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Matter, in classical
physics and general
chemistry, is any
substance that has mass
and takes up space by
having volume.
matter 1
matter 2
Usually atoms can be imagined as a
nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a
surrounding "cloud" of orbiting electrons
which "take up space".
Matter is a general term describing any
'physical substance'. By contrast, mass is
not a substance but rather a quantitative
property of matter and other substances or
systems; various types of mass are defined
within physics – including but not limited to
rest mass,
1. inertial mass
2. relativistic mass
3. mass–energy.
matter 3
matter 4
What is matter? In science,
matter is defined as any
substance that has mass and
takes up space. Basically
it’s anything that can be
touched. Yet
there are also phenomena
that are not matter
such as light, sounds, and
other forms of energy.
A space devoid of all matter is
called a vacuum.
matter 5
Examples of Matter
Anything you can touch, taste, or smell
consists of matter. Examples of
matter include:
1. Atoms
2. Ions
3. Molecules
4. Furniture
5. People
6. Plants
7. Water
8. Rocks
matter 6
You can observe things
which are not matter.
Typically
these are forms of energy
such as
▪ Sunlight
▪ rainbows
▪ Thoughts
▪ emotions
▪ music
▪ and
▪ radio waves
matter 7
States of Matter
You can identify matter by its chemical composition
and its state. States of matter encountered in daily
life include solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. Other
states of matter exist near absolute zero and at
extremely high temperatures.
•Solid – State of matter with a defined shape
and volume. Particles are packed close together.
Example: Ice
•Liquid – State of matter with defined volume, but no
defined shape. Space between particles allows this
form of matter to flow. Example: Water
•Gas – State of matter without a defined volume or
shape. Particles can adjust to the size and shape of
their container. Example: Water vapor in clouds
matter 8
Difference Between Matter and Mass
The terms “matter” and “mass” are
related, but don’t mean exactly the
same thing.
Mass is a measure of the amount
of matter in the sample. For
example, you might have a block of
carbon. It consists of carbon atoms
(a form of matter).
You could use a balance to
measure the block’s mass to obtain
a mass in units of grams or pounds.
Mass is a property of a sample of
matter.
matter 9
What Is Matter Made Of?
Matter consists of building blocks. In
chemistry, atoms and ions are the smallest
units of matter that cannot be broken down
using any chemical reaction.
But, nuclear reactions can break atoms into
their subunits. The basic subunits of atoms and
ions are
protons, neutrons, and electrons. The number
of protons in an atom identifies its element
matter 10
Protons, neutrons, and electrons are
subatomic particles, but there are
even smaller units of matter.
Protons and neutrons are examples
of subatomic particles called baryons,
which are made of quarks.
Electrons are examples of subatomic
particles called leptons. So, in physics,
one definition of matter is that it
consists of leptons or quarks.
matter 11
Matter vs Antimatter
Antimatter consists of antiparticles. Antimatter is still
matter, but while ordinary matter consists of leptons
and baryons with a positive number, antimatter
consists of leptons and baryons with a negative
number. So, there are antielectrons (called positrons),
antiprotons, and antineutrons.
Antimatter occurs in the world.
For example, lightning strikes, radioactive decay, and
cosmic rays all produce antimatter.
When antimatter encounters ordinary matter, the two
annihilate each other, releasing a lot of energy. But,
this isn’t the universe-ending event you see in science
fiction. It happens all the time.
matter 12
Matter vs Dark Matter
Matter made from protons, neutrons,
and electrons is sometimes called ordinary
matter. Similarly, a substance made of leptons
or quarks is ordinary matter. Scientists estimate
about 4% of the universe consists of ordinary
matter. About 23% is made of dark matter and
73% consists of dark energy. The simplest
definition of dark matter is that it consists of
non-baryonic particles.
Dark matter is one form of what physicists call
“exotic matter.” Other types of dark matter may
exist, potentially with bizarre properties, such
as negative mass!

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matter. what is matter

  • 1. Matter, in classical physics and general chemistry, is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. matter 1
  • 2. matter 2 Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding "cloud" of orbiting electrons which "take up space". Matter is a general term describing any 'physical substance'. By contrast, mass is not a substance but rather a quantitative property of matter and other substances or systems; various types of mass are defined within physics – including but not limited to rest mass, 1. inertial mass 2. relativistic mass 3. mass–energy.
  • 4. matter 4 What is matter? In science, matter is defined as any substance that has mass and takes up space. Basically it’s anything that can be touched. Yet there are also phenomena that are not matter such as light, sounds, and other forms of energy. A space devoid of all matter is called a vacuum.
  • 5. matter 5 Examples of Matter Anything you can touch, taste, or smell consists of matter. Examples of matter include: 1. Atoms 2. Ions 3. Molecules 4. Furniture 5. People 6. Plants 7. Water 8. Rocks
  • 6. matter 6 You can observe things which are not matter. Typically these are forms of energy such as ▪ Sunlight ▪ rainbows ▪ Thoughts ▪ emotions ▪ music ▪ and ▪ radio waves
  • 7. matter 7 States of Matter You can identify matter by its chemical composition and its state. States of matter encountered in daily life include solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. Other states of matter exist near absolute zero and at extremely high temperatures. •Solid – State of matter with a defined shape and volume. Particles are packed close together. Example: Ice •Liquid – State of matter with defined volume, but no defined shape. Space between particles allows this form of matter to flow. Example: Water •Gas – State of matter without a defined volume or shape. Particles can adjust to the size and shape of their container. Example: Water vapor in clouds
  • 8. matter 8 Difference Between Matter and Mass The terms “matter” and “mass” are related, but don’t mean exactly the same thing. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in the sample. For example, you might have a block of carbon. It consists of carbon atoms (a form of matter). You could use a balance to measure the block’s mass to obtain a mass in units of grams or pounds. Mass is a property of a sample of matter.
  • 9. matter 9 What Is Matter Made Of? Matter consists of building blocks. In chemistry, atoms and ions are the smallest units of matter that cannot be broken down using any chemical reaction. But, nuclear reactions can break atoms into their subunits. The basic subunits of atoms and ions are protons, neutrons, and electrons. The number of protons in an atom identifies its element
  • 10. matter 10 Protons, neutrons, and electrons are subatomic particles, but there are even smaller units of matter. Protons and neutrons are examples of subatomic particles called baryons, which are made of quarks. Electrons are examples of subatomic particles called leptons. So, in physics, one definition of matter is that it consists of leptons or quarks.
  • 11. matter 11 Matter vs Antimatter Antimatter consists of antiparticles. Antimatter is still matter, but while ordinary matter consists of leptons and baryons with a positive number, antimatter consists of leptons and baryons with a negative number. So, there are antielectrons (called positrons), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Antimatter occurs in the world. For example, lightning strikes, radioactive decay, and cosmic rays all produce antimatter. When antimatter encounters ordinary matter, the two annihilate each other, releasing a lot of energy. But, this isn’t the universe-ending event you see in science fiction. It happens all the time.
  • 12. matter 12 Matter vs Dark Matter Matter made from protons, neutrons, and electrons is sometimes called ordinary matter. Similarly, a substance made of leptons or quarks is ordinary matter. Scientists estimate about 4% of the universe consists of ordinary matter. About 23% is made of dark matter and 73% consists of dark energy. The simplest definition of dark matter is that it consists of non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is one form of what physicists call “exotic matter.” Other types of dark matter may exist, potentially with bizarre properties, such as negative mass!