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Odoo new API guideline
Documentation
Release 0.1
Nicolas Bessi
July 27, 2015
Contents
1 Record/Recordset and Model 3
1.1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Recordset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Supported Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Useful helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 The ids Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 Environment 7
2.1 Modifing Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 Cleaning Environment Caches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 Common Actions 9
3.1 Searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Browsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4 Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5 Create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6 Dry run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4 Using Cursor 13
5 Using Thread 15
6 New ids 17
7 Fields 19
7.1 Field inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.2 Field types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.3 Name Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.4 Fields Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.5 Computed Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.6 Inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.7 Multi Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7.8 Related Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.9 Property Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.10 WIP copyable option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8 Method and decorator 27
i
8.1 @api.returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.2 @api.one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8.3 @api.multi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.4 @api.model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.5 @api.constrains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.6 @api.depends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.7 @api.onchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.8 @api.noguess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
9 Introspection 31
10 Conventions 33
10.1 Snake_casing or CamelCasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
10.2 Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
10.3 Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10.4 New Exceptions classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10.5 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.6 Default or compute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.7 Modifing self in method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.8 Doing thing in dry run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
10.9 Using Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.10 Displayed Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.11 Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.12 Qweb view or not Qweb view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
10.13 Javascript and Website related code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11 Compatibility 37
11.1 Access old API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.2 How to be polite with old code base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
12 Unittest 39
13 YAML 41
14 Indices and tables 43
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Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
Overview
Contents 1
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
2 Contents
CHAPTER 1
Record/Recordset and Model
The new version 8.0 of OpenERP/Odoo introduce a new ORM API.
It intends to add a more coherent and concise syntax and provide a bi-directional compatibility.
The new API keeps its previous root design as Model and Record but now adds new concepts like Environment and
Recordset.
Some aspects of the previous API will not change with this release, e.g. the domain syntax.
1.1 Model
A model is a representation of a business Object.
It is basically a class that define various class know-how and fields that are stored in database. All functions defined
in a Model where previously callable directly by the Model.
This paradigm has changed as generally you should not access Model directly but a RecordSet see Recordset
To instantiate a model you must inherit an openerp.model.Model:
from openerp import models, fields, api, _
class MyModel(models.Model):
_name = 'a.model' # Model identifer used for table name
firstname = fields.Char(string="Firstname")
1.1.1 Inheritance
The inheritance mechanism has not changed. You can use:
class MyModelExtended(Model):
_inherit = 'a.model' # direct heritage
_inherit = ['a.model, 'a.other.model'] # direct heritage
_inherits = {'a.model': 'field_name'} # polymorphic heritage
For more details about inheritance please have a look at
Inherit
for fields inheritance please read Field inheritance
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1.2 Recordset
All instances of Model are at the same time instances of a RecordSet. A Recordset represents a sorted set of records
of the same Model as the RecordSet.
You can call function on recordset:
class AModel(Model):
# ...
def a_fun(self):
self.do_something() # here self is a recordset a mix between class and set
record_set = self
record_set.do_something()
def do_something(self):
for record in self:
print record
In this example the functions are defined at model level but when executing the code the self variable is in fact an
instance of RecordSet containing many Records.
So the self passed in the do_something is a RecordSet holding a list of Records.
If you decorate a function with @api.one it will automagically loop on the Records of current RecordSet and self
will this time be the current Record.
As described in Record you have now access to a pseudo Active-Record pattern
Note: If you use it on a RecordSet it will break if recordset does not contains only one item.!!
1.3 Supported Operations
RecordSet also support set operations you can add, union and intersect, ... recordset:
record in recset1 # include
record not in recset1 # not include
recset1 + recset2 # extend
recset1 | recset2 # union
recset1 & recset2 # intersect
recset1 - recset2 # difference
recset.copy() # to copy recordset (not a deep copy)
Only the + operator preserves order
RecordSet can also be sorted:
sorted(recordset, key=lambda x: x.column)
1.4 Useful helpers
The new API provides useful helper on recordset to use them in a more functional apprach
You can filter an exisiting recordset quite easily:
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recset.filtered(lambda record: record.company_id == user.company_id)
# or using string
recset.filtered("product_id.can_be_sold")
You can sort a recordset:
# sort records by name
recset.sorted(key=lambda r: r.name)
You can also use the operator module:
from operator import attrgetter
recset.sorted(key=attrgetter('partner_id', 'name'))
There is an helper to map recordsets:
recset.mapped(lambda record: record.price_unit - record.cost_price)
# returns a list of name
recset.mapped('name')
# returns a recordset of partners
recset.mapped('invoice_id.partner_id')
1.5 The ids Attribute
The ids attribute is a special attribute of RecordSet. It will be return even if there is more than one Record in RecordSet
1.6 Record
A Record mirrors a “populated instance of Model Record” fetched from database. It proposes abstraction over database
using caches and query generation:
>>> record = self
>>> record.name
toto
>>> record.partner_id.name
partner name
1.6.1 Displayed Name of Record
With new API a notion of display name is introduced. It uses the function name_get under the hood.
So if you want to override the display name you should override the display_name field. Example
If you want to override both display name and computed relation name you should override name_get. Example
1.6.2 Active Record Pattern
One of the new features introduced by the new API is a basic support of the active record pattern. You can now write
to database by setting properties:
1.5. The ids Attribute 5
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record = self
record.name = 'new name'
This will update value on the caches and call the write function to trigger a write action on the Database.
1.6.3 Active Record Pattern Be Careful
Writing value using Active Record pattern must be done carefully. As each assignement will trigger a write action on
the database:
@api.one
def dangerous_write(self):
self.x = 1
self.y = 2
self.z = 4
On this sample each assignement will trigger a write. As the function is decorated with @api.one for each record in
RecordSet write will be called 3 times. So if you have 10 records in recordset the number of writes will be 10*3 = 30.
This may cause some trouble on an heavy task. In that case you should do:
def better_write(self):
for rec in self:
rec.write({'x': 1, 'y': 2, 'z': 4})
# or
def better_write2(self):
# same value on all records
self.write({'x': 1, 'y': 2, 'z': 4})
1.6.4 Chain of Browse_null
Empty relation now returns an empty RecordSet.
In the new API if you chain a relation with many empty relations, each relation will be chained and an empty RecordSet
should be return at the end.
6 Chapter 1. Record/Recordset and Model
CHAPTER 2
Environment
In the new API the notion of Environment is introduced. Its main objective is to provide an encapsulation around
cursor, user_id, model, and context, Recordset and caches
With this adjonction you are not anymore forced to pass the infamous function signature:
# before
def afun(self, cr, uid, ids, context=None):
pass
# now
def afun(self):
pass
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To access the environment you may use:
def afun(self):
self.env
# or
model.env
Environnement should be immutable and may not be modified in place as it also stores the caches of the RecordSet
etc.
2.1 Modifing Environment
If you need to modifiy your current context you may use the with_context() function.
self.env['res.partner'].with_context(tz=x).create(vals)
Be careful not to modify current RecordSet using this functionality:
self = self.env['res.partner'].with_context(tz=x).browse(self.ids)
It will modifiy the current Records in RecordSet after a rebrowse and will generate an incoherence between caches
and RecordSet.
2.1.1 Changing User
Environment provides an helper to switch user:
self.sudo(user.id)
self.sudo() # This will use the SUPERUSER_ID by default
# or
self.env['res.partner'].sudo().create(vals)
2.1.2 Accessing Current User
self.env.user
2.1.3 Fetching record using XML id
self.env.ref('base.main_company')
2.2 Cleaning Environment Caches
As explained previously an Environment maintains multiple caches that are used by the Moded/Fields classes.
Sometimes you will have to do insert/write using the cursor directly. In this cases you want to invalidate the caches:
self.env.invalidate_all()
8 Chapter 2. Environment
CHAPTER 3
Common Actions
3.1 Searching
Searching has not changed a lot. Sadly the domain changes announced did not meet release 8.0.
You will find main changes below.
3.1.1 search
Now seach function returns directly a RecordSet:
>>> self.search([('is_company', '=', True)])
res.partner(7, 6, 18, 12, 14, 17, 19, 8,...)
>>> self.search([('is_company', '=', True)])[0].name
'Camptocamp'
You can do a search using env:
>>> self.env['res.users'].search([('login', '=', 'admin')])
res.users(1,)
3.1.2 search_read
A search_read function is now available. It will do a search and return a list of dict.
Here we retrieve all partners name:
>>> self.search_read([], ['name'])
[{'id': 3, 'name': u'Administrator'},
{'id': 7, 'name': u'Agrolait'},
{'id': 43, 'name': u'Michel Fletcher'},
...]
3.1.3 search_count
The search_count function returns the count of results matching search domain:
>>> self.search_count([('is_company', '=', True)])
26L
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3.2 Browsing
Browsing is the standard way to obtain Records from the database. Now browsing will return a RecordSet:
>>> self.browse([1, 2, 3])
res.partner(1, 2, 3)
More info about record Record
3.3 Writing
3.3.1 Using Active Record pattern
You can now write using Active Record pattern:
@api.one
def any_write(self):
self.x = 1
self.name = 'a'
More info about the subtility of the Active Record write pattern here Record
The classical way of writing is still available.
3.3.2 From Record
From Record:
@api.one
...
self.write({'key': value })
# or
record.write({'key': value})
3.3.3 From RecordSet
From RecordSet:
@api.multi
...
self.write({'key': value })
# It will write on all record.
self.line_ids.write({'key': value })
It will write on all Records of the relation line_ids
3.3.4 Many2many One2many Behavior
One2many and Many2many fields have some special behavior to be taken in account. At that time (this may change
at release) using create on a multiple relation fields will not introspect to look for the relation.
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self.line_ids.create({'name': 'Tho'}) # this will fail as order is not set
self.line_ids.create({'name': 'Tho', 'order_id': self.id}) # this will work
self.line_ids.write({'name': 'Tho'}) # this will write all related lines
When adding new relation records in an @api.onchange method, you can use the
openerp.models.BaseModel.new() constructor. This will create a record that is not committed to the
database yet, having an id of type openerp.models.NewId.
self.child_ids += self.new({'key': value})
Such records will be committed when the form is saved.
3.4 Copy
Note: Subject to change, still buggy !!!
3.4.1 From Record
From Record:
>>> @api.one
>>> ...
>>> self.copy()
broken
3.4.2 From RecordSet
From RecordSet:
>>> @api.multi
>>> ...
>>> self.copy()
broken
3.5 Create
Create has not changed, except the fact it now returns a recordset:
self.create({'name': 'New name'})
3.6 Dry run
You can do action only in caches by using the do_in_draft helper of Environment context manager.
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12 Chapter 3. Common Actions
CHAPTER 4
Using Cursor
Record Recordset and environment share the same cursor.
So you can access cursor using:
def my_fun(self):
cursor = self._cr
# or
self.env.cr
Then you can use cursor like in previous API
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14 Chapter 4. Using Cursor
CHAPTER 5
Using Thread
When using thread you have to create you own cursor and initiate a new environment for each thread. committing is
done by committing the cursor:
with Environment.manage(): # class function
env = Environment(cr, uid, context)
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16 Chapter 5. Using Thread
CHAPTER 6
New ids
When creating a record a model with computed fields, the records of the recordset will be in memory only. At that
time the id of the record will be a dummy ids of type openerp.models.NewId
So if you need to use the record id in your code (e.g. for a sql query) you should check if it is available:
if isinstance(current_record.id, models.NewId):
# do your stuff
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18 Chapter 6. New ids
CHAPTER 7
Fields
Now fields are class property:
from openerp import models, fields
class AModel(models.Model):
_name = 'a_name'
name = fields.Char(
string="Name", # Optional label of the field
compute="_compute_name_custom", # Transform the fields in computed fields
store=True, # If computed it will store the result
select=True, # Force index on field
readonly=True, # Field will be readonly in views
inverse="_write_name" # On update trigger
required=True, # Mandatory field
translate=True, # Translation enable
help='blabla', # Help tooltip text
company_dependent=True, # Transform columns to ir.property
search='_search_function' # Custom search function mainly used with compute
)
# The string key is not mandatory
# by default it wil use the property name Capitalized
name = fields.Char() # Valid definition
7.1 Field inheritance
One of the new features of the API is to be able to change only one attribute of the field:
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name = fields.Char(string='New Value')
7.2 Field types
7.2.1 Boolean
Boolean type field:
abool = fields.Boolean()
7.2.2 Char
Store string with variable len.:
achar = fields.Char()
Specific options:
• size: data will be trimmed to specified size
• translate: field can be translated
7.2.3 Text
Used to store long text.:
atext = fields.Text()
Specific options:
• translate: field can be translated
7.2.4 HTML
Used to store HTML, provides an HTML widget.:
anhtml = fields.Html()
Specific options:
• translate: field can be translated
7.2.5 Integer
Store integer value. No NULL value support. If value is not set it returns 0:
anint = fields.Integer()
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7.2.6 Float
Store float value. No NULL value support. If value is not set it returns 0.0 If digits option is set it will use numeric
type:
afloat = fields.Float()
afloat = fields.Float(digits=(32, 32))
afloat = fields.Float(digits=lambda cr: (32, 32))
Specific options:
• digits: force use of numeric type on database. Parameter can be a tuple (int len, float len) or a callable that return
a tuple and take a cursor as parameter
7.2.7 Date
Store date. The field provides some helpers:
• context_today returns current day date string based on tz
• today returns current system date string
• from_string returns datetime.date() from string
• to_string returns date string from datetime.date
:
>>> from openerp import fields
>>> adate = fields.Date()
>>> fields.Date.today()
'2014-06-15'
>>> fields.Date.context_today(self)
'2014-06-15'
>>> fields.Date.context_today(self, timestamp=datetime.datetime.now())
'2014-06-15'
>>> fields.Date.from_string(fields.Date.today())
datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 15, 19, 32, 17)
>>> fields.Date.to_string(datetime.datetime.today())
'2014-06-15'
7.2.8 DateTime
Store datetime. The field provide some helper:
• context_timestamp returns current day date string based on tz
• now returns current system date string
• from_string returns datetime.date() from string
• to_string returns date string from datetime.date
:
>>> fields.Datetime.context_timestamp(self, timestamp=datetime.datetime.now())
datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 15, 21, 26, 1, 248354, tzinfo=<DstTzInfo 'Europe/Brussels' CEST+2:00:00 DS
>>> fields.Datetime.now()
'2014-06-15 19:26:13'
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>>> fields.Datetime.from_string(fields.Datetime.now())
datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 15, 19, 32, 17)
>>> fields.Datetime.to_string(datetime.datetime.now())
'2014-06-15 19:26:13'
7.2.9 Binary
Store file encoded in base64 in bytea column:
abin = fields.Binary()
7.2.10 Selection
Store text in database but propose a selection widget. It induces no selection constraint in database. Selection must be
set as a list of tuples or a callable that returns a list of tuples:
aselection = fields.Selection([('a', 'A')])
aselection = fields.Selection(selection=[('a', 'A')])
aselection = fields.Selection(selection='a_function_name')
Specific options:
• selection: a list of tuple or a callable name that take recordset as input
When extending a model, if you want to add possible values to a selection field, you may use the selection_add
keyword argument:
class SomeModel(models.Model):
_inherits = 'some.model'
type = fields.Selection(selection_add=[('b', 'B'), ('c', 'C')])
7.2.11 Reference
Store an arbitrary reference to a model and a row:
aref = fields.Reference([('model_name', 'String')])
aref = fields.Reference(selection=[('model_name', 'String')])
aref = fields.Reference(selection='a_function_name')
Specific options:
• selection: a list of tuple or a callable name that take recordset as input
7.2.12 Many2one
Store a relation against a co-model:
arel_id = fields.Many2one('res.users')
arel_id = fields.Many2one(comodel_name='res.users')
an_other_rel_id = fields.Many2one(comodel_name='res.partner', delegate=True)
Specific options:
• comodel_name: name of the opposite model
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• delegate: set it to True to make fields of the target model accessible from the current model (corresponds to
_inherits)
7.2.13 One2many
Store a relation against many rows of co-model:
arel_ids = fields.One2many('res.users', 'rel_id')
arel_ids = fields.One2many(comodel_name='res.users', inverse_name='rel_id')
Specific options:
• comodel_name: name of the opposite model
• inverse_name: relational column of the opposite model
7.2.14 Many2many
Store a relation against many2many rows of co-model:
arel_ids = fields.Many2many('res.users')
arel_ids = fields.Many2many(comodel_name='res.users',
relation='table_name',
column1='col_name',
column2='other_col_name')
Specific options:
• comodel_name: name of the opposite model
• relation: relational table name
• columns1: relational table left column name
• columns2: relational table right column name
7.3 Name Conflicts
Note: fields and method name can conflict.
When you call a record as a dict it will force to look on the columns.
7.4 Fields Defaults
Default is now a keyword of a field:
You can attribute it a value or a function
name = fields.Char(default='A name')
# or
name = fields.Char(default=a_fun)
#...
7.3. Name Conflicts 23
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
def a_fun(self):
return self.do_something()
Using a fun will force you to define function before fields definition.
7.5 Computed Fields
There is no more direct creation of fields.function.
Instead you add a compute kwarg. The value is the name of the function as a string or a function. This allows to
have fields definition atop of class:
class AModel(models.Model):
_name = 'a_name'
computed_total = fields.Float(compute='compute_total')
def compute_total(self):
...
self.computed_total = x
The function can be void. It should modify record property in order to be written to the cache:
self.name = new_value
Be aware that this assignation will trigger a write into the database. If you need to do bulk change or must be careful
about performance, you should do classic call to write
To provide a search function on a non stored computed field you have to add a search kwarg on the field. The value
is the name of the function as a string or a reference to a previously defined method. The function takes the second
and third member of a domain tuple and returns a domain itself
def search_total(self, operator, operand):
...
return domain # e.g. [('id', 'in', ids)]
7.6 Inverse
The inverse key allows to trigger call of the decorated function when the field is written/”created”
7.7 Multi Fields
To have one function that compute multiple values:
@api.multi
@api.depends('field.relation', 'an_otherfield.relation')
def _amount(self):
for x in self:
x.total = an_algo
x.untaxed = an_algo
24 Chapter 7. Fields
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
7.8 Related Field
There is not anymore fields.related fields.
Instead you just set the name argument related to your model:
participant_nick = fields.Char(string='Nick name',
related='partner_id.name')
The type kwarg is not needed anymore.
Setting the store kwarg will automatically store the value in database. With new API the value of the related field
will be automatically updated, sweet.
participant_nick = fields.Char(string='Nick name',
store=True,
related='partner_id.name')
Note: When updating any related field not all translations of related field are translated if field is stored!!
Chained related fields modification will trigger invalidation of the cache for all elements of the chain.
7.9 Property Field
There is some use cases where value of the field must change depending of the current company.
To activate such behavior you can now use the company_dependent option.
A notable evolution in new API is that “property fields” are now searchable.
7.10 WIP copyable option
There is a dev running that will prevent to redefine copy by simply setting a copy option on fields:
copy=False # !! WIP to prevent redefine copy
7.8. Related Field 25
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
26 Chapter 7. Fields
CHAPTER 8
Method and decorator
New decorators are just mapper around the new API. The decorator are mandatory as webclient and HTTP controller
are not compliant with new API.
api namespace decorators will detect signature using variable name and decide to match old signature or not.
Recognized variable names are:
cr, cursor, uid, user, user_id, id, ids, context
8.1 @api.returns
This decorator guaranties unity of returned value. It will return a RecordSet of specified model based on original
returned value:
@api.returns('res.partner')
def afun(self):
...
return x # a RecordSet
And if an old API function calls a new API function it will automatically convert it into a list of ids
All decorators inherits from this decorator to upgrade or downgrade the returned value.
8.2 @api.one
This decorator loops automatically on Records of RecordSet for you. Self is redefined as current record:
@api.one
def afun(self):
self.name = 'toto'
Note: Caution: the returned value is put in a list. This is not always supported by the web client, e.g. on button action
methods. In that case, you should use @api.multi to decorate your method, and probably call self.ensure_one() in
the method definition.
27
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
8.3 @api.multi
Self will be the current RecordSet without iteration. It is the default behavior:
@api.multi
def afun(self):
len(self)
8.4 @api.model
This decorator will convert old API calls to decorated function to new API signature. It allows to be polite when
migrating code.
@api.model
def afun(self):
pass
8.5 @api.constrains
This decorator will ensure that decorated function will be called on create, write, unlink operation. If a constraint is
met the function should raise a openerp.exceptions.Warning with appropriate message.
8.6 @api.depends
This decorator will trigger the call to the decorated function if any of the fields specified in the decorator is altered by
ORM or changed in the form:
@api.depends('name', 'an_other_field')
def afun(self):
pass
Note: when you redefine depends you have to redefine all @api.depends, so it loses some of his interest.
8.6.1 View management
One of the great improvement of the new API is that the depends are automatically inserted into the form for you in a
simple way. You do not have to worry about modifying views anymore.
8.7 @api.onchange
This decorator will trigger the call to the decorated function if any of the fields specified in the decorator is changed in
the form:
@api.onchange('fieldx')
def do_stuff(self):
if self.fieldx == x:
self.fieldy = 'toto'
28 Chapter 8. Method and decorator
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
In previous sample self corresponds to the record currently edited on the form. When in on_change context all work
is done in the cache. So you can alter RecordSet inside your function without being worried about altering database.
That’s the main difference with @api.depends
At function return, differences between the cache and the RecordSet will be returned to the form.
8.7.1 View management
One of the great improvement of the new API is that the onchange are automatically inserted into the form for you in
a simple way. You do not have to worry about modifying views anymore.
8.7.2 Warning and Domain
To change domain or send a warning just return the usual dictionary. Be careful not to use @api.one in that case as
it will mangle the dictionary (put it in a list, which is not supported by the web client).
8.8 @api.noguess
This decorator prevent new API decorators to alter the output of a method
8.8. @api.noguess 29
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
30 Chapter 8. Method and decorator
CHAPTER 9
Introspection
A common pattern in OpenERP was to do Model fields introspection using _columns property. From 8.0
_columns is deprecated by _fields that contains list of consolidated fields instantiated using old or new API.
Conventions and code update
31
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
32 Chapter 9. Introspection
CHAPTER 10
Conventions
10.1 Snake_casing or CamelCasing
That was not clear. But it seems that OpenERP SA will continue to use snake case.
10.2 Imports
As discussed with Raphaël Collet. This convention should be the one to use after RC1.
10.2.1 Model
from openerp import models
10.2.2 Fields
from openerp import fields
10.2.3 Translation
from openerp import _
10.2.4 API
from openerp import api
10.2.5 Exceptions
from openerp import exceptions
A typical module import would be:
33
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
from openerp import models, fields, api, _
10.3 Classes
Class should be initialized like this:
class Toto(models.Model):
pass
class Titi(models.TransientModel):
pass
10.4 New Exceptions classes
except_orm exception is deprecated. We should use openerp.exceptions.Warning and subclasses in-
stances
Note: Do not mix with built-in Python Warning.
10.4.1 RedirectWarning
Warning with a possibility to redirect the user instead of simply diplaying the warning message.
Should receive as parameters:
• param int action_id id of the action where to perform the redirection
• param string button_text text to put on the button that will trigger the redirection.
10.4.2 AccessDenied
Login/password error. No message, no traceback.
10.4.3 AccessError
Access rights error.
10.4.4 class MissingError:
Missing record(s)
34 Chapter 10. Conventions
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
10.4.5 DeferredException:
Exception object holding a traceback for asynchronous reporting.
Some RPC calls (database creation and report generation) happen with an initial request followed by multiple, polling
requests. This class is used to store the possible exception occurring in the thread serving the first request, and is then
sent to a polling request.
Note: Traceback is misleading, this is really a sys.exc_info() triplet.
10.4.6 Compatibility
When catching orm exception we should catch both types of exceptions:
try:
pass
except (Warning, except_orm) as exc:
pass
10.5 Fields
Fields should be declared using new fields API. Putting string key is better than using a long property name:
class AClass(models.Model):
name = fields.Char(string="This is a really long long name") # ok
really_long_long_long_name = fields.Char()
That said the property name must be meaningful. Avoid name like ‘nb’ etc.
10.6 Default or compute
compute option should not be used as a workaround to set default. Defaut should only be used to provide property
initialisation.
That said they may share the same function.
10.7 Modifing self in method
We should never alter self in a Model function. It will break the correlation with current Environment caches.
10.8 Doing thing in dry run
If you use the do_in_draft context manager of Environment it will not be committed but only be done in cache.
10.5. Fields 35
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
10.9 Using Cursor
When using cursor you should use current environment cursor:
self.env.cr
except if you need to use threads:
with Environment.manage(): # class function
env = Environment(cr, uid, context)
10.10 Displayed Name
_name_get is deprecated.
You should define the display_name field with options:
• compute
• inverse
10.11 Constraints
Should be done using @api.constrains decorator in conjunction with the @api.one if performance allows it.
10.12 Qweb view or not Qweb view
If no advance behavior is needed on Model view, standard view (non Qweb) should be the preferred choice.
10.13 Javascript and Website related code
General guidelines should be found:
• https://doc.openerp.com/trunk/web/guidelines/
• https://doc.openerp.com/trunk/server/howto/howto_website/
36 Chapter 10. Conventions
CHAPTER 11
Compatibility
There is some pattern to know during the transition period to keep code base compatible with both old and new API.
11.1 Access old API
By default, using new API your are going to work on self that is a new RecordSet class instance. But old context
and model are still available using:
self.pool
self._model
11.2 How to be polite with old code base
If your code must be used by old API code base, it should be decorated by:
• @api.returns to ensure adapted returned values
• @api.model to ensure that new signature support old API calls
37
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
38 Chapter 11. Compatibility
CHAPTER 12
Unittest
To get access to the new API in unittest inside common.TransactionCase and others:
class test_partner_firstname(common.TransactionCase):
def setUp(self):
super(test_partner_firstname, self).setUp()
self.user_model = self.env["res.users"]
self.partner_model = self.env["res.partner"]
39
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
40 Chapter 12. Unittest
CHAPTER 13
YAML
To get access to the new API in Python YAML tag:
!python {model: account.invoice, id: account_invoice_customer0}: |
self # is now a new api record
assert (self.move_id), "Move falsely created at pro-forma"
41
Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1
42 Chapter 13. YAML
CHAPTER 14
Indices and tables
• genindex
• modindex
• search
43

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Odoo new-api-guide-line

  • 1. Odoo new API guideline Documentation Release 0.1 Nicolas Bessi July 27, 2015
  • 2.
  • 3. Contents 1 Record/Recordset and Model 3 1.1 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Recordset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Supported Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 Useful helpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.5 The ids Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6 Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 Environment 7 2.1 Modifing Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Cleaning Environment Caches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 Common Actions 9 3.1 Searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2 Browsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3 Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.4 Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.5 Create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.6 Dry run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4 Using Cursor 13 5 Using Thread 15 6 New ids 17 7 Fields 19 7.1 Field inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7.2 Field types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.3 Name Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7.4 Fields Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7.5 Computed Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.6 Inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.7 Multi Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.8 Related Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7.9 Property Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7.10 WIP copyable option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 8 Method and decorator 27 i
  • 4. 8.1 @api.returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 8.2 @api.one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 8.3 @api.multi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.4 @api.model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.5 @api.constrains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.6 @api.depends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.7 @api.onchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8.8 @api.noguess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9 Introspection 31 10 Conventions 33 10.1 Snake_casing or CamelCasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 10.2 Imports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 10.3 Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10.4 New Exceptions classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 10.5 Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.6 Default or compute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.7 Modifing self in method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.8 Doing thing in dry run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 10.9 Using Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10.10 Displayed Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10.11 Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10.12 Qweb view or not Qweb view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 10.13 Javascript and Website related code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 11 Compatibility 37 11.1 Access old API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 11.2 How to be polite with old code base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 12 Unittest 39 13 YAML 41 14 Indices and tables 43 ii
  • 5. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 Overview Contents 1
  • 6. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 2 Contents
  • 7. CHAPTER 1 Record/Recordset and Model The new version 8.0 of OpenERP/Odoo introduce a new ORM API. It intends to add a more coherent and concise syntax and provide a bi-directional compatibility. The new API keeps its previous root design as Model and Record but now adds new concepts like Environment and Recordset. Some aspects of the previous API will not change with this release, e.g. the domain syntax. 1.1 Model A model is a representation of a business Object. It is basically a class that define various class know-how and fields that are stored in database. All functions defined in a Model where previously callable directly by the Model. This paradigm has changed as generally you should not access Model directly but a RecordSet see Recordset To instantiate a model you must inherit an openerp.model.Model: from openerp import models, fields, api, _ class MyModel(models.Model): _name = 'a.model' # Model identifer used for table name firstname = fields.Char(string="Firstname") 1.1.1 Inheritance The inheritance mechanism has not changed. You can use: class MyModelExtended(Model): _inherit = 'a.model' # direct heritage _inherit = ['a.model, 'a.other.model'] # direct heritage _inherits = {'a.model': 'field_name'} # polymorphic heritage For more details about inheritance please have a look at Inherit for fields inheritance please read Field inheritance 3
  • 8. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 1.2 Recordset All instances of Model are at the same time instances of a RecordSet. A Recordset represents a sorted set of records of the same Model as the RecordSet. You can call function on recordset: class AModel(Model): # ... def a_fun(self): self.do_something() # here self is a recordset a mix between class and set record_set = self record_set.do_something() def do_something(self): for record in self: print record In this example the functions are defined at model level but when executing the code the self variable is in fact an instance of RecordSet containing many Records. So the self passed in the do_something is a RecordSet holding a list of Records. If you decorate a function with @api.one it will automagically loop on the Records of current RecordSet and self will this time be the current Record. As described in Record you have now access to a pseudo Active-Record pattern Note: If you use it on a RecordSet it will break if recordset does not contains only one item.!! 1.3 Supported Operations RecordSet also support set operations you can add, union and intersect, ... recordset: record in recset1 # include record not in recset1 # not include recset1 + recset2 # extend recset1 | recset2 # union recset1 & recset2 # intersect recset1 - recset2 # difference recset.copy() # to copy recordset (not a deep copy) Only the + operator preserves order RecordSet can also be sorted: sorted(recordset, key=lambda x: x.column) 1.4 Useful helpers The new API provides useful helper on recordset to use them in a more functional apprach You can filter an exisiting recordset quite easily: 4 Chapter 1. Record/Recordset and Model
  • 9. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 recset.filtered(lambda record: record.company_id == user.company_id) # or using string recset.filtered("product_id.can_be_sold") You can sort a recordset: # sort records by name recset.sorted(key=lambda r: r.name) You can also use the operator module: from operator import attrgetter recset.sorted(key=attrgetter('partner_id', 'name')) There is an helper to map recordsets: recset.mapped(lambda record: record.price_unit - record.cost_price) # returns a list of name recset.mapped('name') # returns a recordset of partners recset.mapped('invoice_id.partner_id') 1.5 The ids Attribute The ids attribute is a special attribute of RecordSet. It will be return even if there is more than one Record in RecordSet 1.6 Record A Record mirrors a “populated instance of Model Record” fetched from database. It proposes abstraction over database using caches and query generation: >>> record = self >>> record.name toto >>> record.partner_id.name partner name 1.6.1 Displayed Name of Record With new API a notion of display name is introduced. It uses the function name_get under the hood. So if you want to override the display name you should override the display_name field. Example If you want to override both display name and computed relation name you should override name_get. Example 1.6.2 Active Record Pattern One of the new features introduced by the new API is a basic support of the active record pattern. You can now write to database by setting properties: 1.5. The ids Attribute 5
  • 10. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 record = self record.name = 'new name' This will update value on the caches and call the write function to trigger a write action on the Database. 1.6.3 Active Record Pattern Be Careful Writing value using Active Record pattern must be done carefully. As each assignement will trigger a write action on the database: @api.one def dangerous_write(self): self.x = 1 self.y = 2 self.z = 4 On this sample each assignement will trigger a write. As the function is decorated with @api.one for each record in RecordSet write will be called 3 times. So if you have 10 records in recordset the number of writes will be 10*3 = 30. This may cause some trouble on an heavy task. In that case you should do: def better_write(self): for rec in self: rec.write({'x': 1, 'y': 2, 'z': 4}) # or def better_write2(self): # same value on all records self.write({'x': 1, 'y': 2, 'z': 4}) 1.6.4 Chain of Browse_null Empty relation now returns an empty RecordSet. In the new API if you chain a relation with many empty relations, each relation will be chained and an empty RecordSet should be return at the end. 6 Chapter 1. Record/Recordset and Model
  • 11. CHAPTER 2 Environment In the new API the notion of Environment is introduced. Its main objective is to provide an encapsulation around cursor, user_id, model, and context, Recordset and caches With this adjonction you are not anymore forced to pass the infamous function signature: # before def afun(self, cr, uid, ids, context=None): pass # now def afun(self): pass 7
  • 12. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 To access the environment you may use: def afun(self): self.env # or model.env Environnement should be immutable and may not be modified in place as it also stores the caches of the RecordSet etc. 2.1 Modifing Environment If you need to modifiy your current context you may use the with_context() function. self.env['res.partner'].with_context(tz=x).create(vals) Be careful not to modify current RecordSet using this functionality: self = self.env['res.partner'].with_context(tz=x).browse(self.ids) It will modifiy the current Records in RecordSet after a rebrowse and will generate an incoherence between caches and RecordSet. 2.1.1 Changing User Environment provides an helper to switch user: self.sudo(user.id) self.sudo() # This will use the SUPERUSER_ID by default # or self.env['res.partner'].sudo().create(vals) 2.1.2 Accessing Current User self.env.user 2.1.3 Fetching record using XML id self.env.ref('base.main_company') 2.2 Cleaning Environment Caches As explained previously an Environment maintains multiple caches that are used by the Moded/Fields classes. Sometimes you will have to do insert/write using the cursor directly. In this cases you want to invalidate the caches: self.env.invalidate_all() 8 Chapter 2. Environment
  • 13. CHAPTER 3 Common Actions 3.1 Searching Searching has not changed a lot. Sadly the domain changes announced did not meet release 8.0. You will find main changes below. 3.1.1 search Now seach function returns directly a RecordSet: >>> self.search([('is_company', '=', True)]) res.partner(7, 6, 18, 12, 14, 17, 19, 8,...) >>> self.search([('is_company', '=', True)])[0].name 'Camptocamp' You can do a search using env: >>> self.env['res.users'].search([('login', '=', 'admin')]) res.users(1,) 3.1.2 search_read A search_read function is now available. It will do a search and return a list of dict. Here we retrieve all partners name: >>> self.search_read([], ['name']) [{'id': 3, 'name': u'Administrator'}, {'id': 7, 'name': u'Agrolait'}, {'id': 43, 'name': u'Michel Fletcher'}, ...] 3.1.3 search_count The search_count function returns the count of results matching search domain: >>> self.search_count([('is_company', '=', True)]) 26L 9
  • 14. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 3.2 Browsing Browsing is the standard way to obtain Records from the database. Now browsing will return a RecordSet: >>> self.browse([1, 2, 3]) res.partner(1, 2, 3) More info about record Record 3.3 Writing 3.3.1 Using Active Record pattern You can now write using Active Record pattern: @api.one def any_write(self): self.x = 1 self.name = 'a' More info about the subtility of the Active Record write pattern here Record The classical way of writing is still available. 3.3.2 From Record From Record: @api.one ... self.write({'key': value }) # or record.write({'key': value}) 3.3.3 From RecordSet From RecordSet: @api.multi ... self.write({'key': value }) # It will write on all record. self.line_ids.write({'key': value }) It will write on all Records of the relation line_ids 3.3.4 Many2many One2many Behavior One2many and Many2many fields have some special behavior to be taken in account. At that time (this may change at release) using create on a multiple relation fields will not introspect to look for the relation. 10 Chapter 3. Common Actions
  • 15. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 self.line_ids.create({'name': 'Tho'}) # this will fail as order is not set self.line_ids.create({'name': 'Tho', 'order_id': self.id}) # this will work self.line_ids.write({'name': 'Tho'}) # this will write all related lines When adding new relation records in an @api.onchange method, you can use the openerp.models.BaseModel.new() constructor. This will create a record that is not committed to the database yet, having an id of type openerp.models.NewId. self.child_ids += self.new({'key': value}) Such records will be committed when the form is saved. 3.4 Copy Note: Subject to change, still buggy !!! 3.4.1 From Record From Record: >>> @api.one >>> ... >>> self.copy() broken 3.4.2 From RecordSet From RecordSet: >>> @api.multi >>> ... >>> self.copy() broken 3.5 Create Create has not changed, except the fact it now returns a recordset: self.create({'name': 'New name'}) 3.6 Dry run You can do action only in caches by using the do_in_draft helper of Environment context manager. 3.4. Copy 11
  • 16. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 12 Chapter 3. Common Actions
  • 17. CHAPTER 4 Using Cursor Record Recordset and environment share the same cursor. So you can access cursor using: def my_fun(self): cursor = self._cr # or self.env.cr Then you can use cursor like in previous API 13
  • 18. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 14 Chapter 4. Using Cursor
  • 19. CHAPTER 5 Using Thread When using thread you have to create you own cursor and initiate a new environment for each thread. committing is done by committing the cursor: with Environment.manage(): # class function env = Environment(cr, uid, context) 15
  • 20. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 16 Chapter 5. Using Thread
  • 21. CHAPTER 6 New ids When creating a record a model with computed fields, the records of the recordset will be in memory only. At that time the id of the record will be a dummy ids of type openerp.models.NewId So if you need to use the record id in your code (e.g. for a sql query) you should check if it is available: if isinstance(current_record.id, models.NewId): # do your stuff 17
  • 22. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 18 Chapter 6. New ids
  • 23. CHAPTER 7 Fields Now fields are class property: from openerp import models, fields class AModel(models.Model): _name = 'a_name' name = fields.Char( string="Name", # Optional label of the field compute="_compute_name_custom", # Transform the fields in computed fields store=True, # If computed it will store the result select=True, # Force index on field readonly=True, # Field will be readonly in views inverse="_write_name" # On update trigger required=True, # Mandatory field translate=True, # Translation enable help='blabla', # Help tooltip text company_dependent=True, # Transform columns to ir.property search='_search_function' # Custom search function mainly used with compute ) # The string key is not mandatory # by default it wil use the property name Capitalized name = fields.Char() # Valid definition 7.1 Field inheritance One of the new features of the API is to be able to change only one attribute of the field: 19
  • 24. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 name = fields.Char(string='New Value') 7.2 Field types 7.2.1 Boolean Boolean type field: abool = fields.Boolean() 7.2.2 Char Store string with variable len.: achar = fields.Char() Specific options: • size: data will be trimmed to specified size • translate: field can be translated 7.2.3 Text Used to store long text.: atext = fields.Text() Specific options: • translate: field can be translated 7.2.4 HTML Used to store HTML, provides an HTML widget.: anhtml = fields.Html() Specific options: • translate: field can be translated 7.2.5 Integer Store integer value. No NULL value support. If value is not set it returns 0: anint = fields.Integer() 20 Chapter 7. Fields
  • 25. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 7.2.6 Float Store float value. No NULL value support. If value is not set it returns 0.0 If digits option is set it will use numeric type: afloat = fields.Float() afloat = fields.Float(digits=(32, 32)) afloat = fields.Float(digits=lambda cr: (32, 32)) Specific options: • digits: force use of numeric type on database. Parameter can be a tuple (int len, float len) or a callable that return a tuple and take a cursor as parameter 7.2.7 Date Store date. The field provides some helpers: • context_today returns current day date string based on tz • today returns current system date string • from_string returns datetime.date() from string • to_string returns date string from datetime.date : >>> from openerp import fields >>> adate = fields.Date() >>> fields.Date.today() '2014-06-15' >>> fields.Date.context_today(self) '2014-06-15' >>> fields.Date.context_today(self, timestamp=datetime.datetime.now()) '2014-06-15' >>> fields.Date.from_string(fields.Date.today()) datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 15, 19, 32, 17) >>> fields.Date.to_string(datetime.datetime.today()) '2014-06-15' 7.2.8 DateTime Store datetime. The field provide some helper: • context_timestamp returns current day date string based on tz • now returns current system date string • from_string returns datetime.date() from string • to_string returns date string from datetime.date : >>> fields.Datetime.context_timestamp(self, timestamp=datetime.datetime.now()) datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 15, 21, 26, 1, 248354, tzinfo=<DstTzInfo 'Europe/Brussels' CEST+2:00:00 DS >>> fields.Datetime.now() '2014-06-15 19:26:13' 7.2. Field types 21
  • 26. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 >>> fields.Datetime.from_string(fields.Datetime.now()) datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 15, 19, 32, 17) >>> fields.Datetime.to_string(datetime.datetime.now()) '2014-06-15 19:26:13' 7.2.9 Binary Store file encoded in base64 in bytea column: abin = fields.Binary() 7.2.10 Selection Store text in database but propose a selection widget. It induces no selection constraint in database. Selection must be set as a list of tuples or a callable that returns a list of tuples: aselection = fields.Selection([('a', 'A')]) aselection = fields.Selection(selection=[('a', 'A')]) aselection = fields.Selection(selection='a_function_name') Specific options: • selection: a list of tuple or a callable name that take recordset as input When extending a model, if you want to add possible values to a selection field, you may use the selection_add keyword argument: class SomeModel(models.Model): _inherits = 'some.model' type = fields.Selection(selection_add=[('b', 'B'), ('c', 'C')]) 7.2.11 Reference Store an arbitrary reference to a model and a row: aref = fields.Reference([('model_name', 'String')]) aref = fields.Reference(selection=[('model_name', 'String')]) aref = fields.Reference(selection='a_function_name') Specific options: • selection: a list of tuple or a callable name that take recordset as input 7.2.12 Many2one Store a relation against a co-model: arel_id = fields.Many2one('res.users') arel_id = fields.Many2one(comodel_name='res.users') an_other_rel_id = fields.Many2one(comodel_name='res.partner', delegate=True) Specific options: • comodel_name: name of the opposite model 22 Chapter 7. Fields
  • 27. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 • delegate: set it to True to make fields of the target model accessible from the current model (corresponds to _inherits) 7.2.13 One2many Store a relation against many rows of co-model: arel_ids = fields.One2many('res.users', 'rel_id') arel_ids = fields.One2many(comodel_name='res.users', inverse_name='rel_id') Specific options: • comodel_name: name of the opposite model • inverse_name: relational column of the opposite model 7.2.14 Many2many Store a relation against many2many rows of co-model: arel_ids = fields.Many2many('res.users') arel_ids = fields.Many2many(comodel_name='res.users', relation='table_name', column1='col_name', column2='other_col_name') Specific options: • comodel_name: name of the opposite model • relation: relational table name • columns1: relational table left column name • columns2: relational table right column name 7.3 Name Conflicts Note: fields and method name can conflict. When you call a record as a dict it will force to look on the columns. 7.4 Fields Defaults Default is now a keyword of a field: You can attribute it a value or a function name = fields.Char(default='A name') # or name = fields.Char(default=a_fun) #... 7.3. Name Conflicts 23
  • 28. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 def a_fun(self): return self.do_something() Using a fun will force you to define function before fields definition. 7.5 Computed Fields There is no more direct creation of fields.function. Instead you add a compute kwarg. The value is the name of the function as a string or a function. This allows to have fields definition atop of class: class AModel(models.Model): _name = 'a_name' computed_total = fields.Float(compute='compute_total') def compute_total(self): ... self.computed_total = x The function can be void. It should modify record property in order to be written to the cache: self.name = new_value Be aware that this assignation will trigger a write into the database. If you need to do bulk change or must be careful about performance, you should do classic call to write To provide a search function on a non stored computed field you have to add a search kwarg on the field. The value is the name of the function as a string or a reference to a previously defined method. The function takes the second and third member of a domain tuple and returns a domain itself def search_total(self, operator, operand): ... return domain # e.g. [('id', 'in', ids)] 7.6 Inverse The inverse key allows to trigger call of the decorated function when the field is written/”created” 7.7 Multi Fields To have one function that compute multiple values: @api.multi @api.depends('field.relation', 'an_otherfield.relation') def _amount(self): for x in self: x.total = an_algo x.untaxed = an_algo 24 Chapter 7. Fields
  • 29. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 7.8 Related Field There is not anymore fields.related fields. Instead you just set the name argument related to your model: participant_nick = fields.Char(string='Nick name', related='partner_id.name') The type kwarg is not needed anymore. Setting the store kwarg will automatically store the value in database. With new API the value of the related field will be automatically updated, sweet. participant_nick = fields.Char(string='Nick name', store=True, related='partner_id.name') Note: When updating any related field not all translations of related field are translated if field is stored!! Chained related fields modification will trigger invalidation of the cache for all elements of the chain. 7.9 Property Field There is some use cases where value of the field must change depending of the current company. To activate such behavior you can now use the company_dependent option. A notable evolution in new API is that “property fields” are now searchable. 7.10 WIP copyable option There is a dev running that will prevent to redefine copy by simply setting a copy option on fields: copy=False # !! WIP to prevent redefine copy 7.8. Related Field 25
  • 30. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 26 Chapter 7. Fields
  • 31. CHAPTER 8 Method and decorator New decorators are just mapper around the new API. The decorator are mandatory as webclient and HTTP controller are not compliant with new API. api namespace decorators will detect signature using variable name and decide to match old signature or not. Recognized variable names are: cr, cursor, uid, user, user_id, id, ids, context 8.1 @api.returns This decorator guaranties unity of returned value. It will return a RecordSet of specified model based on original returned value: @api.returns('res.partner') def afun(self): ... return x # a RecordSet And if an old API function calls a new API function it will automatically convert it into a list of ids All decorators inherits from this decorator to upgrade or downgrade the returned value. 8.2 @api.one This decorator loops automatically on Records of RecordSet for you. Self is redefined as current record: @api.one def afun(self): self.name = 'toto' Note: Caution: the returned value is put in a list. This is not always supported by the web client, e.g. on button action methods. In that case, you should use @api.multi to decorate your method, and probably call self.ensure_one() in the method definition. 27
  • 32. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 8.3 @api.multi Self will be the current RecordSet without iteration. It is the default behavior: @api.multi def afun(self): len(self) 8.4 @api.model This decorator will convert old API calls to decorated function to new API signature. It allows to be polite when migrating code. @api.model def afun(self): pass 8.5 @api.constrains This decorator will ensure that decorated function will be called on create, write, unlink operation. If a constraint is met the function should raise a openerp.exceptions.Warning with appropriate message. 8.6 @api.depends This decorator will trigger the call to the decorated function if any of the fields specified in the decorator is altered by ORM or changed in the form: @api.depends('name', 'an_other_field') def afun(self): pass Note: when you redefine depends you have to redefine all @api.depends, so it loses some of his interest. 8.6.1 View management One of the great improvement of the new API is that the depends are automatically inserted into the form for you in a simple way. You do not have to worry about modifying views anymore. 8.7 @api.onchange This decorator will trigger the call to the decorated function if any of the fields specified in the decorator is changed in the form: @api.onchange('fieldx') def do_stuff(self): if self.fieldx == x: self.fieldy = 'toto' 28 Chapter 8. Method and decorator
  • 33. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 In previous sample self corresponds to the record currently edited on the form. When in on_change context all work is done in the cache. So you can alter RecordSet inside your function without being worried about altering database. That’s the main difference with @api.depends At function return, differences between the cache and the RecordSet will be returned to the form. 8.7.1 View management One of the great improvement of the new API is that the onchange are automatically inserted into the form for you in a simple way. You do not have to worry about modifying views anymore. 8.7.2 Warning and Domain To change domain or send a warning just return the usual dictionary. Be careful not to use @api.one in that case as it will mangle the dictionary (put it in a list, which is not supported by the web client). 8.8 @api.noguess This decorator prevent new API decorators to alter the output of a method 8.8. @api.noguess 29
  • 34. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 30 Chapter 8. Method and decorator
  • 35. CHAPTER 9 Introspection A common pattern in OpenERP was to do Model fields introspection using _columns property. From 8.0 _columns is deprecated by _fields that contains list of consolidated fields instantiated using old or new API. Conventions and code update 31
  • 36. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 32 Chapter 9. Introspection
  • 37. CHAPTER 10 Conventions 10.1 Snake_casing or CamelCasing That was not clear. But it seems that OpenERP SA will continue to use snake case. 10.2 Imports As discussed with Raphaël Collet. This convention should be the one to use after RC1. 10.2.1 Model from openerp import models 10.2.2 Fields from openerp import fields 10.2.3 Translation from openerp import _ 10.2.4 API from openerp import api 10.2.5 Exceptions from openerp import exceptions A typical module import would be: 33
  • 38. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 from openerp import models, fields, api, _ 10.3 Classes Class should be initialized like this: class Toto(models.Model): pass class Titi(models.TransientModel): pass 10.4 New Exceptions classes except_orm exception is deprecated. We should use openerp.exceptions.Warning and subclasses in- stances Note: Do not mix with built-in Python Warning. 10.4.1 RedirectWarning Warning with a possibility to redirect the user instead of simply diplaying the warning message. Should receive as parameters: • param int action_id id of the action where to perform the redirection • param string button_text text to put on the button that will trigger the redirection. 10.4.2 AccessDenied Login/password error. No message, no traceback. 10.4.3 AccessError Access rights error. 10.4.4 class MissingError: Missing record(s) 34 Chapter 10. Conventions
  • 39. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 10.4.5 DeferredException: Exception object holding a traceback for asynchronous reporting. Some RPC calls (database creation and report generation) happen with an initial request followed by multiple, polling requests. This class is used to store the possible exception occurring in the thread serving the first request, and is then sent to a polling request. Note: Traceback is misleading, this is really a sys.exc_info() triplet. 10.4.6 Compatibility When catching orm exception we should catch both types of exceptions: try: pass except (Warning, except_orm) as exc: pass 10.5 Fields Fields should be declared using new fields API. Putting string key is better than using a long property name: class AClass(models.Model): name = fields.Char(string="This is a really long long name") # ok really_long_long_long_name = fields.Char() That said the property name must be meaningful. Avoid name like ‘nb’ etc. 10.6 Default or compute compute option should not be used as a workaround to set default. Defaut should only be used to provide property initialisation. That said they may share the same function. 10.7 Modifing self in method We should never alter self in a Model function. It will break the correlation with current Environment caches. 10.8 Doing thing in dry run If you use the do_in_draft context manager of Environment it will not be committed but only be done in cache. 10.5. Fields 35
  • 40. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 10.9 Using Cursor When using cursor you should use current environment cursor: self.env.cr except if you need to use threads: with Environment.manage(): # class function env = Environment(cr, uid, context) 10.10 Displayed Name _name_get is deprecated. You should define the display_name field with options: • compute • inverse 10.11 Constraints Should be done using @api.constrains decorator in conjunction with the @api.one if performance allows it. 10.12 Qweb view or not Qweb view If no advance behavior is needed on Model view, standard view (non Qweb) should be the preferred choice. 10.13 Javascript and Website related code General guidelines should be found: • https://doc.openerp.com/trunk/web/guidelines/ • https://doc.openerp.com/trunk/server/howto/howto_website/ 36 Chapter 10. Conventions
  • 41. CHAPTER 11 Compatibility There is some pattern to know during the transition period to keep code base compatible with both old and new API. 11.1 Access old API By default, using new API your are going to work on self that is a new RecordSet class instance. But old context and model are still available using: self.pool self._model 11.2 How to be polite with old code base If your code must be used by old API code base, it should be decorated by: • @api.returns to ensure adapted returned values • @api.model to ensure that new signature support old API calls 37
  • 42. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 38 Chapter 11. Compatibility
  • 43. CHAPTER 12 Unittest To get access to the new API in unittest inside common.TransactionCase and others: class test_partner_firstname(common.TransactionCase): def setUp(self): super(test_partner_firstname, self).setUp() self.user_model = self.env["res.users"] self.partner_model = self.env["res.partner"] 39
  • 44. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 40 Chapter 12. Unittest
  • 45. CHAPTER 13 YAML To get access to the new API in Python YAML tag: !python {model: account.invoice, id: account_invoice_customer0}: | self # is now a new api record assert (self.move_id), "Move falsely created at pro-forma" 41
  • 46. Odoo new API guideline Documentation, Release 0.1 42 Chapter 13. YAML
  • 47. CHAPTER 14 Indices and tables • genindex • modindex • search 43