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MEETUP
HAMBURG
2019-02-11
HENNING JACOBS
@try_except_
Kubernetes
Failure
Stories
2
ZALANDO AT A GLANCE
~ 4.5billion EUR
revenue 2017
> 200
million
visits
per
month
> 15.000
employees in
Europe
> 70%
of visits via
mobile devices
> 24
million
active customers
> 300.000
product choices
~ 2.000
brands
17
countries
3
SCALE
100Clusters
373Accounts
4
DEVELOPERS USING KUBERNETES
5
46+ cluster
components
6
POSTGRES OPERATOR
Application to manage
PostgreSQL clusters on
Kubernetes
>500
clusters running
on Kubernetes
https://github.com/zalando-incubator/postgres-operator
INCIDENTS ARE FINE
INCIDENT
#1
9
#1: LESS THAN 20% OF NODES AVAILABLE
NAME STATUS AGE VERSION
ip-172-31-10-91...internal NotReady 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-11-16...internal NotReady 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-11-211...internal Ready,SchedulingDisabled 5d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-15-46...internal Ready 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-18-123...internal NotReady 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-19-46...internal Ready 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-19-75...internal NotReady 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-2-124...internal NotReady 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-3-58...internal Ready 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-5-211...internal Ready 4d v1.7.4+coreos.0
ip-172-31-7-147...internal Ready,SchedulingDisabled 5d v1.7.4+coreos.0
10
TRAIL OF CLUES
• Recovered automatically after 15 minutes
• Nodes unhealthy at same time, recover at same time
• API server is behind AWS ELB
• Seems to happen to others, too
• Some report it happening ~every month
11
UPSTREAM ISSUE
⇒ Fixed in 1.8 (backported to 1.7.8)
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/48638
INCIDENT
#2
13
INCIDENT #2: CUSTOMER IMPACT
14
INCIDENT #2: IAM RETURNING 404
15
INCIDENT #2: NUMBER OF PODS
16
LIFE OF A REQUEST (INGRESS)
Node Node
MyApp MyApp MyApp
EC2 network
K8s network
TLS
HTTP
Skipper Skipper
ALB
17
ROUTES FROM API SERVER
Node Node
MyApp MyApp MyApp
Skipper
ALBAPI Server
Skipper
18
API SERVER DOWN
Node Node
MyApp MyApp MyApp
Skipper
ALBAPI Server
Skipper
OOMKill
19
INCIDENT #2: INNOCENT MANIFEST
apiVersion: batch/v2alpha1
kind: CronJob
metadata:
name: "foobar"
spec:
schedule: "*/15 9-19 * * Mon-Fri"
jobTemplate:
spec:
template:
spec:
restartPolicy: Never
concurrencyPolicy: Forbid
successfulJobsHistoryLimit: 1
failedJobsHistoryLimit: 1
containers:
...
20
INCIDENT #2: FIXED CRON JOB
apiVersion: batch/v2alpha1
kind: CronJob
metadata:
name: "foobar"
spec:
schedule: "7 8-18 * * Mon-Fri"
concurrencyPolicy: Forbid
successfulJobsHistoryLimit: 1
failedJobsHistoryLimit: 1
jobTemplate:
spec:
activeDeadlineSeconds: 120
template:
spec:
restartPolicy: Never
containers:
21
INCIDENT #2: CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
• Wrong CronJob manifest and no automatic job cleanup
• Reliance on Kubernetes API server availability
• Ingress routes not kept as-is in case of outage
• No quota for number of pods
apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
name: compute-resources
spec:
hard:
pods: "1500"
INCIDENT
#3
23
INCIDENT #3: INGRESS ERRORS
24
INCIDENT #3: COREDNS OOMKILL
coredns invoked oom-killer:
gfp_mask=0x14000c0(GFP_KERNEL),
nodemask=(null), order=0, oom_score_adj=994
Memory cgroup out of memory: Kill process 6428
(coredns) score 2050 or sacrifice child
oom_reaper: reaped process 6428 (coredns),
now anon-rss:0kB, file-rss:0kB, shmem-rss:0kB
restarts
25
STOP THE BLEEDING: INCREASE MEMORY LIMIT
4Gi
2Gi
200Mi
26
SPIKE IN HTTP REQUESTS
27
SPIKE IN DNS QUERIES
28
INCREASE IN MEMORY USAGE
29
INCIDENT #3: CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
• HTTP retries
• No DNS caching
• Kubernetes ndots:5 problem
• Short maximum lifetime of HTTP connections
• Fixed memory limit for CoreDNS
• Monitoring affected by DNS outage
github.com/zalando-incubator/kubernetes-on-aws/blob/dev/docs/postmortems/jan-2019-dns-outage.md
INCIDENT
#4
31
⇒ all containers
on this node down
#4: KERNEL OOM KILLER
32
INCIDENT #4: KUBELET MEMORY
33
UPSTREAM ISSUE REPORTED
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/73587
34
INCIDENT #4: THE PATCH
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/issues/73587
INCIDENT
#5
36
INCIDENT #5: IMPACT
Error during Pod creation:
MountVolume.SetUp failed for volume
"outfit-delivery-api-credentials" :
secrets "outfit-delivery-api-credentials" not found
⇒ All new Kubernetes deployments fail
37
INCIDENT #5: CREDENTIALS QUEUE
17:30:07 | [pool-6-thread-1 ] | Current queue size: 7115, current number of active workers: 20
17:31:07 | [pool-6-thread-1 ] | Current queue size: 7505, current number of active workers: 20
17:32:07 | [pool-6-thread-1 ] | Current queue size: 7886, current number of active workers: 20
..
17:37:07 | [pool-6-thread-1 ] | Current queue size: 9686, current number of active workers: 20
..
17:44:07 | [pool-6-thread-1 ] | Current queue size: 11976, current number of active workers: 20
..
19:16:07 | [pool-6-thread-1 ] | Current queue size: 58381, current number of active workers: 20
38
INCIDENT #5: CPU THROTTLING
39
INCIDENT #5: WHAT HAPPENED
Scaled down IAM provider
to reduce Slack
+ Number of deployments increased
⇒ Process could not process credentials fast enough
40
CPU/memory requests "block" resources on nodes.
Difference between actual usage and requests → Slack
SLACK
CPU
Memory
Node
"Slack"
41
DISABLING CPU THROTTLING
[Announcement] CPU limits will be disabled
⇒ Ingress Latency Improvements
kubelet … --cpu-cfs-quota=false
42
MANAGED
KUBERNETES?
43
WILL MANAGED K8S SAVE US?
GKE: monthly uptime percentage at 99.95% for regional clusters
44
WILL MANAGED K8S SAVE US?
NO(not really)
e.g. AWS EKS uptime SLA is only for API server
45
PRODUCTION PROOFING AWS EKS
List of things you might
want to look at for EKS
in production
https://medium.com/glia-tech/productionproofing-e
ks-ed52951ffd6c
46
AWS EKS IN PRODUCTION
https://kubedex.com/90-days-of-aws-eks-in-production/
47
DOCKER.. (ON GKE)
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/8fd414537b5143ab0
39cb910590237cabf4af783/cluster/gce/gci/health-monitor.sh#L29
WELCOME TO
CLOUD NATIVE!
49
51
KUBERNETES FAILURE STORIES
20 failure stories so far
What about yours?
github.com/hjacobs/kubernetes-failure-stories
QUESTIONS?
HENNING JACOBS
HEAD OF
DEVELOPER PRODUCTIVITY
henning@zalando.de
@try_except_
Illustrations by @01k

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Let's talk about Failures with Kubernetes - Hamburg Meetup