFOA
 Ban on PFOS containing pesticide (Sulfluramid, termite control)
 Encourage the application of safer alternatives to PFOS
PFAS Risk Management in China
PFAS Risk Management in China
 Pollution Permit System(NDRC, MEE: 2021)
 List of Priority Chemicals for Risk Control(MEE-MIIT-NHEC: 2017, 2020)
 "High Pollution, High Environmental Risk " category in Product Category Comprehensive Product Catalog
for Environmental Protection (MEE:2017, 2021)
 Statistical survey system for substances controlled by the International Convention on Chemicals
in the Environment(NBS, 2018, 2021)
 System of Statistical Surveys on Environmental Information on Chemical Substances(NBS, 2023)
PFOS and PFOA were included in environmental management systems :
 Pollutant discharge licensing
 Compulsory cleaner production audit and information disclosure
 Restrict the use in products and encourage safer alternatives
 Statistical survey on POPs and priority new pollutants for control
Approaches on Environmental and Public Health Protection(1/2)
PFAS Risk Management in China
 Technical Requirements for Environmental Labeling Products:
 Aerosol(2008:PFOS);
 Leather and Synthetic Leather(2009:PFOS);
 Stationery(2016: PFOS);
 Textile(2016, 2020: PFOS, PFOA, and L-PFCAs [C7,C9-14] )
 Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NHC, 2022)
 PFOS : 40 ppt
 PFOA: 80 ppt
PFAS content limits were included in standards :
Approaches on Environmental and Public Health Protection(2/2)
Brief Summary
 PFASs Actions in China so far were mainly focusing on POP-PFASs under
the Stockholm Convention
 Many emerging PFASs are appearing in China as alternatives to the
legacy PFASs, but their identities, production and use are unclear to date
 The Chinese government currently has strong political will to deal with
emerging contaminants, but is facing great challenges in removing
PFASs
Needs at International Level
 Accelerate the knowledge and information availability and sharing on PFAS
universe and their environmental and health risk(build upon OECD efforts for
years)
 Set up platforms, mechanisms or programs to facilitate the exchange, co-
innovation and transfer of safer alternative technologies to PFAS(Institutional
arrangements and financial resources are needed )
 Support emerging economies and developing countries in the transition to
PFAS-free production and consumption
 Promote the dialogue and cooperation among countries and stakeholders on the
risk management of PFAS
Thanks for your attention
Best wishes for the Year of Dragon!
14
Jianguo Liu
Ph.D, Associate Professor with Tenure
College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,
Peking University.
Tel/Fax: 86 10 62759075
Email: jgliu@pku.edu.cn

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OECD Global Forum on the Environment dedicated to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: Risk Management for PFASs in China | Jianguo Liu

  • 1. Risk Management for PFASs in China Jianguo Liu College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University OECD Global Forum on PFAS, February 11-12, 2024, Paris, France
  • 2.  Fluorochemical Industry in China  PFASs in the Environment  Risk management approaches Content
  • 3. Fluorochemical Industry in China  Started in 1950s, grown significantly over the past 20 years  ~5000,000 tons/y of production capacity, ~50% of the world  Increasing production & use of types of PFAS related compounds (Yang et al., Fine and Specialty Chemicals, 2020; China Chemical Industry News, Sept. 21,2021; (Zhao, Chemical Industry, 2018)
  • 4. Production and Use of PFASs in China  PFOS: production in ~50-250 tons/y, mainly used for fire-fighting foams, metal plating, sulfluramid formulation, etc., totally banned by Dec. 31, 2023.  PFHxS: production in ~10-65 tons/y from, used mainly as substitute to PFOS, totally banned by Dec. 31, 2023  PFOA: produced ~30-90 tons/y from 2004-2012; mostly used for fluoropolymer manufacturing and processing; banned production & use since Mar. 1, 2023, except for certain specific exemptions  More PFASs of emerging concern: no statistics yet. (Zhang et al., 2012; Li et al., 2015; MEE, 2023; POPRC, 2016, 2018, 2023)
  • 5. Emerging PFASs in the Environment 89 PFASs were identified in 17 municipal WWTPs across China, the concentrations of short-chain PFASs and many other emerging PFASs were comparable to legacy PFASs. 102 PFASs totally were identified in Taihu lake located in major fluorochemicals industrial area, including 83 emerging PFASs with increasing trends both in types and concentrations. (Wang et al., Water Res., 2020; Yao et al., ES&T, 2022)
  • 6. Chemicals Management in China The State Council Regulation on Safe Management of Hazardous Chemicals(No.591/2011) State Council Decrees, Notifications, Action plans MEM Ministry of Emergency Management, (Work Safety, incl. Management of Hazardous Chemicals ) NDRC National Development and Reform Commission Economic & Industrial Policies, incl. Cleaner Production NHC National Health Commission Standards on drinking water, foods, cosmetics MEE Ministry of Ecology and Environment New substances Notification, Expt&Impt of Hazardous Chemicals, International Conventions, “New pollutants” MIIT Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Industry Development incl. GHS Others Agriculture(MOA), Market(SAMR), Commerce(MOC), Custom(GAC) … Pesticides, Quality, Expt&Impt … Regulatory Catalogs/Lists:  “Catalog of Hazardous Chemicals”(containing ~2800 chemicals)  “Industrial Restructuring Catalog”(Phase-out/Restriction/Encourage)  “List of Strictly Restricted Toxic Chemicals in China”(Export & Import)  “List of priority new pollutants for control”(2023, incl. POPs,EDCs, PPCPs) … Bans, rules, Guidelines, Standards:  Announcements on the Prohibition of the Production, Use, Import and Export of certain Persistent Organic Pollutants,  Measures for new substances registration, Import & export of certain toxic chemicals  Series of guidelines or standards for cleaner production, environmental protection or public health …
  • 7. PFAS Risk Management in China Ban Announcements on the production, use, import & export of certain new POPs listed by the Stockholm Convention (Jointly by MEE and other 11 ministries)  Announcement 2014: Ban on PFOS, except for certain specific exemptions and acceptable purposes: Specific exemptions(8/8 in SC) ① Photo masks in the semiconductor and liquid crystal display ② (LCD) industries ③ Metal plating (hard metal plating) ④ Metal plating (decorative plating) ⑤ Electric and electronic parts for some colour printers and ⑥ colour copy machines ⑦ Insecticides for control of red imported fire ants and termites ⑧ Chemically driven oil production Acceptable purposes(8/12 in SC) ① Photo-imaging ② Photo-resist and anti-reflective coatings for semi-conductors ③ Etching agent for compound semi-conductors and ceramic filters ④ Aviation hydraulic fluids ⑤ Metal plating (hard metal plating) only in closed-loop systems ⑥ ETFE production for certain medical devices ⑦ in-vitro diagnostic medical devices, and CCD color filters) ⑧ Fire-fighting foam  Announcement 2019: Ban on PFOS, except for acceptable uses under the Stockholm Convention Approaches on Production, Use, Import and Export (1/3)
  • 8. The State Council: New Pollutants Control Action Plan (2022) (Remarkable Approach to control emerging contaminants such as POPs, EDCs, PPCPs) List of Priority New Pollutants for Control (2023-the first batch, 14 chemicals including POPs, EDCs, PPCPs) ① Photolithography or etch processes in semiconductor manufacturing ② Photographic coatings applied to films ③ Textiles for oil and water repellency for the protection of workers ④ Invasive and implantable medical devices ⑤ Production of perfluorooctyl bromide for the purpose of producing pharmaceutical products ⑥ Manufacture of PTFE and PVDF for the production of: High-performance, corrosion-resistant gas filter membranes, water filter membranes and membranes for medical textiles; Industrial waste heat exchanger equipment; Industrial sealants capable of preventing leakage of volatile organic compounds and PM2.5 particulates ⑦ Manufacture of FEP for the production of high-voltage electrical wire and cables for power transmission Approaches on Production, Use, Import and Export (2/3)  Totally ban on PFOS and PFHxS (Production, Use, Import and Export )  Ban on PFOA except for specific exemptions(7/9 in SC): PFAS Risk Management in China
  • 9.  Guiding catalog for industrial restructuring (NRDC: 2011, 2013, 2019, 2024)  List of Toxic Chemicals for Strict Restriction in China (MEE-MOC-GAC:2013, 2018, 2020)  List of Banned and Restricted Pesticides in China (MOA, 2019) Approaches on Production, Use, Import and Export(3/3) PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were included in regulatory catalogs:  Phase-out or Restrict the production and use of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS  Strict Restriction on the Import and Export of PFOS and PFOA  Ban on PFOS containing pesticide (Sulfluramid, termite control)  Encourage the application of safer alternatives to PFOS PFAS Risk Management in China
  • 10. PFAS Risk Management in China  Pollution Permit System(NDRC, MEE: 2021)  List of Priority Chemicals for Risk Control(MEE-MIIT-NHEC: 2017, 2020)  "High Pollution, High Environmental Risk " category in Product Category Comprehensive Product Catalog for Environmental Protection (MEE:2017, 2021)  Statistical survey system for substances controlled by the International Convention on Chemicals in the Environment(NBS, 2018, 2021)  System of Statistical Surveys on Environmental Information on Chemical Substances(NBS, 2023) PFOS and PFOA were included in environmental management systems :  Pollutant discharge licensing  Compulsory cleaner production audit and information disclosure  Restrict the use in products and encourage safer alternatives  Statistical survey on POPs and priority new pollutants for control Approaches on Environmental and Public Health Protection(1/2)
  • 11. PFAS Risk Management in China  Technical Requirements for Environmental Labeling Products:  Aerosol(2008:PFOS);  Leather and Synthetic Leather(2009:PFOS);  Stationery(2016: PFOS);  Textile(2016, 2020: PFOS, PFOA, and L-PFCAs [C7,C9-14] )  Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NHC, 2022)  PFOS : 40 ppt  PFOA: 80 ppt PFAS content limits were included in standards : Approaches on Environmental and Public Health Protection(2/2)
  • 12. Brief Summary  PFASs Actions in China so far were mainly focusing on POP-PFASs under the Stockholm Convention  Many emerging PFASs are appearing in China as alternatives to the legacy PFASs, but their identities, production and use are unclear to date  The Chinese government currently has strong political will to deal with emerging contaminants, but is facing great challenges in removing PFASs
  • 13. Needs at International Level  Accelerate the knowledge and information availability and sharing on PFAS universe and their environmental and health risk(build upon OECD efforts for years)  Set up platforms, mechanisms or programs to facilitate the exchange, co- innovation and transfer of safer alternative technologies to PFAS(Institutional arrangements and financial resources are needed )  Support emerging economies and developing countries in the transition to PFAS-free production and consumption  Promote the dialogue and cooperation among countries and stakeholders on the risk management of PFAS
  • 14. Thanks for your attention Best wishes for the Year of Dragon! 14 Jianguo Liu Ph.D, Associate Professor with Tenure College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University. Tel/Fax: 86 10 62759075 Email: jgliu@pku.edu.cn