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1
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E.
The Principle of Maximum Social Advantage
Introduced: British economist Hugh Dalton.
The Principle states:
The state should collect revenue and spend the money
so as to maximize the welfare of the people. When the
state imposes taxes, some disutility is created. On the
other hand, when the state spends some money, there is
gain in utility. The state should so adjust revenue and
expenditure that surplus of utility is maximised and
disutility is minimised.
Definition:
The amount of social sacrifice undergone by public due
to the imposition of an additional unit of tax. Every unit
of tax imposed by the government taxes result in loss of
utility.
Dalton: The additional burden (marginal sacrifice)
resulting from additional units of taxation goes on
increasing. Every additional unit of taxation creates
greater amount of sacrifice on the society.
2
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS)
Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS)
3
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
The above diagram indicates that the Marginal Social
Sacrifice (MSS) curve rises upwards from left to right.
This indicates that with each additional unit of taxation,
the level of sacrifice also increases.
When the unit of taxation was OM1, the marginal social
sacrifice was OS1, and with the increase in taxation at
OM2, the marginal social sacrifice rises to OS2.
4
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS)
Definition:
The benefit conferred on the society, by an additional
unit of public expenditure.
Just as the marginal utility from a commodity to a
consumer declines as more and more units of the
commodity are made available to him, the social benefit
from each additional unit of public expenditure declines
as more and more units of public expenditure are spent.
5
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Marginal Social Benefit (MSB)
Marginal Social Benefit (MSB)
6
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
In the above diagram, the marginal social benefit (MSB)
curve slopes downward from left to right. This
indicates that the social benefit derived out of public
expenditure is reducing at a diminishing rate.
When the public expenditure was OM1, the marginal
social benefit was OB1, and when the public
expenditure is OM2, the marginal social benefit is
reduced at OB2.
7
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Marginal Social Benefit (MSB)
marginal social sacrifice cuts the marginal
8
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Social advantage is maximised at the point where
social
benefits curve. This is at the point P. At this point, the
marginal disutility or social sacrifice is equal to the
marginal utility or social benefit. Beyond this point, the
marginal disutility or social sacrifice will be higher, and
the marginal utility or social benefit will be lower.
Before this point, the marginal utility or social benefit is
more than marginal disutility or marginal sacrifice.
The Point of Maximum Social Advantage-
Maximum Social Advantage is achieved at the point
where the marginal social benefit of public expenditure
and the marginal social sacrifice of taxation are
equated, i.e. where MSB = MSS.
This is the optimum limit of the states’ public finance
activity. Thus, public expenditure should be incurred
upto the point where the marginal utility due to public
expenditure us just equal to the marginal disutility due
to taxation of public income.
9
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Conclusion
10
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
According to Musgrave, Dalton has proposed two
principles of budget policy.
(1)resources should be so distributed among different
public uses so as to equalise the marginal return of
satisfaction for each type of outlay.
(2) public expenditure should be pushed to the point
where the satisfaction lost from the last unit taken in
taxes and the marginal satisfaction derived in public and
private sector is equalised.
Musgrave’s Views:
11
Musgrave’s Views-
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
According to Musgrave, suppose the marginal utility of
successive unit of public expenditure, allocated
optimally between public uses, is shown by line EE in
the figure and the marginal disutility of taxes imposed is
shown by line TT. The line NN is obtained by deducting
TT from EE and measure the benefits derived from
successive additions to public budget. The optimum
size of budget is determined at OM where marginal net
benefits are zero.
12
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Musgrave’s Views-
The optimum size of budget is given by the point
13
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
where marginal
corresponds to
net benefit
the point
is zero. This
of maximum
point
social
advantage as at this point MSB = MSS.
Conclusion-
1. Preservation of community-
The duty of the govt. Should be to preserve the
community against internal disorders and external
attacks. It creates confidence and promotes economic
life of its citizens.
2. Improvements in Production-
Increase in productive power so that large product
per worker shall be obtained- to achieve minimum
waste of economic resources- improvement in pattern
of production 14
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Tests of MSA-
3. Improvement in Distribution-
The inequalities of income, resulting due to unearned
income, should not be tolerated while the skills and
efforts may be justified and suitably rewarded.
4. Stability and Full Employment-
The social advantage to the community can be
increased if economic stability and full employment
level is achieved.
15
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Tests of MSA-
5. Provisions of Future-
Individuals give more importance to the present than
to the future and, therefore, the responsibility of the
state has double responsibility of looking after the
interests of the present as well as future generations.
16
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Tests of MSA-
1. Difficult to put into practice-
Utility being subjective in nature, creates a great
obstacle for the state to balance marginal utility and
disutility.
2. Utility is not measurable-
Utility cannot be measured quantitatively.
17
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Limitations of MSA-
3. It ignores macro system-
Disutility caused to the tax-payer is micro problem,
whereas, marginal utility gained is a macro concept.
4. Highly unrealistic restrictions-
The argument that govt. should not have surplus or
deficit budget is highly unrealistic.
5. Welfare State-
Modern states are not police states but are welfare
states and have to plan certain projects. 18
Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
Limitations of MSA-

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Musgrave theory of comparaitive advantage in public finance

  • 1. 1 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E. The Principle of Maximum Social Advantage Introduced: British economist Hugh Dalton. The Principle states: The state should collect revenue and spend the money so as to maximize the welfare of the people. When the state imposes taxes, some disutility is created. On the other hand, when the state spends some money, there is gain in utility. The state should so adjust revenue and expenditure that surplus of utility is maximised and disutility is minimised.
  • 2. Definition: The amount of social sacrifice undergone by public due to the imposition of an additional unit of tax. Every unit of tax imposed by the government taxes result in loss of utility. Dalton: The additional burden (marginal sacrifice) resulting from additional units of taxation goes on increasing. Every additional unit of taxation creates greater amount of sacrifice on the society. 2 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS)
  • 3. Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS) 3 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
  • 4. The above diagram indicates that the Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS) curve rises upwards from left to right. This indicates that with each additional unit of taxation, the level of sacrifice also increases. When the unit of taxation was OM1, the marginal social sacrifice was OS1, and with the increase in taxation at OM2, the marginal social sacrifice rises to OS2. 4 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Marginal Social Sacrifice (MSS)
  • 5. Definition: The benefit conferred on the society, by an additional unit of public expenditure. Just as the marginal utility from a commodity to a consumer declines as more and more units of the commodity are made available to him, the social benefit from each additional unit of public expenditure declines as more and more units of public expenditure are spent. 5 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Marginal Social Benefit (MSB)
  • 6. Marginal Social Benefit (MSB) 6 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
  • 7. In the above diagram, the marginal social benefit (MSB) curve slopes downward from left to right. This indicates that the social benefit derived out of public expenditure is reducing at a diminishing rate. When the public expenditure was OM1, the marginal social benefit was OB1, and when the public expenditure is OM2, the marginal social benefit is reduced at OB2. 7 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Marginal Social Benefit (MSB)
  • 8. marginal social sacrifice cuts the marginal 8 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Social advantage is maximised at the point where social benefits curve. This is at the point P. At this point, the marginal disutility or social sacrifice is equal to the marginal utility or social benefit. Beyond this point, the marginal disutility or social sacrifice will be higher, and the marginal utility or social benefit will be lower. Before this point, the marginal utility or social benefit is more than marginal disutility or marginal sacrifice. The Point of Maximum Social Advantage-
  • 9. Maximum Social Advantage is achieved at the point where the marginal social benefit of public expenditure and the marginal social sacrifice of taxation are equated, i.e. where MSB = MSS. This is the optimum limit of the states’ public finance activity. Thus, public expenditure should be incurred upto the point where the marginal utility due to public expenditure us just equal to the marginal disutility due to taxation of public income. 9 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Conclusion
  • 10. 10 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E According to Musgrave, Dalton has proposed two principles of budget policy. (1)resources should be so distributed among different public uses so as to equalise the marginal return of satisfaction for each type of outlay. (2) public expenditure should be pushed to the point where the satisfaction lost from the last unit taken in taxes and the marginal satisfaction derived in public and private sector is equalised. Musgrave’s Views:
  • 11. 11 Musgrave’s Views- Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E
  • 12. According to Musgrave, suppose the marginal utility of successive unit of public expenditure, allocated optimally between public uses, is shown by line EE in the figure and the marginal disutility of taxes imposed is shown by line TT. The line NN is obtained by deducting TT from EE and measure the benefits derived from successive additions to public budget. The optimum size of budget is determined at OM where marginal net benefits are zero. 12 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Musgrave’s Views-
  • 13. The optimum size of budget is given by the point 13 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E where marginal corresponds to net benefit the point is zero. This of maximum point social advantage as at this point MSB = MSS. Conclusion-
  • 14. 1. Preservation of community- The duty of the govt. Should be to preserve the community against internal disorders and external attacks. It creates confidence and promotes economic life of its citizens. 2. Improvements in Production- Increase in productive power so that large product per worker shall be obtained- to achieve minimum waste of economic resources- improvement in pattern of production 14 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Tests of MSA-
  • 15. 3. Improvement in Distribution- The inequalities of income, resulting due to unearned income, should not be tolerated while the skills and efforts may be justified and suitably rewarded. 4. Stability and Full Employment- The social advantage to the community can be increased if economic stability and full employment level is achieved. 15 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Tests of MSA-
  • 16. 5. Provisions of Future- Individuals give more importance to the present than to the future and, therefore, the responsibility of the state has double responsibility of looking after the interests of the present as well as future generations. 16 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Tests of MSA-
  • 17. 1. Difficult to put into practice- Utility being subjective in nature, creates a great obstacle for the state to balance marginal utility and disutility. 2. Utility is not measurable- Utility cannot be measured quantitatively. 17 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Limitations of MSA-
  • 18. 3. It ignores macro system- Disutility caused to the tax-payer is micro problem, whereas, marginal utility gained is a macro concept. 4. Highly unrealistic restrictions- The argument that govt. should not have surplus or deficit budget is highly unrealistic. 5. Welfare State- Modern states are not police states but are welfare states and have to plan certain projects. 18 Department of Economics and Foundation Course, R.A.P.C.C.E Limitations of MSA-