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Managing bribery and
corruption risks in the
construction and
infrastructure industry
“Any competitive
advantage gained through
corruption is a mirage.”
Robert S. Khuzami, Director of Enforcement,
US Securities and Exchange Commission
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 1
Introduction	3
Regional and country profiles:	 4
Europe	4
The Middle East	 6
India	8
Africa	10
What should companies be doing?	 12
Eight steps to an effective compliance program	 14
How Ernst  Young can help	 16
Global reach and experience	 18
Contacts	20
Contents
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 3
Why is bribery and corruption such
a challenge in the sector?
In addition to the bribery and corruption
risks prevalent in all industries,
companies in the sector face a number
of specific risks due to the following
factors:
•	 Obtaining planning permission and
licenses is a lengthy process and can
be open to abuse.
•	 Funding by government, public or
private partnerships or by donor
agencies in developing economies
requires many interactions with
government officials.
•	 The use of subcontractors and
consultants or agents is prevalent,
increasing the risk of third parties
making or soliciting bribes. In our
recent 12th Global Fraud Survey,
respondents from the construction
and infrastructure sector were more
likely than average to see bribery as
common practice in their sector.2
•	 Joint ventures are commonly used;
indeed, in some jurisdictions it is
necessary to have a local partner
either as a result of legal requirements
or from a commercial perspective.
•	 Negotiations concerning additions to
specifications and cost overruns are
critical to determining the profitability
of a contract. These negotiations offer
opportunities for consultants or clients
to attempt to leverage payments or
other benefits.
•	 	Many contracts are large, and
decision-making power can sometimes
be concentrated in the hands of a
small number of politically exposed
persons (PEPs).
•	 	Organized crime networks exploit
labor-intensive sectors such as
construction and infrastructure.
This paper offers a perspective on the
bribery landscape across Europe, the
Middle East, India and Africa (EMEIA),
including enforcement trends, risks for
businesses to be aware of and mitigating
steps companies may want to consider.
Introduction
1
Trace International Global Enforcement Report 2011.
2
12th Global Fraud Survey, Ernst  Young, 2012.	
The construction and infrastructure sector has featured significantly in bribery prosecutions, with
11% of all enforcement activity, since the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was introduced,
relating to the sector.1
Recent headline-grabbing cases demonstrate that organizations in these
industries continue to face significant bribery and corruption risks.
4
Europe
Europe is generally seen as a
less corrupt region — but variations
exist
Most European countries rank in the
upper quartile in Transparency
International’s 2012 Corruption
Perceptions Index (CPI). Indeed,
Scandinavian countries are rated
among the least corrupt in the world
(Denmark ranked one, Sweden ranked
four. But other European countries
such as Russia (133), Ukraine (144),
Greece (94), Romania (66) and
Turkey (54) rank significantly lower.
Anti-bribery or anti-corruption
(ABAC) legislation differs
significantly between states
Although 24 European countries have
ratified the OECD Convention on
Combating Bribery of Foreign Public
Officials in International Business
Transactions (the OECD Anti-Bribery
Convention), there are significant
differences in domestic ABAC legislation
across Europe.
Over recent years, many countries have
updated their legislation: the UK
introduced the Bribery Act (effective
from July 2011); Spain and France have
made amendments to their legislation;
Russia has introduced new laws
increasing penalties for non-compliance
and has ratified the OECD Anti-Bribery
Convention. But nearly half of European
countries have not yet codified the
Convention in domestic law and have
underdeveloped ABAC legislation.
Enforcement likely to rise
For much of the last decade, discussion
of ABAC issues in Europe has been
framed by the extra-territorial reach
and enforcement of the FCPA. Europe
still lags behind the US in terms of
enforcement (as of last year, US actions
outnumbered the rest of the world by
three to one). Updated legislation in
many European countries, however,
has given prosecutors the power to
investigate conduct overseas and to
impose significant civil and
criminal penalties.
“Corruption threatens
the integrity of markets,
undermines fair
competition, distorts
resource allocation,
destroys public trust and
undermines the rule of law.”
G20 Anti-Corruption Action Plan
Regional and country profiles
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 5
Our experience of bribery and
corruption in Europe
Mitigating the risk of bribery and
corruption remains a significant
challenge for corporate boards across
the region. We have observed the
following challenges as being common
to many companies in the sector:
Use of intermediaries — many
Europe-based construction companies
use intermediaries to accelerate the
process of obtaining required permits,
authorizations and customs clearance.
However, there is a risk that fees paid
can be inflated to mask the payment of
a bribe by the intermediary to a
decision-maker.
Increased competition and
challenging market conditions —
new players entering the sector increase
competition for contracts; a belief that
others will be more aggressive can
pressure staff to push boundaries and
take risks that might not accord with
their company’s corporate culture. Also,
current market conditions are placing
increased stress on executives to
deliver growth.
Corporate entertainment —
companies commonly use entertainment
to improve relationships with clients and
ultimately to influence decision-makers.
In many cases, this is legitimate, but it
can be difficult for companies to
determine appropriate limits.
Germany was classed as an
“active” enforcer of foreign
bribery by Transparency
International’s 2012
Progress Report on the
OECD Anti-Bribery
Convention, on the basis of
176 settled cases of foreign
bribery and 43 investigations
in progress. This has made
Germany the most active
enforcer within Europe.
6 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
The Middle East
It is generally perceived that the
risk of bribery and corruption in the
Middle East is high
Many Middle Eastern countries fall
in the lower half of the CPI (the Gulf
Cooperation Council countries and
Jordan are notable exceptions).
Several high-profile corruption
investigations in Western countries
have related to activities in the region.
Many countries have adopted the
United Nations Convention against
Corruption (UNCAC)
UNCAC has been ratified by most Middle
Eastern countries. Oman has not signed;
Saudi Arabia and Syria are signatories
but have not yet ratified. However, the
implementation of the specific policies
continues to pose a challenge.
Enforcement is expected
to increase
The effects of the recent global financial
crisis on the region (particularly for
the real estate market), and the more
recent political unrest in some countries,
is increasing pressure on governments
and leaders to strengthen their ABAC
laws and practices. For example,
Saudi Arabia last year initiated a
crackdown on corruption through the
newly created National Authority for
Combating Corruption.
The Authority’s chairman stated that
their anti-corruption drive would be
targeting “big heads.” In Qatar, a new
anti-corruption committee has been
created, monitoring enforcement of the
ABAC provisions in the criminal
procedures law, and in Bahrain, the
Prime Minister called for new measures
to combat economic crime and the
establishment of an anti-corruption
agency. Despite these developments,
however, progress in tackling corruption
is likely to remain slow.
Our experience of bribery and
corruption in the Middle East
We have seen increasing ABAC measures
in many countries in the Middle East, but
bribery and corruption is still prevalent,
as shown by the numerous FCPA cases
involving conduct in the region.
Our recent experience suggests that
companies should be particularly aware
of the following challenges in the region:
Lack of clear guidance or
process — companies often fail to
provide clear guidance to employees
regarding acceptable and unacceptable
business practices specific to the region,
or the procedures to manage situations
when they arise.
Regional and country profiles
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 7
Gifts and “kickbacks” — in the context
of business dealings, the provision of
gifts and kickbacks is common and often
viewed as normal business practice in
the market.
Conflicts of interest — it is common
for conflicts of interest to be overlooked.
For example, sales commissions may be
paid to companies in which management
has an interest; similarly, improper sales
discounts may be provided to parties
connected to the sales team.
Lack of proper tender or contract
award process — control deficiencies
are common, leading to contracts being
awarded by board members and senior
management without effective due
diligence or “not at arm’s length.”
Requests for facilitation payments —
these can be common in areas such as
obtaining visas for employees and
obtaining licenses and planning
permission for new sites. Local
operators can view them as essential to
getting business done. But they are
illegal under the UK Bribery Act and are
under intense scrutiny by external third
parties such as the OECD Anti-Bribery
Working Group.
There have been high-profile
corruption cases throughout
the region. This has resulted
in a greater focus by
governments on the issue
of corruption and the need
for greater transparency
and accountability.
8 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
Recent prosecutions have brought
bribery and corruption to the fore
Bribery and corruption remain a
major challenge in India. The 2012
Transparency International Corruption
Perceptions and Bribe Payers Indices
rank India 94 (out of 176) and 19 (out
of 28) respectively, indicating the
severity of the issue. Twenty-eight
percent of India respondents to our 12th
Global Fraud Survey were willing to make
cash payments to win or retain business,
compared with 15% of respondents
globally.3
Hardening public attitudes
and the need for businesses to secure
foreign direct investment have led to
strengthened ABAC efforts.
Government introducing new
anti-corruption legislation
Indian policy-makers are taking robust
steps to increase the confidence of
investors — corporate and public. In
recent Parliamentary sessions, a number
of important bills were introduced,
including the Prevention of Bribery
of Foreign Public Officials Bill, the
Anti-Corruption, Grievance Redressal
and Whistleblower Protection Bill and
the Companies Bill 2011. In addition to
this, ratification of UNCAC by the
Government in 2011 has helped India
demonstrate its commitment to
improved governance. In another
significant development, the
Government has submitted the Lokpal
Bill, which aims to create stricter
regulations and has given more
credibility to its fight against bribery
and corruption.
The impression of poor
enforcement is changing
The perception that corruption is rarely
prosecuted is changing as a result of
recent investigations and high-profile
prosecutions — for example, the arrest
of former cabinet-level officials in the
2G telecoms license scandal. It is likely
that bribery and corruption will continue
to feature as a political hot topic,
resulting in increased enforcement as
political parties seek to demonstrate
their willingness to act.
Our experience of bribery and
corruption in India
Through our experience of investigating
alleged bribery and corruption in India,
we have observed many changes over
the years and, unfortunately, some
long-standing challenges:
India
3
12th
Global Fraud Survey, Ernst  Young, 2012.	
Regional and country profiles
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 9
Bribes to government officials
remain a serious risk — India’s CPI
score has got worse over the past year.
In some cases, officials have expected
bribes from project officials to release
project funds, for example, where they
hold funds of donor agencies.
Financial manipulation to obtain
financing benefits — promoters or
builders may manipulate financial
statements and valuations to obtain
financing on particularly beneficial
terms. In our recent Global Fraud Survey,
16% of India respondents were prepared
to misstate financial performance,
significantly higher than average.4
Weak records management —
poorly developed systems provide an
opportunity for the manipulation of
ownership documentation, including title
to land rights.
Pressure from project officials —
application of inappropriate
pressure to select a certain agent or
contractor might indicate a hidden
financial interest.
Limited or unreliable information —
in practice, it is often difficult for
companies to conduct due diligence
on contractors, subcontractors and
agents due to poor information. The
introduction of unique identifiers for
businesses by the Government may
improve this situation going forward.
But obtaining complete and accurate
historical information is likely to remain
a challenge.
4
12th
Global Fraud Survey, Ernst  Young, 2012.
Corruption is perceived as
being accepted in business
dealings as a way of avoiding
administrative bottlenecks.
Low public sector wages
increase the risk of bribery
for quick favors or
ignoring wrongdoing.
10 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
Africa
Africa is perceived to have a high
risk of bribery and corruption,
but the situation is complex
Although the majority of African
countries are in the bottom half of the
CPI, the rankings of individual countries
vary widely. For example, Botswana is
ranked number 30, ahead of many
European countries, whereas Somalia
is ranked 174, considered the most
corrupt country in the index.
Africa is attractive to many construction
companies because it contains some
of the fastest-growing economies in
the world. Corruption and security
issues, however, are significant barriers
to investment, according to our
recent survey.5
There is no common legislation
governing bribery and corruption
across Africa
The Convention on Preventing and
Combating Corruption was agreed by the
African Union in 2008. The Convention
is a regional agreement setting the
framework for the prevention of
corruption, but this has not driven the
development of a common legislative
approach across the region.
In some countries, inefficient and
opaque political systems are preventing
progress in introducing new legislation.
However, many governments are
strengthening ABAC laws and practices.
Enforcement is increasing
There has been a significant amount of
FCPA enforcement related to business
conduct in Africa across a number of
industry sectors, including construction
and infrastructure. Given the extent of
this enforcement and the media attention
associated with it, some countries are
starting to act. Overall, however, the
level of local enforcement remains low.
Only 10% of the Africa respondents in
our recent 12th Global Fraud Survey
state that regulators in their country
appear willing to prosecute cases of
bribery or corruption and appear
effective in securing convictions.6
Rwanda’s fight against
corruption is paying off.
This country’s ranking in
Transparency International’s
CPI has improved from 89 in
2009 to 50 in 2012.
5
Africa by numbers, Assessing market attractiveness in Africa, 2012.
6
12thGlobal Fraud Survey, Ernst  Young, 2012.	
Regional and country profiles
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 11
Our experience of bribery and
corruption in Africa
Many of the corruption risks in
Africa are heightened due to the
lack of sophisticated systems (paper
records being an integral part of many
business processes) and poor control
environments. Our experience shows
that the following are among the key
challenges facing companies operating
in the region:
Informal payments — improper
payments by businesses in Africa can
arise due to significant levels of “red tape,”
particularly relating to business permits,
licenses and the import of goods.
Use of intermediaries — agents,
brokers and facilitators are used to
“assist” with negotiations. Fees paid to
these intermediaries are often non-distinct
and might be used to disguise bribes.
Petty corruption — petty corruption
can be found in areas such as
identification books, marriage and
birth certificates and driving licenses.
Transparency International’s Global
Corruption Barometer 2010/11 states
that more than 50% of people in
sub-Saharan Africa reported paying
a bribe; more than anywhere else in
the world.
“The demand from people
for the accountable use
of power and an end to
corruption is indeed one of
the key social drivers of
our time.”
Cobus de Swardt,
Managing Director,
Transparency International
12 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
Dealing with bribery and corruption has
always been a challenge for companies
in the construction and infrastructure
sector. The awarding of contracts and
obtaining of planning permission or
permits create particular bribery and
corruption risks, with many of the
enforcement cases in the public domain
relating to these areas.
Key activities of a successful ABAC
program for companies in the sector
include:
•	 Setting the correct tone at the top. It is
extremely important that ABAC is on
the agenda of senior executives.
•	 Completing a comprehensive bribery
and corruption risk assessment —
considering the type and location of
projects undertaken so that the
specific risks faced are identified
and understood.
•	 Once the risk assessment is complete,
reviewing the overall bribery and
corruption compliance program to
determine if it is proportionate to the
risks identified.
•	 Reviewing existing communication
and training programs to help ensure
that the desired corporate culture is
achieved on the ground, especially
in more remote and higher-risk
locations. In our recent 12th Global
Fraud Survey,7
only 55% of respondents
were aware of anti-bribery training
within their organization.
•	 Conducting due diligence on
contractors, subcontractors and
agents, with continued monitoring
performed to make sure they comply
with relevant ABAC laws.
•	 Ensuring that there are clear contracts
with consultants and agents that refer
to ABAC procedures and give the
company audit rights over relevant
contract records. Payments to
consultants should be reviewed and
approved at a senior level of the
organization, including the payment
of expenses.
•	 Proactively analyzing operational data
on an ongoing basis, using forensic
data analytics to detect transactions
that indicate a heightened risk of
bribery and corruption.
•	 Monitoring expenses such as
corporate entertainment carefully,
paying particular attention to the
specific recipient, the context and the
timing of the entertainment or gift.
•	 Undertaking vetting of key employees,
contractors or partners, especially
those unknown to the company, for
example, in joint venture situations.
In our recent Global Fraud Survey,
only 59% of respondents report
using an approved supplier database
and almost half fail to check the
ownership or backgrounds of
third-party suppliers.8
What should companies be doing?
7
12th
Global Fraud Survey, Ernst  Young, 2012.
8
12th
Global Fraud Survey, Ernst  Young, 2012.
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 13
14 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
Eight steps to an effective anti-corruption
compliance program
1Conduct a risk
assessment program
What risks are posed by the nature of the company’s operations; the degree of business
with governmental entities; its use of agents and other intermediaries; the countries it
works in; and the regulatory environment it works under? Identify the policies and controls
in place that mitigate the corruption risk and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses.
2Develop a corporate
anti-corruption policy
There needs to be a clear and unambiguous statement of the company’s position that both
governmental and commercial bribery on any scale will not be tolerated. The policy will
provide operational guidance on such issues as bribing government officials; commercial
bribery; misreporting and concealment in accounting records; facilitating payments,
charitable and community gift giving; and policies covering travel, entertainment and gifts
for government officials.
3Implement anti-corruption
policies and controls
We know that 90% of reported FCPA cases have involved outside agents and business
consultants. Putting in contracting provisions and warranties that include compliance with
legislation and company policy are important controls. It is also key to implement some
form of certification to ensure there has been compliance. Make sure special payments and
approvals are recorded. Do you undertake vendor anti-corruption audits? How does the
company process and deal with employee travel, gifts and entertainment? Develop
guidance that ensures charitable giving ends up in the right hands and gifts are bona fide.
4Implement anti-corruption
financial controls
Implement additional financial controls in high-risk countries and for high-risk operations.
These may include controls around banks accounts and petty cash, executive travel, meals
and entertainment. Transactions with consultants, agents and high-risk intermediaries will
also need enhanced controls.
Implement strict account posting requirements for high-risk transactions, including
sufficient supporting documentation and adequately delegated authority to promote
increased transparency and accountability.
Ernst  Young has developed an eight-step program to ensure you have a robust compliance
framework in place:
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 15
5Conduct anti-corruption
compliance training
Training is imperative for global organizations operating in countries that have a history of
corruption. Local employees need to understand that your culture may differ greatly from
their own. Training should also be prescriptive and pragmatic — it should explain the
requirements of the FCPA and UK Bribery Act, but also give examples of “red flags” or
difficult situations that may relate directly to them as employees. Training should be
appropriately targeted. It should be based on roles and responsibilities within the company
and be periodically updated for new and transitioning employees.
6	
Monitor the program
Organizations need to be able to test for compliance by identifying potential violations or
“red flags.” This is effectively an anti-corruption audit. In the best case scenario, ABC
Analytics can be used as a tool for compliance monitoring. A form of anti-corruption
certification should be designed for employees, which should be re-tested periodically.
Are there tests for compliance with policies and are there concrete and well-understood
consequences of non-compliance?
7	
Anti-corruption procedures
in mergers and acquisitions
Companies should conduct appropriate due diligence on potential acquisitions to avoid
the risk of inheriting liability for legacy actions. Compliance with ABAC tenets should be
high on the integration plan and look at all the corruption risks potentially posed by the
new organization. MA checks should not end before the acquisition — they need to be
continued after the integration process.
8	
Re-assess risk and
modify program
Corruption risk assessments should be conducted periodically to ensure that the
anti-corruption program is evolving to meet new risks posed by the changing business
and external environment.
Global bribery and corruption
risk assessment
We worked with senior client staff to
conduct a bribery and corruption risk
assessment for a major construction
company. Our client had recently
acquired a global construction services
business and needed to ensure that the
new business had a consistent approach
to bribery and corruption risk mitigation.
The review of the new business was
piloted in countries in Asia and Africa.
We developed a bribery and corruption
risk assessment tool that enabled our
client to focus on the ABAC compliance
controls for subsidiary operations.
The tool was used to identify higher-risk
countries and projects in order to
focus resources.
As a result of our work, the company
made remedial changes to key business
practices in high-risk countries.
Investigation into alleged bribes to
government officials in Europe
Our client was subject to an FCPA
investigation as a result of alleged bribes
paid to government officials. We were
engaged to collect and analyze all
documentation relevant to the
allegations. Our international team of
e-disclosure specialists processed
15 million electronic documents over a
three-week period.
We assisted our client and it’s legal
counsel in designing and implementing
robust and efficient disclosure strategies
and helped them deal with various
jurisdictional data privacy concerns.
By using a combination of interviewing
techniques and analysis of the electronic
data, we helped our client in its
submissions to the US Securities
and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Our technology tools and overall
investigation approach allowed the client
to provide timely responses to the SEC.
Investigation in Africa
We were retained by outside counsel to
the audit committee of our client to
investigate concerns raised by a new
finance director.
We conducted interviews and reviewed
customs clearance documents for
multiple years to identify potential FCPA
violations. Our findings were reported
to the board of directors and the
audit committee.
As a result of our work, the company
made improvements in its local policies
and internal controls, as well as its FCPA
compliance program.
Whistle-blower investigation in Asia
We were engaged by an SP 100 company
to lead an investigation in multiple
countries in Asia following whistle-blower
allegations stemming from the company’s
acquisition of a group of companies. We
worked closely with two external law firms,
and with the client’s general counsel and
head of internal audit in each country.
We were asked to report regularly to the
management committee, the external
auditor and ultimately to the SEC.
Our work enabled our client to act
swiftly, leading to voluntary disclosure of
certain FCPA issues identified through
the investigation. In addition, we assisted
external counsel in identifying and
formulating remedial measures.
16 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
How Ernst  Young can help
Through our experience in advising on a number of cases in the construction and infrastructure sector,
and our global reach, we are ideally placed to help you to minimize the risk of bribery and corruption in
your business. Some recent case studies include:
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 17
Countries or territories in which Ernst  Young professionals are located.
18 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
Global reach and experience
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 19
Our construction and infrastructure network
Our construction and infrastructure team is part of a
7,000-strong global Real Estate practice, serving more
than 4,000 real estate clients worldwide. Our people have
diverse backgrounds and a wealth of experience. Many of
them have served in industry and government, while
others have professional services experience and hold
relevant certifications.
Our team comprises experienced professionals using
sophisticated tools and proven methodologies to meet the
most complex and demanding challenges and provide
commercial and technical services on a global basis. The team
includes forensic accountants, certified fraud examiners,
forensic technology professionals, economists, regulators,
quantity surveyors, architects, project managers and delay
analysts. Our in-depth sector knowledge and experience
allows us to advise clients and their legal advisors in an
efficient manner.
Our global reach and experience
We operate globally, delivering high-quality service, using local
knowledge where our clients operate. We have over 1,600
fraud investigation and dispute services professionals, based in
50 countries, with experience in business integrity, investigations,
disputes and forensic technology.
We are the only major professional services organization to
operate across Europe, the Middle East, India and Africa, under
a single EMEIA structure. We therefore have a borderless
approach to business in the emerging markets of the
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), India, the Middle
East and Africa as well as the established markets of Europe.
This enables us to leverage our strengths more efficiently and
move swiftly to bring together our teams to serve our clients,
drawing on our industry experience across all of our services in
87 countries.
Our Fraud Investigation  Dispute Services practice
Dealing with complex issues of fraud, regulatory compliance
and business disputes can detract from efforts to achieve your
company’s potential. Better management of fraud risk and
compliance exposure is a critical business priority — no matter
the industry sector. We assemble the right multidisciplinary
and culturally aligned team to work with you and your legal
advisors. And we work to give you the benefit of our broad
sector experience, our deep subject matter knowledge and the
latest insights from our work worldwide.
20 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
For further help and information, please contact one of our specialist or local area representatives or
log on to www.ey.com/fids
Name Role Office telephone Email
Global Leader
David Stulb Global Leader + 44 20 7951 2456 david.stulb@ey.com
Construction Sector
Erik Skoglund Partner + 46 85 205 9939 erik.skoglund@se.ey.com
Kevin Hills Partner + 44 78 6787 5035 khills@uk.ey.com
John Auerbach Partner + 86 21 2228 2642 john.auerbach@cn.ey.com
Amy Hawkes Partner + 1 213 977 3720 amy.hawkes@ey.com
Regional Leaders
John Smart Northern Europe + 44 20 7951 3401 jsmart@uk.ey.com
Philippe Hontarrede Western Europe + 33 1 46 93 62 10 philippe.hontarrede@fr.ey.com
Stefan Heissner Central and Eastern Europe + 49 211 9352 11397 stefan.heissner@de.ey.com
Bob Chandler Middle East + 971 4 7010 765 bob.chandler@ae.ey.com
Arpinder Singh India + 91 22 6192 0160 arpinder.singh@in.ey.com
Charles de Chermont Africa + 27 31 576 8050 charles.dechermont@za.ey.com
Brian Loughman Americas + 1 212 773 5343 brian.loughman@ey.com
Chris Fordham Asia Pacific + 85 22 846 9008 chris.fordham@hk.ey.com
Contacts
Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 21
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Managing bribery and corruption risks in the construction and infrastructure industry

  • 1. Managing bribery and corruption risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
  • 2. “Any competitive advantage gained through corruption is a mirage.” Robert S. Khuzami, Director of Enforcement, US Securities and Exchange Commission
  • 3. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 1 Introduction 3 Regional and country profiles: 4 Europe 4 The Middle East 6 India 8 Africa 10 What should companies be doing? 12 Eight steps to an effective compliance program 14 How Ernst Young can help 16 Global reach and experience 18 Contacts 20 Contents
  • 4.
  • 5. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 3 Why is bribery and corruption such a challenge in the sector? In addition to the bribery and corruption risks prevalent in all industries, companies in the sector face a number of specific risks due to the following factors: • Obtaining planning permission and licenses is a lengthy process and can be open to abuse. • Funding by government, public or private partnerships or by donor agencies in developing economies requires many interactions with government officials. • The use of subcontractors and consultants or agents is prevalent, increasing the risk of third parties making or soliciting bribes. In our recent 12th Global Fraud Survey, respondents from the construction and infrastructure sector were more likely than average to see bribery as common practice in their sector.2 • Joint ventures are commonly used; indeed, in some jurisdictions it is necessary to have a local partner either as a result of legal requirements or from a commercial perspective. • Negotiations concerning additions to specifications and cost overruns are critical to determining the profitability of a contract. These negotiations offer opportunities for consultants or clients to attempt to leverage payments or other benefits. • Many contracts are large, and decision-making power can sometimes be concentrated in the hands of a small number of politically exposed persons (PEPs). • Organized crime networks exploit labor-intensive sectors such as construction and infrastructure. This paper offers a perspective on the bribery landscape across Europe, the Middle East, India and Africa (EMEIA), including enforcement trends, risks for businesses to be aware of and mitigating steps companies may want to consider. Introduction 1 Trace International Global Enforcement Report 2011. 2 12th Global Fraud Survey, Ernst Young, 2012. The construction and infrastructure sector has featured significantly in bribery prosecutions, with 11% of all enforcement activity, since the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was introduced, relating to the sector.1 Recent headline-grabbing cases demonstrate that organizations in these industries continue to face significant bribery and corruption risks.
  • 6. 4 Europe Europe is generally seen as a less corrupt region — but variations exist Most European countries rank in the upper quartile in Transparency International’s 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Indeed, Scandinavian countries are rated among the least corrupt in the world (Denmark ranked one, Sweden ranked four. But other European countries such as Russia (133), Ukraine (144), Greece (94), Romania (66) and Turkey (54) rank significantly lower. Anti-bribery or anti-corruption (ABAC) legislation differs significantly between states Although 24 European countries have ratified the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention), there are significant differences in domestic ABAC legislation across Europe. Over recent years, many countries have updated their legislation: the UK introduced the Bribery Act (effective from July 2011); Spain and France have made amendments to their legislation; Russia has introduced new laws increasing penalties for non-compliance and has ratified the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. But nearly half of European countries have not yet codified the Convention in domestic law and have underdeveloped ABAC legislation. Enforcement likely to rise For much of the last decade, discussion of ABAC issues in Europe has been framed by the extra-territorial reach and enforcement of the FCPA. Europe still lags behind the US in terms of enforcement (as of last year, US actions outnumbered the rest of the world by three to one). Updated legislation in many European countries, however, has given prosecutors the power to investigate conduct overseas and to impose significant civil and criminal penalties. “Corruption threatens the integrity of markets, undermines fair competition, distorts resource allocation, destroys public trust and undermines the rule of law.” G20 Anti-Corruption Action Plan Regional and country profiles Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry
  • 7. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 5 Our experience of bribery and corruption in Europe Mitigating the risk of bribery and corruption remains a significant challenge for corporate boards across the region. We have observed the following challenges as being common to many companies in the sector: Use of intermediaries — many Europe-based construction companies use intermediaries to accelerate the process of obtaining required permits, authorizations and customs clearance. However, there is a risk that fees paid can be inflated to mask the payment of a bribe by the intermediary to a decision-maker. Increased competition and challenging market conditions — new players entering the sector increase competition for contracts; a belief that others will be more aggressive can pressure staff to push boundaries and take risks that might not accord with their company’s corporate culture. Also, current market conditions are placing increased stress on executives to deliver growth. Corporate entertainment — companies commonly use entertainment to improve relationships with clients and ultimately to influence decision-makers. In many cases, this is legitimate, but it can be difficult for companies to determine appropriate limits. Germany was classed as an “active” enforcer of foreign bribery by Transparency International’s 2012 Progress Report on the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, on the basis of 176 settled cases of foreign bribery and 43 investigations in progress. This has made Germany the most active enforcer within Europe.
  • 8. 6 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry The Middle East It is generally perceived that the risk of bribery and corruption in the Middle East is high Many Middle Eastern countries fall in the lower half of the CPI (the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Jordan are notable exceptions). Several high-profile corruption investigations in Western countries have related to activities in the region. Many countries have adopted the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) UNCAC has been ratified by most Middle Eastern countries. Oman has not signed; Saudi Arabia and Syria are signatories but have not yet ratified. However, the implementation of the specific policies continues to pose a challenge. Enforcement is expected to increase The effects of the recent global financial crisis on the region (particularly for the real estate market), and the more recent political unrest in some countries, is increasing pressure on governments and leaders to strengthen their ABAC laws and practices. For example, Saudi Arabia last year initiated a crackdown on corruption through the newly created National Authority for Combating Corruption. The Authority’s chairman stated that their anti-corruption drive would be targeting “big heads.” In Qatar, a new anti-corruption committee has been created, monitoring enforcement of the ABAC provisions in the criminal procedures law, and in Bahrain, the Prime Minister called for new measures to combat economic crime and the establishment of an anti-corruption agency. Despite these developments, however, progress in tackling corruption is likely to remain slow. Our experience of bribery and corruption in the Middle East We have seen increasing ABAC measures in many countries in the Middle East, but bribery and corruption is still prevalent, as shown by the numerous FCPA cases involving conduct in the region. Our recent experience suggests that companies should be particularly aware of the following challenges in the region: Lack of clear guidance or process — companies often fail to provide clear guidance to employees regarding acceptable and unacceptable business practices specific to the region, or the procedures to manage situations when they arise. Regional and country profiles
  • 9. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 7 Gifts and “kickbacks” — in the context of business dealings, the provision of gifts and kickbacks is common and often viewed as normal business practice in the market. Conflicts of interest — it is common for conflicts of interest to be overlooked. For example, sales commissions may be paid to companies in which management has an interest; similarly, improper sales discounts may be provided to parties connected to the sales team. Lack of proper tender or contract award process — control deficiencies are common, leading to contracts being awarded by board members and senior management without effective due diligence or “not at arm’s length.” Requests for facilitation payments — these can be common in areas such as obtaining visas for employees and obtaining licenses and planning permission for new sites. Local operators can view them as essential to getting business done. But they are illegal under the UK Bribery Act and are under intense scrutiny by external third parties such as the OECD Anti-Bribery Working Group. There have been high-profile corruption cases throughout the region. This has resulted in a greater focus by governments on the issue of corruption and the need for greater transparency and accountability.
  • 10. 8 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry Recent prosecutions have brought bribery and corruption to the fore Bribery and corruption remain a major challenge in India. The 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions and Bribe Payers Indices rank India 94 (out of 176) and 19 (out of 28) respectively, indicating the severity of the issue. Twenty-eight percent of India respondents to our 12th Global Fraud Survey were willing to make cash payments to win or retain business, compared with 15% of respondents globally.3 Hardening public attitudes and the need for businesses to secure foreign direct investment have led to strengthened ABAC efforts. Government introducing new anti-corruption legislation Indian policy-makers are taking robust steps to increase the confidence of investors — corporate and public. In recent Parliamentary sessions, a number of important bills were introduced, including the Prevention of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials Bill, the Anti-Corruption, Grievance Redressal and Whistleblower Protection Bill and the Companies Bill 2011. In addition to this, ratification of UNCAC by the Government in 2011 has helped India demonstrate its commitment to improved governance. In another significant development, the Government has submitted the Lokpal Bill, which aims to create stricter regulations and has given more credibility to its fight against bribery and corruption. The impression of poor enforcement is changing The perception that corruption is rarely prosecuted is changing as a result of recent investigations and high-profile prosecutions — for example, the arrest of former cabinet-level officials in the 2G telecoms license scandal. It is likely that bribery and corruption will continue to feature as a political hot topic, resulting in increased enforcement as political parties seek to demonstrate their willingness to act. Our experience of bribery and corruption in India Through our experience of investigating alleged bribery and corruption in India, we have observed many changes over the years and, unfortunately, some long-standing challenges: India 3 12th Global Fraud Survey, Ernst Young, 2012. Regional and country profiles
  • 11. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 9 Bribes to government officials remain a serious risk — India’s CPI score has got worse over the past year. In some cases, officials have expected bribes from project officials to release project funds, for example, where they hold funds of donor agencies. Financial manipulation to obtain financing benefits — promoters or builders may manipulate financial statements and valuations to obtain financing on particularly beneficial terms. In our recent Global Fraud Survey, 16% of India respondents were prepared to misstate financial performance, significantly higher than average.4 Weak records management — poorly developed systems provide an opportunity for the manipulation of ownership documentation, including title to land rights. Pressure from project officials — application of inappropriate pressure to select a certain agent or contractor might indicate a hidden financial interest. Limited or unreliable information — in practice, it is often difficult for companies to conduct due diligence on contractors, subcontractors and agents due to poor information. The introduction of unique identifiers for businesses by the Government may improve this situation going forward. But obtaining complete and accurate historical information is likely to remain a challenge. 4 12th Global Fraud Survey, Ernst Young, 2012. Corruption is perceived as being accepted in business dealings as a way of avoiding administrative bottlenecks. Low public sector wages increase the risk of bribery for quick favors or ignoring wrongdoing.
  • 12. 10 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry Africa Africa is perceived to have a high risk of bribery and corruption, but the situation is complex Although the majority of African countries are in the bottom half of the CPI, the rankings of individual countries vary widely. For example, Botswana is ranked number 30, ahead of many European countries, whereas Somalia is ranked 174, considered the most corrupt country in the index. Africa is attractive to many construction companies because it contains some of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Corruption and security issues, however, are significant barriers to investment, according to our recent survey.5 There is no common legislation governing bribery and corruption across Africa The Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption was agreed by the African Union in 2008. The Convention is a regional agreement setting the framework for the prevention of corruption, but this has not driven the development of a common legislative approach across the region. In some countries, inefficient and opaque political systems are preventing progress in introducing new legislation. However, many governments are strengthening ABAC laws and practices. Enforcement is increasing There has been a significant amount of FCPA enforcement related to business conduct in Africa across a number of industry sectors, including construction and infrastructure. Given the extent of this enforcement and the media attention associated with it, some countries are starting to act. Overall, however, the level of local enforcement remains low. Only 10% of the Africa respondents in our recent 12th Global Fraud Survey state that regulators in their country appear willing to prosecute cases of bribery or corruption and appear effective in securing convictions.6 Rwanda’s fight against corruption is paying off. This country’s ranking in Transparency International’s CPI has improved from 89 in 2009 to 50 in 2012. 5 Africa by numbers, Assessing market attractiveness in Africa, 2012. 6 12thGlobal Fraud Survey, Ernst Young, 2012. Regional and country profiles
  • 13. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 11 Our experience of bribery and corruption in Africa Many of the corruption risks in Africa are heightened due to the lack of sophisticated systems (paper records being an integral part of many business processes) and poor control environments. Our experience shows that the following are among the key challenges facing companies operating in the region: Informal payments — improper payments by businesses in Africa can arise due to significant levels of “red tape,” particularly relating to business permits, licenses and the import of goods. Use of intermediaries — agents, brokers and facilitators are used to “assist” with negotiations. Fees paid to these intermediaries are often non-distinct and might be used to disguise bribes. Petty corruption — petty corruption can be found in areas such as identification books, marriage and birth certificates and driving licenses. Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer 2010/11 states that more than 50% of people in sub-Saharan Africa reported paying a bribe; more than anywhere else in the world. “The demand from people for the accountable use of power and an end to corruption is indeed one of the key social drivers of our time.” Cobus de Swardt, Managing Director, Transparency International
  • 14. 12 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry Dealing with bribery and corruption has always been a challenge for companies in the construction and infrastructure sector. The awarding of contracts and obtaining of planning permission or permits create particular bribery and corruption risks, with many of the enforcement cases in the public domain relating to these areas. Key activities of a successful ABAC program for companies in the sector include: • Setting the correct tone at the top. It is extremely important that ABAC is on the agenda of senior executives. • Completing a comprehensive bribery and corruption risk assessment — considering the type and location of projects undertaken so that the specific risks faced are identified and understood. • Once the risk assessment is complete, reviewing the overall bribery and corruption compliance program to determine if it is proportionate to the risks identified. • Reviewing existing communication and training programs to help ensure that the desired corporate culture is achieved on the ground, especially in more remote and higher-risk locations. In our recent 12th Global Fraud Survey,7 only 55% of respondents were aware of anti-bribery training within their organization. • Conducting due diligence on contractors, subcontractors and agents, with continued monitoring performed to make sure they comply with relevant ABAC laws. • Ensuring that there are clear contracts with consultants and agents that refer to ABAC procedures and give the company audit rights over relevant contract records. Payments to consultants should be reviewed and approved at a senior level of the organization, including the payment of expenses. • Proactively analyzing operational data on an ongoing basis, using forensic data analytics to detect transactions that indicate a heightened risk of bribery and corruption. • Monitoring expenses such as corporate entertainment carefully, paying particular attention to the specific recipient, the context and the timing of the entertainment or gift. • Undertaking vetting of key employees, contractors or partners, especially those unknown to the company, for example, in joint venture situations. In our recent Global Fraud Survey, only 59% of respondents report using an approved supplier database and almost half fail to check the ownership or backgrounds of third-party suppliers.8 What should companies be doing? 7 12th Global Fraud Survey, Ernst Young, 2012. 8 12th Global Fraud Survey, Ernst Young, 2012.
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  • 16. 14 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry Eight steps to an effective anti-corruption compliance program 1Conduct a risk assessment program What risks are posed by the nature of the company’s operations; the degree of business with governmental entities; its use of agents and other intermediaries; the countries it works in; and the regulatory environment it works under? Identify the policies and controls in place that mitigate the corruption risk and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. 2Develop a corporate anti-corruption policy There needs to be a clear and unambiguous statement of the company’s position that both governmental and commercial bribery on any scale will not be tolerated. The policy will provide operational guidance on such issues as bribing government officials; commercial bribery; misreporting and concealment in accounting records; facilitating payments, charitable and community gift giving; and policies covering travel, entertainment and gifts for government officials. 3Implement anti-corruption policies and controls We know that 90% of reported FCPA cases have involved outside agents and business consultants. Putting in contracting provisions and warranties that include compliance with legislation and company policy are important controls. It is also key to implement some form of certification to ensure there has been compliance. Make sure special payments and approvals are recorded. Do you undertake vendor anti-corruption audits? How does the company process and deal with employee travel, gifts and entertainment? Develop guidance that ensures charitable giving ends up in the right hands and gifts are bona fide. 4Implement anti-corruption financial controls Implement additional financial controls in high-risk countries and for high-risk operations. These may include controls around banks accounts and petty cash, executive travel, meals and entertainment. Transactions with consultants, agents and high-risk intermediaries will also need enhanced controls. Implement strict account posting requirements for high-risk transactions, including sufficient supporting documentation and adequately delegated authority to promote increased transparency and accountability. Ernst Young has developed an eight-step program to ensure you have a robust compliance framework in place:
  • 17. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 15 5Conduct anti-corruption compliance training Training is imperative for global organizations operating in countries that have a history of corruption. Local employees need to understand that your culture may differ greatly from their own. Training should also be prescriptive and pragmatic — it should explain the requirements of the FCPA and UK Bribery Act, but also give examples of “red flags” or difficult situations that may relate directly to them as employees. Training should be appropriately targeted. It should be based on roles and responsibilities within the company and be periodically updated for new and transitioning employees. 6 Monitor the program Organizations need to be able to test for compliance by identifying potential violations or “red flags.” This is effectively an anti-corruption audit. In the best case scenario, ABC Analytics can be used as a tool for compliance monitoring. A form of anti-corruption certification should be designed for employees, which should be re-tested periodically. Are there tests for compliance with policies and are there concrete and well-understood consequences of non-compliance? 7 Anti-corruption procedures in mergers and acquisitions Companies should conduct appropriate due diligence on potential acquisitions to avoid the risk of inheriting liability for legacy actions. Compliance with ABAC tenets should be high on the integration plan and look at all the corruption risks potentially posed by the new organization. MA checks should not end before the acquisition — they need to be continued after the integration process. 8 Re-assess risk and modify program Corruption risk assessments should be conducted periodically to ensure that the anti-corruption program is evolving to meet new risks posed by the changing business and external environment.
  • 18. Global bribery and corruption risk assessment We worked with senior client staff to conduct a bribery and corruption risk assessment for a major construction company. Our client had recently acquired a global construction services business and needed to ensure that the new business had a consistent approach to bribery and corruption risk mitigation. The review of the new business was piloted in countries in Asia and Africa. We developed a bribery and corruption risk assessment tool that enabled our client to focus on the ABAC compliance controls for subsidiary operations. The tool was used to identify higher-risk countries and projects in order to focus resources. As a result of our work, the company made remedial changes to key business practices in high-risk countries. Investigation into alleged bribes to government officials in Europe Our client was subject to an FCPA investigation as a result of alleged bribes paid to government officials. We were engaged to collect and analyze all documentation relevant to the allegations. Our international team of e-disclosure specialists processed 15 million electronic documents over a three-week period. We assisted our client and it’s legal counsel in designing and implementing robust and efficient disclosure strategies and helped them deal with various jurisdictional data privacy concerns. By using a combination of interviewing techniques and analysis of the electronic data, we helped our client in its submissions to the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Our technology tools and overall investigation approach allowed the client to provide timely responses to the SEC. Investigation in Africa We were retained by outside counsel to the audit committee of our client to investigate concerns raised by a new finance director. We conducted interviews and reviewed customs clearance documents for multiple years to identify potential FCPA violations. Our findings were reported to the board of directors and the audit committee. As a result of our work, the company made improvements in its local policies and internal controls, as well as its FCPA compliance program. Whistle-blower investigation in Asia We were engaged by an SP 100 company to lead an investigation in multiple countries in Asia following whistle-blower allegations stemming from the company’s acquisition of a group of companies. We worked closely with two external law firms, and with the client’s general counsel and head of internal audit in each country. We were asked to report regularly to the management committee, the external auditor and ultimately to the SEC. Our work enabled our client to act swiftly, leading to voluntary disclosure of certain FCPA issues identified through the investigation. In addition, we assisted external counsel in identifying and formulating remedial measures. 16 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry How Ernst Young can help Through our experience in advising on a number of cases in the construction and infrastructure sector, and our global reach, we are ideally placed to help you to minimize the risk of bribery and corruption in your business. Some recent case studies include:
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  • 20. Countries or territories in which Ernst  Young professionals are located. 18 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry Global reach and experience
  • 21. Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry 19 Our construction and infrastructure network Our construction and infrastructure team is part of a 7,000-strong global Real Estate practice, serving more than 4,000 real estate clients worldwide. Our people have diverse backgrounds and a wealth of experience. Many of them have served in industry and government, while others have professional services experience and hold relevant certifications. Our team comprises experienced professionals using sophisticated tools and proven methodologies to meet the most complex and demanding challenges and provide commercial and technical services on a global basis. The team includes forensic accountants, certified fraud examiners, forensic technology professionals, economists, regulators, quantity surveyors, architects, project managers and delay analysts. Our in-depth sector knowledge and experience allows us to advise clients and their legal advisors in an efficient manner. Our global reach and experience We operate globally, delivering high-quality service, using local knowledge where our clients operate. We have over 1,600 fraud investigation and dispute services professionals, based in 50 countries, with experience in business integrity, investigations, disputes and forensic technology. We are the only major professional services organization to operate across Europe, the Middle East, India and Africa, under a single EMEIA structure. We therefore have a borderless approach to business in the emerging markets of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), India, the Middle East and Africa as well as the established markets of Europe. This enables us to leverage our strengths more efficiently and move swiftly to bring together our teams to serve our clients, drawing on our industry experience across all of our services in 87 countries. Our Fraud Investigation Dispute Services practice Dealing with complex issues of fraud, regulatory compliance and business disputes can detract from efforts to achieve your company’s potential. Better management of fraud risk and compliance exposure is a critical business priority — no matter the industry sector. We assemble the right multidisciplinary and culturally aligned team to work with you and your legal advisors. And we work to give you the benefit of our broad sector experience, our deep subject matter knowledge and the latest insights from our work worldwide.
  • 22. 20 Managing bribery and corruptions risks in the construction and infrastructure industry For further help and information, please contact one of our specialist or local area representatives or log on to www.ey.com/fids Name Role Office telephone Email Global Leader David Stulb Global Leader + 44 20 7951 2456 david.stulb@ey.com Construction Sector Erik Skoglund Partner + 46 85 205 9939 erik.skoglund@se.ey.com Kevin Hills Partner + 44 78 6787 5035 khills@uk.ey.com John Auerbach Partner + 86 21 2228 2642 john.auerbach@cn.ey.com Amy Hawkes Partner + 1 213 977 3720 amy.hawkes@ey.com Regional Leaders John Smart Northern Europe + 44 20 7951 3401 jsmart@uk.ey.com Philippe Hontarrede Western Europe + 33 1 46 93 62 10 philippe.hontarrede@fr.ey.com Stefan Heissner Central and Eastern Europe + 49 211 9352 11397 stefan.heissner@de.ey.com Bob Chandler Middle East + 971 4 7010 765 bob.chandler@ae.ey.com Arpinder Singh India + 91 22 6192 0160 arpinder.singh@in.ey.com Charles de Chermont Africa + 27 31 576 8050 charles.dechermont@za.ey.com Brian Loughman Americas + 1 212 773 5343 brian.loughman@ey.com Chris Fordham Asia Pacific + 85 22 846 9008 chris.fordham@hk.ey.com Contacts
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  • 24. About Ernst Young Ernst Young is a global leader in assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services. Worldwide, our 167,000 people are united by our shared values and an unwavering commitment to quality. We make a difference by helping our people, our clients and our wider communities achieve their potential. Ernst Young refers to the global organization of member firms of Ernst Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity. Ernst Young Global Limited, a UK company limited by guarantee, does not provide services to clients. For more information about our organization, please visit www.ey.com. About Ernst Young’s Fraud Investigation Dispute Services Dealing with complex issues of fraud, regulatory compliance and business disputes can detract from efforts to achieve your company’s potential. Better management of fraud risk and compliance exposure is a critical business priority — no matter the industry sector. With our more than 2,000 fraud investigation and dispute professionals around the world, we assemble the right multidisciplinary and culturally aligned team to work with you and your legal advisors. And we work to give you the benefit of our broad sector experience, our deep subject matter knowledge and the latest insights from our work worldwide. It’s how Ernst Young makes a difference. © 2012 EYGM Limited. All Rights Reserved. EYG no. AU1402 In line with Ernst Young’s commitment to minimize its impact on the environment, this document has been printed on paper with a high recycled content. This publication contains information in summary form and is therefore intended for general guidance only. It is not intended to be a substitute for detailed research or the exercise of professional judgment. Neither EYGM Limited nor any other member of the global Ernst Young organization can accept any responsibility for loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of any material in this publication. On any specific matter, reference should be made to the appropriate advisor. www.ey.com ED None EMEIA MAS 1112.0912 Ernst Young Assurance | Tax | Transactions | Advisory