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NON-PERFORMING 
ASSETS (NPA)
DEFINITION 
An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it 
ceases to generate income for the bank. A ‘non-performing asset’ 
(NPA) was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the 
interest and/or installment of principal has remained ‘past due’ for a 
specified period of time. The specified period was reduced in a 
phased manner as under : 
Year ending 
March 31 
Specified period 
1993 four quarters 
1994 three quarters 
1995 onwards two quarters
With a view to moving towards international best practices and to 
ensure greater transparency, it has been decided to adopt the ’90 days’ 
overdue’ norm for identification of NPAs, from the year ending March 
31, 2004. Accordingly, with effect from March 31, 2004, a non-performing 
asset (NPA) shall be a loan or an advance where; 
i. interest and/ or installment of principal remain overdue for a 
period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan, 
ii. the account remains ‘out of order’ for a period of more than 90 
days, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC), 
iii. the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in 
the case of bills purchased and discounted, 
iv. interest and/or installment of principal remains overdue for two 
harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in 
the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and 
v. any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of 
more than 90 days in respect of other accounts.
Asset 
Non-performing 
Asset 
Loss Asset 
Doubtful 
Asset 
Sub-standard 
Asset 
Performing 
Asset 
Standard 
Asset 
CLASSIFICATION
Substandard Asset: Substandard asset is one which has 
remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 18 months. 
Doubtful Asset: Doubtful asset is one which has remained NPA 
for a period exceeding 18 months. 
Loss Asset: A loss asset is one where loss has been identified 
by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI 
inspection but the amount has not been written off wholly. In 
other words, such an asset is considered uncollectible and of 
such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not 
warranted although there may be some salvage or recovery 
value.
Classification of Loan Assets – Bank Group 
Wise 
S.No Bank Group Year Standard Asset 
Sub-standard 
Asset Doubtful Asset Loss Asset 
Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount % 
1 Public Sector Bank 2012 38,255 97 623 1.6 490 1.2 60 0.1 
2013 43,957 96.4 815 1.8 761 1.7 68 0.1 
1.1 Nationalised Bank 2012 26,909 97.5 402 1.5 268 1 21 0.1 
2013 3,03,396 96.8 558 1.8 424 1.3 35 0.1 
1.2 SBI 2012 11,345 95.9 221 1.9 222 1.9 39 0.3 
2013 13,561 95.6 258 1.8 337 2.4 22 0.2 
2 Private Sector Bank 2012 9,629 98.1 52 0.5 104 1.1 29 0.3 
2013 11,384 98.2 64 0.6 112 1.1 32 0.3 
2.1 Old Private Sector Bank 2012 2,287 98.2 18 0.8 17 0.7 7 0.3 
2013 2,679 98.1 23 0.9 23 0.8 6 0.2 
2.2 New Private Sector Bank 2012 7,342 98.1 34 0.4 87 1.2 22 0.3 
2013 8,705 98.2 41 0.5 89 1 25 0.3 
3 Foreign Bank 2012 2,284 97.3 21 0.9 22 0.9 20 0.8 
2013 2,610 97 29 1.1 27 1 23 0.9 
Scheduled Commercial Bank 2012 50,168 97.2 695 1.3 617 1.2 109 0.2 
2013 57,951 96.8 909 1.5 900 1.5 123 0.2
Asset 
Classification 
Particulars Provision 
Required 
% 
Standard Direct Advances to Agriculture & SME Sectors 0.25 
Commercial Real Estate Advances 1.00 
All other Loans & Advances not included in above 0.40 
Sub-standard Secured Exposure (up to 6 months) 
-6 months to 1 year 
15 
25 
Unsecured Exposure for Escrow A/cs available in 
case of Infrastructure lending, infrastructure loan 
accounts (up to 6 months) 
-6 months to 1 year 
25 
40 
Other Unsecured Exposure (up to 6 months) 
-6 months to 1 year 
25 
40 
7 
PROVISIONING NORMS
Asset 
Classification 
Particulars Provision Required 
% 
Doubtful - Secured Unsecured 
D1 (Up to 2 year) 40 100 
D2 (3rd and 4th year) 100 100 
D3 (5th year onwards) 100 100 
Loss Asset 100
BORROWER WISE & NOT 
FACILITY WISE 
•When a loan a/c of a borrower is treated as NPA, all the other loan a/c 
of the borrower, even if they are otherwise regular, should be treated as 
NPA as NPA classification should be borrower wise & not facility 
wise. 
•When various advance a/c of a borrower are in different categories of 
NPA, then the provisioning shall be as per the lowest category 
applicable.
Reporting Format for Non-Performing 
Asset – Gross and Net Position 
Name of the Bank: 
Position as on .................... 
(rupees in crore up to two decimals) 
Particulars Amount 
1. Gross advances * 
2. Gross NPAs * 
3. Gross NPAs as a percentage of gross advances 
4. Total Deductions (i+ii+iii+iv) 
i) Balance in Interest Suspense account$ 
ii) DICGC/ECGC claims received and held pending adjustment 
iii) Part payment received and kept in suspense account 
iv) Total provisions held ** 
5. Net advances (1-4) 
6. Net NPAs (2-4) 
7. Net NPAs as a percentage of net Advances 
*excluding Technical write off of Rs. ………. crore. 
** excluding amount of technical write off (Rs…….. …crores) and provision on standard assets (Rs………..crore) 
$ banks which do not maintain an Interest Suspense account to park the accrued interest on NPAs, may furnish the amount of 
interest receivable on NPAs as a foot note to this statement
NPA of the banks, especially PSBs have been going up sharply 
recently. 
The Gross NPA of the listed banks rose 35.2% to 2.43 crore lakh crore 
during the first three quarters of 2013-14. in absolute terms, the 40 
listed banks added ₹63,386 crore to their gross NPA during the nine 
months till Dec,13, with the SBI the largest lender in the country, 
leading with an accretion of ₹16,610 crore.
Item 
Trends in NPA – Bank Group Wise 
Public 
Sector 
Bank 
Nationalized 
Bank SBI Group 
Private 
Sector Bank 
Old Private 
Sector Bank 
New 
Private 
Sector Bank 
Foreign 
Bank 
Scheduled 
Commercial 
Bank 
Gross NPA 
Clossing Balance for 11-12 1178 696 482 187 42 145 62 1429 
Opening Balance for 12-13 1178 696 482 187 42 145 62 1429 
Addition during 12-13 1198 772 425 128 41 87 41 1368 
Recovered during 12-13 648 429 219 63 30 33 24 736 
Written off during 12-13 78 17 60 42 1 40 0 120 
Clossing Balance for 12-13 1650 1022 627 210 52 158 79 1940 
Gross NPA as percent of Gross Advances 
2011-12 3.3 2.8 4.6 2.1 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.1 
2012-13 4.1 3.6 5 2 1.9 2 2.9 3.6 
Net NPA 
Closing Balance for 2011-12 593 391 202 44 13 30 14 652 
Closing Balance for 2012-13 900 619 281 59 20 39 26 986 
Net NPA as percent of Net 
Advances 
2011-12 1.5 1.4 1.8 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 1.3 
2012-13 2 2 2 0.5 0.8 0.4 1 1.7
2.5 
2 
1.5 
1 
0.5 
0 
Trends in NPA 
2011-12 2012-13 
NPA % 
Year 
Public Sector Bank 
Private Sector Bank 
Foreign Bank
Bank Group 
Sector wise NPA of Domestic Banks 
Priority 
Sector 
Agricultur 
e 
MSE Others 
Non 
Priority 
Sector 
Total 
Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount % 
Public Sector Bank 
2011-12 562 50 227 20.2 174 15.5 161 14.3 563 50 1125 
2012-13 669 42.9 280 18 284 18.2 105 6.7 890 57.7 1559 
Nationalised Bank 
2011-12 323 48.4 129 19.3 134 20 60 9.1 345 51.6 668 
2012-13 405 42.2 156 16.3 178 18.6 70 7.3 554 57.8 959 
SBI Group 
2011-12 239 52.3 98 21.4 41 9 100 22 218 47.7 457 
2012-13 264 44.1 124 20.7 106 17.6 35 5.8 335 55.9 599 
Private Sector Bank 
2011-12 51 27.9 22 11.8 17 9.4 12 6.7 132 72.1 183 
2012-13 52 26 22 10.9 20 9.9 11 5.3 148 74 200 
Old Private Sector Bank 
2011-12 18 42.9 6 13.4 7 16.8 5 12.8 24 57.1 42 
2012-13 19 36.8 6 12.2 7 13.9 6 10.7 33 63.2 52 
New Private Sector Bank 
2011-12 33 23.4 16 11.3 10 7.2 7 4.9 108 76.6 141 
2012-13 33 22.2 15 10.4 12 8.5 5 3.3 115 77.8 148 
Schedule Commercial 
Banks 
2011-12 613 46.9 249 19 191 14.7 173 13.2 695 53.1 1308 
2012-13 721 41 302 17.2 304 17.3 116 6.5 1038 59 1759
REASONS FOR INCREASED NPA’s 
• Economic Slowdown 
Economic growth slowing down & rate of interest going up sharply, 
corporate have been finding it difficult to repay loans, and it add up to 
rising NPA. 
•Wait and watch approach 
Banks allow deteriorating asset class to go from bad to worse in the 
hope of revival and often offer restructuring option to corporate. 
• Poor credit assessment process 
•Operational factors 
Ordinary people often complain about difficulty in getting loans, while 
some large borrowers just get loans on a platter.
•Other factors 
−Project not completed in time 
−Failure of business 
−Willful defaulters 
−Natural calamities 
−Diversion of funds
IMPACT OF NPA 
•Reduce profitability 
•Liquidity & Opportunity Cost 
•Waste of valuable management time 
•Impact on share prices 
•Loss of credibility as high NPA reflect poorly on 
Management 
•Gross NPA more than 10% in case of Co-op. Banks, 
Supervisory Action follows & restrictions imposed.
HOW TO REDUCE ? 
•Banks should stop “ever-greening” or repeated restructuring of 
corporate debt to check the constant burging of their NPA. 
Management issue of ever-greening of loans could be avoided by “not 
renewing loans, particularly of corporate”. 
Extending those extra helping hand can go against the financial 
health of banks. 
•Bank need to be more conservative in granting loans to sectors that 
have been traditionally found to be contributors of NPAs. 
•Banks need to go much beyond the traditional analysis of financial 
statements & analyzing the history of promoters. There is a need to 
incorporate significance of economic factors in credit assessment 
process.
•Banks need to evolve strategy through which defaulters are kept 
out of system unless they honor the previous payment. 
•Banks need to look at operational factors causing increasing 
incidents of bad loans.
NPA RECOVERING TOOLS 
•Lok adalats 
•Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) 
•SARFAESI ACT, 2002 (Securitization & Reconstruction 
of Financial Assets & Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 
2002)
Lok Adalats 
Small value loans up to Rs 20 lakh can be amicably settled between 
the borrower and the lender using the forum of Lok Adalats. 
Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) 
•Narasimham Committee Report I (1991) recommended the setting up 
of Special Tribunals to reduce the time required for settling cases. 
Accepting the recommendations, Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) 
were established. 
•There are 22 DRTs and 5 Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunals. 
•In this court, only the recovery cases of Rs.10 Lacs & above can be 
filed.
SARFAESI ACT, 2002 
•The SARFAESI Act, 2002 gives powers of "seize and desist" to banks. 
Banks can give a notice in writing to the defaulting borrower requiring 
it to discharge its liabilities within 60 days. 
•The Act provides three alternative methods for recovery of non-performing 
assets, namely: 
- Securitization 
- Asset Reconstruction 
•Bad loans with outstanding above Rs. 1.00 Lac. 
•NPA loan accounts where the amount is less than 20% of the Principal 
& Interest are not eligible to be dealt with under this Act.
NPAs OF Schedule Commercial Banks 
Recovered through various channels 
2011-2012 2012-2013 
Recovery channel 
No of 
cases 
referred 
Amount 
Involved 
Amount 
recovered 
(4) as a % 
of (3) 
No of 
cases 
referred 
Amount 
Involved 
Amount 
recovered 
(4) as a % 
of (3) 
1. Lok Adalats 476073 17 2 11.8 8,40,691 66 4 6.1 
2. DRTS 13,365 241 41 17 13,408 310 44 14 
3.SARFAEST AcT 1,40,991 353 101 28.6 1,90,537 681 185 27.1 
Total 6,30,429 611 144 23.6 10,44,636 1,058 232 21.9
THANK YOU

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Non-Performing Assets (NPA)

  • 2. DEFINITION An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank. A ‘non-performing asset’ (NPA) was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and/or installment of principal has remained ‘past due’ for a specified period of time. The specified period was reduced in a phased manner as under : Year ending March 31 Specified period 1993 four quarters 1994 three quarters 1995 onwards two quarters
  • 3. With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency, it has been decided to adopt the ’90 days’ overdue’ norm for identification of NPAs, from the year ending March 31, 2004. Accordingly, with effect from March 31, 2004, a non-performing asset (NPA) shall be a loan or an advance where; i. interest and/ or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan, ii. the account remains ‘out of order’ for a period of more than 90 days, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC), iii. the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted, iv. interest and/or installment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and v. any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts.
  • 4. Asset Non-performing Asset Loss Asset Doubtful Asset Sub-standard Asset Performing Asset Standard Asset CLASSIFICATION
  • 5. Substandard Asset: Substandard asset is one which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 18 months. Doubtful Asset: Doubtful asset is one which has remained NPA for a period exceeding 18 months. Loss Asset: A loss asset is one where loss has been identified by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection but the amount has not been written off wholly. In other words, such an asset is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted although there may be some salvage or recovery value.
  • 6. Classification of Loan Assets – Bank Group Wise S.No Bank Group Year Standard Asset Sub-standard Asset Doubtful Asset Loss Asset Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount % 1 Public Sector Bank 2012 38,255 97 623 1.6 490 1.2 60 0.1 2013 43,957 96.4 815 1.8 761 1.7 68 0.1 1.1 Nationalised Bank 2012 26,909 97.5 402 1.5 268 1 21 0.1 2013 3,03,396 96.8 558 1.8 424 1.3 35 0.1 1.2 SBI 2012 11,345 95.9 221 1.9 222 1.9 39 0.3 2013 13,561 95.6 258 1.8 337 2.4 22 0.2 2 Private Sector Bank 2012 9,629 98.1 52 0.5 104 1.1 29 0.3 2013 11,384 98.2 64 0.6 112 1.1 32 0.3 2.1 Old Private Sector Bank 2012 2,287 98.2 18 0.8 17 0.7 7 0.3 2013 2,679 98.1 23 0.9 23 0.8 6 0.2 2.2 New Private Sector Bank 2012 7,342 98.1 34 0.4 87 1.2 22 0.3 2013 8,705 98.2 41 0.5 89 1 25 0.3 3 Foreign Bank 2012 2,284 97.3 21 0.9 22 0.9 20 0.8 2013 2,610 97 29 1.1 27 1 23 0.9 Scheduled Commercial Bank 2012 50,168 97.2 695 1.3 617 1.2 109 0.2 2013 57,951 96.8 909 1.5 900 1.5 123 0.2
  • 7. Asset Classification Particulars Provision Required % Standard Direct Advances to Agriculture & SME Sectors 0.25 Commercial Real Estate Advances 1.00 All other Loans & Advances not included in above 0.40 Sub-standard Secured Exposure (up to 6 months) -6 months to 1 year 15 25 Unsecured Exposure for Escrow A/cs available in case of Infrastructure lending, infrastructure loan accounts (up to 6 months) -6 months to 1 year 25 40 Other Unsecured Exposure (up to 6 months) -6 months to 1 year 25 40 7 PROVISIONING NORMS
  • 8. Asset Classification Particulars Provision Required % Doubtful - Secured Unsecured D1 (Up to 2 year) 40 100 D2 (3rd and 4th year) 100 100 D3 (5th year onwards) 100 100 Loss Asset 100
  • 9. BORROWER WISE & NOT FACILITY WISE •When a loan a/c of a borrower is treated as NPA, all the other loan a/c of the borrower, even if they are otherwise regular, should be treated as NPA as NPA classification should be borrower wise & not facility wise. •When various advance a/c of a borrower are in different categories of NPA, then the provisioning shall be as per the lowest category applicable.
  • 10. Reporting Format for Non-Performing Asset – Gross and Net Position Name of the Bank: Position as on .................... (rupees in crore up to two decimals) Particulars Amount 1. Gross advances * 2. Gross NPAs * 3. Gross NPAs as a percentage of gross advances 4. Total Deductions (i+ii+iii+iv) i) Balance in Interest Suspense account$ ii) DICGC/ECGC claims received and held pending adjustment iii) Part payment received and kept in suspense account iv) Total provisions held ** 5. Net advances (1-4) 6. Net NPAs (2-4) 7. Net NPAs as a percentage of net Advances *excluding Technical write off of Rs. ………. crore. ** excluding amount of technical write off (Rs…….. …crores) and provision on standard assets (Rs………..crore) $ banks which do not maintain an Interest Suspense account to park the accrued interest on NPAs, may furnish the amount of interest receivable on NPAs as a foot note to this statement
  • 11. NPA of the banks, especially PSBs have been going up sharply recently. The Gross NPA of the listed banks rose 35.2% to 2.43 crore lakh crore during the first three quarters of 2013-14. in absolute terms, the 40 listed banks added ₹63,386 crore to their gross NPA during the nine months till Dec,13, with the SBI the largest lender in the country, leading with an accretion of ₹16,610 crore.
  • 12. Item Trends in NPA – Bank Group Wise Public Sector Bank Nationalized Bank SBI Group Private Sector Bank Old Private Sector Bank New Private Sector Bank Foreign Bank Scheduled Commercial Bank Gross NPA Clossing Balance for 11-12 1178 696 482 187 42 145 62 1429 Opening Balance for 12-13 1178 696 482 187 42 145 62 1429 Addition during 12-13 1198 772 425 128 41 87 41 1368 Recovered during 12-13 648 429 219 63 30 33 24 736 Written off during 12-13 78 17 60 42 1 40 0 120 Clossing Balance for 12-13 1650 1022 627 210 52 158 79 1940 Gross NPA as percent of Gross Advances 2011-12 3.3 2.8 4.6 2.1 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.1 2012-13 4.1 3.6 5 2 1.9 2 2.9 3.6 Net NPA Closing Balance for 2011-12 593 391 202 44 13 30 14 652 Closing Balance for 2012-13 900 619 281 59 20 39 26 986 Net NPA as percent of Net Advances 2011-12 1.5 1.4 1.8 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 1.3 2012-13 2 2 2 0.5 0.8 0.4 1 1.7
  • 13. 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Trends in NPA 2011-12 2012-13 NPA % Year Public Sector Bank Private Sector Bank Foreign Bank
  • 14. Bank Group Sector wise NPA of Domestic Banks Priority Sector Agricultur e MSE Others Non Priority Sector Total Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount % Amount % Public Sector Bank 2011-12 562 50 227 20.2 174 15.5 161 14.3 563 50 1125 2012-13 669 42.9 280 18 284 18.2 105 6.7 890 57.7 1559 Nationalised Bank 2011-12 323 48.4 129 19.3 134 20 60 9.1 345 51.6 668 2012-13 405 42.2 156 16.3 178 18.6 70 7.3 554 57.8 959 SBI Group 2011-12 239 52.3 98 21.4 41 9 100 22 218 47.7 457 2012-13 264 44.1 124 20.7 106 17.6 35 5.8 335 55.9 599 Private Sector Bank 2011-12 51 27.9 22 11.8 17 9.4 12 6.7 132 72.1 183 2012-13 52 26 22 10.9 20 9.9 11 5.3 148 74 200 Old Private Sector Bank 2011-12 18 42.9 6 13.4 7 16.8 5 12.8 24 57.1 42 2012-13 19 36.8 6 12.2 7 13.9 6 10.7 33 63.2 52 New Private Sector Bank 2011-12 33 23.4 16 11.3 10 7.2 7 4.9 108 76.6 141 2012-13 33 22.2 15 10.4 12 8.5 5 3.3 115 77.8 148 Schedule Commercial Banks 2011-12 613 46.9 249 19 191 14.7 173 13.2 695 53.1 1308 2012-13 721 41 302 17.2 304 17.3 116 6.5 1038 59 1759
  • 15. REASONS FOR INCREASED NPA’s • Economic Slowdown Economic growth slowing down & rate of interest going up sharply, corporate have been finding it difficult to repay loans, and it add up to rising NPA. •Wait and watch approach Banks allow deteriorating asset class to go from bad to worse in the hope of revival and often offer restructuring option to corporate. • Poor credit assessment process •Operational factors Ordinary people often complain about difficulty in getting loans, while some large borrowers just get loans on a platter.
  • 16. •Other factors −Project not completed in time −Failure of business −Willful defaulters −Natural calamities −Diversion of funds
  • 17. IMPACT OF NPA •Reduce profitability •Liquidity & Opportunity Cost •Waste of valuable management time •Impact on share prices •Loss of credibility as high NPA reflect poorly on Management •Gross NPA more than 10% in case of Co-op. Banks, Supervisory Action follows & restrictions imposed.
  • 18. HOW TO REDUCE ? •Banks should stop “ever-greening” or repeated restructuring of corporate debt to check the constant burging of their NPA. Management issue of ever-greening of loans could be avoided by “not renewing loans, particularly of corporate”. Extending those extra helping hand can go against the financial health of banks. •Bank need to be more conservative in granting loans to sectors that have been traditionally found to be contributors of NPAs. •Banks need to go much beyond the traditional analysis of financial statements & analyzing the history of promoters. There is a need to incorporate significance of economic factors in credit assessment process.
  • 19. •Banks need to evolve strategy through which defaulters are kept out of system unless they honor the previous payment. •Banks need to look at operational factors causing increasing incidents of bad loans.
  • 20. NPA RECOVERING TOOLS •Lok adalats •Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) •SARFAESI ACT, 2002 (Securitization & Reconstruction of Financial Assets & Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002)
  • 21. Lok Adalats Small value loans up to Rs 20 lakh can be amicably settled between the borrower and the lender using the forum of Lok Adalats. Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) •Narasimham Committee Report I (1991) recommended the setting up of Special Tribunals to reduce the time required for settling cases. Accepting the recommendations, Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) were established. •There are 22 DRTs and 5 Debt Recovery Appellate Tribunals. •In this court, only the recovery cases of Rs.10 Lacs & above can be filed.
  • 22. SARFAESI ACT, 2002 •The SARFAESI Act, 2002 gives powers of "seize and desist" to banks. Banks can give a notice in writing to the defaulting borrower requiring it to discharge its liabilities within 60 days. •The Act provides three alternative methods for recovery of non-performing assets, namely: - Securitization - Asset Reconstruction •Bad loans with outstanding above Rs. 1.00 Lac. •NPA loan accounts where the amount is less than 20% of the Principal & Interest are not eligible to be dealt with under this Act.
  • 23. NPAs OF Schedule Commercial Banks Recovered through various channels 2011-2012 2012-2013 Recovery channel No of cases referred Amount Involved Amount recovered (4) as a % of (3) No of cases referred Amount Involved Amount recovered (4) as a % of (3) 1. Lok Adalats 476073 17 2 11.8 8,40,691 66 4 6.1 2. DRTS 13,365 241 41 17 13,408 310 44 14 3.SARFAEST AcT 1,40,991 353 101 28.6 1,90,537 681 185 27.1 Total 6,30,429 611 144 23.6 10,44,636 1,058 232 21.9