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National Income
Business Environment
1
Chapter 08 National Income
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
2
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF NATIONAL INCOME
Keynes’ concept of “national income” is somewhere between gross national
product (GNP) and net national product (NNP) (as discussed below). From
GNP he subtracts only the “user cost”, that is, reduction in the value of
capital equipment actually used and not full depreciation.
According to present ideas, national income may be defined as the
aggregate factor income (i.e., earning of labour and property), which arises
from the current production of goods and services (G&S) by the nation’s
economy.
The nation’s economy refers to the factors of production (i.e., labour and
property) supplied by the normal residents of the national territory.
Thus, there are three measures of national income
of a country which are as follows:
1. As the sum of all incomes, in cash and kind,
accruing to factors of production in a given time
period, that is, the total of income fl ows;
2. As the sum of net outputs arising in several
sectors of the nation’s production; and
3. As the sum of consumers’ expenditure,
government expenditure on G&S, and net
expenditure on capital goods.
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
3
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
4
CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME
It measures the market value of the annual output. In other words, GNP is a
monetary measure. Th ere is no other way of adding up the diff erent sorts of
G&S produced in a year,except with their money prices. But in order to know
accurately the changes in physical output, the fi gure for GNP is adjusted for
price changes by comparing to a base year as we do when we prepare index
numbers.
For calculating GNP accurately, all G&S produced in any given year must be
counted once, but not more than once. Most of the goods go through a
series of production stages before reaching a market. As a result, parts or
components of many goods are bought and sold many times. Hence, to
avoid counting several times the parts of goods that are sold and resold,
GNP only includes the market value of fi nal goods and ignores transactions
involving intermediate goods.
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
5
Net National Product (NNP)
NNP, means the market value of all final G&S
after providing for depreciation.
Net National Product (NNP) or National Income at
Market Prices =
Gross National Product − Depreciation
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
6
National Income or National Income at
Factor Cost (NI)
National income at factor cost means the sum of all
incomes earned by resource suppliers for their
contribution of labour, capital, and entrepreneurial
ability, which go into the year’s net production.
National Income or National Income at Factor Cost =
Net National Product (NNP) (National Income at
Market prices) − Indirect Taxes + Subsidies.
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
7
Personal Income (PI)
“Personal Income” (PI) is the sum of all incomes
actually received by all individuals or households
during a given year. National income, that is income
received, must be diff erent for the simple reason
that some income which is earned through social
security contributions, corporate income taxes, and
undistributed corporate profi ts is not actually
received by households and, conversely, some
income which is received through transfer payments
is not currently earned. (Transfer payments are old-
age pensions, unemployment doles, relief
payments, interest payment on the public
debt, etc.)
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
8
METHODOLOGY OF NATIONAL INCOME ESTIMATION IN INDIA
Net-product Method
While estimating the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country, the contribution to
GDP from various sectors, like agriculture, livestock, fi shery, forestry and logging, and
mining and quarrying is estimated with the adoption of product method. In this
method, it is important to estimate the gross value of product, bi-products, and
ancillary activities and, then, steps are taken to deduct the value of inputs, raw
materials, and services from such gross value as follows:
1. In respect of other sub-sectors like animal husbandry, fishery, forestry, mining, and
factory establishments, the gross value of their output is obtained by multiplying the
estimated output with their market price. From such gross value of output, deductions
are made, for the cost of materials used and depreciation charges are levied, so as to
obtain net value added in each sector.
2. In respect of secondary activities, the computation of GDP is done by the production
approach only for the manufacturing industrials units (both registered and unregistered).
3. In respect of constructions activity, the estimates of the value of pucca construction are
made by the commodity-fl ow approach and that of the Kachcha construction are made by
the expenditure method.
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
9
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
10
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
11
SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS
 A notable feature of the recent GDP growth has been a
sharply rising trend in gross domestic investment (GDI)
and saving, with the former rising by 13.1 per cent of
GDP and the latter by 11.3 per cent of GDP over a period
of five years till 2006–07.
 The average investment ratio for the Tenth Five-Year
Plan at 31.4 per cent was higher than that for the Ninth
Five-Year Plan, while the average saving rate was also
31.4 per cent of GDP higher than the average ratio of
23.6 per cent during the Ninth Five-Year Plan.
Sectoral Investment and ICOR
Consumption Basket
Inclusive Growth
Inflation
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
12
The following are some of the important causes of
slow growth of national income in India:
 High Growth Rate of Population
 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
 Occupational Structure
 Low Level of Technology and its Poor Adoption
 Poor Industrial Development
 Poor Development of Infrastructural Facilities
 Poor Rate of Savings and Investment
 Socio-political Conditions
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
13
 Development of Agricultural Sector
 Development of Industrial Sector
 Raising the Rate of Savings and Investment
 Development of Infrastructure
 Utilisation of Natural Resources
 Removal of Inequality
 Containing the Growth of Population
 Balanced Growth
 Higher Growth of Foreign Trade
 Economic Liberalisation
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
14
 Excessive Dependence on Agriculture
 Poor Growth Rate of GDP and Per Capita
Income
 Unequal Distribution and Poor Standard of Living
 Growing Contribution of Tertiary Sector
 Unequal Growth of Different Sectors
 Regional Disparity
 Urban and Rural Disparity
 Public and Private Sector
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
15
 Non-monetised Output and its Transactions
 Non-availability of Information About Petty Income
 Lack of Differentiation in Economic Functions
 Unreported Illegal Income
 Lack of Reliable Statistical Data
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
16
Business Environment
Chapter 08 National Income
17

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NI.PPT

  • 2. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 2 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF NATIONAL INCOME Keynes’ concept of “national income” is somewhere between gross national product (GNP) and net national product (NNP) (as discussed below). From GNP he subtracts only the “user cost”, that is, reduction in the value of capital equipment actually used and not full depreciation. According to present ideas, national income may be defined as the aggregate factor income (i.e., earning of labour and property), which arises from the current production of goods and services (G&S) by the nation’s economy. The nation’s economy refers to the factors of production (i.e., labour and property) supplied by the normal residents of the national territory.
  • 3. Thus, there are three measures of national income of a country which are as follows: 1. As the sum of all incomes, in cash and kind, accruing to factors of production in a given time period, that is, the total of income fl ows; 2. As the sum of net outputs arising in several sectors of the nation’s production; and 3. As the sum of consumers’ expenditure, government expenditure on G&S, and net expenditure on capital goods. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 3
  • 4. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 4 CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME It measures the market value of the annual output. In other words, GNP is a monetary measure. Th ere is no other way of adding up the diff erent sorts of G&S produced in a year,except with their money prices. But in order to know accurately the changes in physical output, the fi gure for GNP is adjusted for price changes by comparing to a base year as we do when we prepare index numbers. For calculating GNP accurately, all G&S produced in any given year must be counted once, but not more than once. Most of the goods go through a series of production stages before reaching a market. As a result, parts or components of many goods are bought and sold many times. Hence, to avoid counting several times the parts of goods that are sold and resold, GNP only includes the market value of fi nal goods and ignores transactions involving intermediate goods.
  • 5. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 5 Net National Product (NNP) NNP, means the market value of all final G&S after providing for depreciation. Net National Product (NNP) or National Income at Market Prices = Gross National Product − Depreciation
  • 6. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 6 National Income or National Income at Factor Cost (NI) National income at factor cost means the sum of all incomes earned by resource suppliers for their contribution of labour, capital, and entrepreneurial ability, which go into the year’s net production. National Income or National Income at Factor Cost = Net National Product (NNP) (National Income at Market prices) − Indirect Taxes + Subsidies.
  • 7. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 7 Personal Income (PI) “Personal Income” (PI) is the sum of all incomes actually received by all individuals or households during a given year. National income, that is income received, must be diff erent for the simple reason that some income which is earned through social security contributions, corporate income taxes, and undistributed corporate profi ts is not actually received by households and, conversely, some income which is received through transfer payments is not currently earned. (Transfer payments are old- age pensions, unemployment doles, relief payments, interest payment on the public debt, etc.)
  • 8. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 8 METHODOLOGY OF NATIONAL INCOME ESTIMATION IN INDIA Net-product Method While estimating the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country, the contribution to GDP from various sectors, like agriculture, livestock, fi shery, forestry and logging, and mining and quarrying is estimated with the adoption of product method. In this method, it is important to estimate the gross value of product, bi-products, and ancillary activities and, then, steps are taken to deduct the value of inputs, raw materials, and services from such gross value as follows: 1. In respect of other sub-sectors like animal husbandry, fishery, forestry, mining, and factory establishments, the gross value of their output is obtained by multiplying the estimated output with their market price. From such gross value of output, deductions are made, for the cost of materials used and depreciation charges are levied, so as to obtain net value added in each sector. 2. In respect of secondary activities, the computation of GDP is done by the production approach only for the manufacturing industrials units (both registered and unregistered). 3. In respect of constructions activity, the estimates of the value of pucca construction are made by the commodity-fl ow approach and that of the Kachcha construction are made by the expenditure method.
  • 10. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 10
  • 11. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 11 SAVINGS AND INVESTMENTS  A notable feature of the recent GDP growth has been a sharply rising trend in gross domestic investment (GDI) and saving, with the former rising by 13.1 per cent of GDP and the latter by 11.3 per cent of GDP over a period of five years till 2006–07.  The average investment ratio for the Tenth Five-Year Plan at 31.4 per cent was higher than that for the Ninth Five-Year Plan, while the average saving rate was also 31.4 per cent of GDP higher than the average ratio of 23.6 per cent during the Ninth Five-Year Plan.
  • 12. Sectoral Investment and ICOR Consumption Basket Inclusive Growth Inflation Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 12
  • 13. The following are some of the important causes of slow growth of national income in India:  High Growth Rate of Population  Excessive Dependence on Agriculture  Occupational Structure  Low Level of Technology and its Poor Adoption  Poor Industrial Development  Poor Development of Infrastructural Facilities  Poor Rate of Savings and Investment  Socio-political Conditions Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 13
  • 14.  Development of Agricultural Sector  Development of Industrial Sector  Raising the Rate of Savings and Investment  Development of Infrastructure  Utilisation of Natural Resources  Removal of Inequality  Containing the Growth of Population  Balanced Growth  Higher Growth of Foreign Trade  Economic Liberalisation Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 14
  • 15.  Excessive Dependence on Agriculture  Poor Growth Rate of GDP and Per Capita Income  Unequal Distribution and Poor Standard of Living  Growing Contribution of Tertiary Sector  Unequal Growth of Different Sectors  Regional Disparity  Urban and Rural Disparity  Public and Private Sector Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 15
  • 16.  Non-monetised Output and its Transactions  Non-availability of Information About Petty Income  Lack of Differentiation in Economic Functions  Unreported Illegal Income  Lack of Reliable Statistical Data Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 16
  • 17. Business Environment Chapter 08 National Income 17