SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Download to read offline
Visualizing the Problem Domain 
for Spreadsheet Users: A Mental 
Model Perspective 
Bennett Kankuzi, Jorma Sajaniemi 
School of Computing, Joensuu Campus 
University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Outline 
•Introduction 
•Description of Proposed Tool 
•Evaluation of the Tool (Methodology, Results 
and Discussion) 
•Conclusion 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 2
Introduction 
•A mental model can be defined as “a mental image of 
the world around us that we carry in our heads 
depicting only selected concepts and relationships that 
represent real systems” (Doyle & Ford, 1998) 
– a mental model for a spreadsheet, therefore, does not 
carry all possible information, but just those aspects 
that the user finds appropriate for the current task 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 3
Introduction (cont’d) 
•Important to understand spreadsheet authors’ mental 
models when doing different spreadsheet process 
activities 
– to understand why the spreadsheet process is so 
error-prone 
– to develop the right tools and techniques for 
spreadsheet activities 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 4
Introduction (cont’d) 
•Spreadsheet authors have at least three mental models: 
real-world, domain and spreadsheet models (Kankuzi & 
Sajaniemi, 2013) 
– the real-world model that comprises general knowledge 
of the world around us e.g. “motor vehicle” 
– the domain model that represents knowledge of the 
problem domain and the functionality of the spreadsheet 
in problem domain or application terms e.g. “fixed 
assets” 
– the spreadsheet model that codes the expressions and 
data relationships in the spreadsheet e.g. “cell B1” 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 5
Introduction (cont’d) 
•Research Question: 
– Is it possible to develop an easy to use spreadsheet 
understanding and debugging tool that relieves 
users from spreadsheet details and lets them utilize 
more of their mental model of the application 
domain and hence improving the mapping between 
the domain/real-world mental models and the 
spreadsheet mental model? 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 6
The Tool 
•Translates traditional spreadsheet formulas into problem domain 
narratives and highlights referenced cells 
– domain terms formed from labels (headers) through spatial layout 
information of each cell referenced to in the formula 
•Implemented as an MS Excel add-on 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 7
Related Tools and Techniques 
•In spreadsheets, symbolic names and formula translation have been 
used with the hope to clarify the mapping between various levels 
of abstraction 
– use of named ranges such as in MS Excel and Google Spreadsheets 
– some spreadsheet visualization tools also do formula translations e.g. 
Spreadsheet Professional 
– model-driven spreadsheet development approaches such as 
ClassSheet models (Engels & Erwig, 2005) also translate formulas to 
more humanized higher level object oriented style formulas 
•All these tools and techniques anecdotally assume that symbolic 
names and formula translation are useful to spreadsheet authors, 
but their usability has not been empirically evaluated nor 
psychologically justified 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 8
Evaluation of Tool - Overview 
•Adapted Nielsen’s usability attributes of learnability, efficiency and 
satisfaction (Nielsen, 1994) in the evaluation tasks 
– evaluation involved 12 volunteering accountants (one woman and 
eleven men) who are frequent users of spreadsheets 
– none of the participants had participated earlier in similar studies 
– first author visited each participant at their place of work 
•Also investigated on effect of tool on the mental models of 
spreadsheet authors 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 9
Evaluation of Tool - Learnability 
•Methodology 
– short demo followed by two tasks 
•Results 
– highlighting task (mark a narrated area on spreadsheet): mean 85% 
correct (min 60%, max 100%) 
– translation task (convert narration into spreadsheet terms): mean 83% 
correct (min 60%, max 100%) 
•Discussion 
– good enough to proceed to the other evaluation tasks 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 10
Evaluation of Tool - Efficiency 
•Methodology 
– within-subjects design experiment where the task was to locate errors 
in a spreadsheet without the tool and with the tool 
– two roughly equivalent spreadsheets sourced from EUSES 
spreadsheet corpus (Fisher & Rothermel, 2005) seeded with similar 
errors adapted from Raffensperger(2005) and Duggirala(2012) 
– some error types for seeded errors 
• Formula accidentally overwritten with constants (Error Type C) 
• Formula missing some range (Error Type D) 
• A wrong problem domain formula (Error Type G) 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 11
Evaluation of Tool - Efficiency (cont’d) 
•Results 
•Discussion 
– tool generally helps authors to catch more errors in spreadsheets (p = 
0.021) although different aspects of the tool may be more helpful for 
some error types than others 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 12
Evaluation of Tool - Satisfaction 
•Methodology 
– participants were requested to write down their opinion of the two 
scenarios in terms of how they find it easier to locate errors as well as 
well as any suggested improvements to the tool 
•Results 
– eleven out of the twelve participants found the tool helpful in locating 
errors 
– one participant said that he found the tool confusing as he is used to 
the “normal Excel” 
•Discussion 
– generally, participants found the tool useful 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 13
Evaluation of Tool - Effect on Mental Models of 
Users 
•Methodology 
– nine of the twelve participants wrote down explanations for 
each of the located errors in the assigned tasks 
– explanations were analyzed and classified using an inter-rater 
reliability verified adaptation of Good’s program summary 
analysis technique in which each object/noun is classified as 
spreadsheet specific or domain specific or real-world specific 
(Kankuzi & Sajaniemi, 2013) 
•e.g. “column D” is classified as spreadsheet specific; ``total 
liabilities’’ is classified as domain specific; and “money” is 
classified as real-world specific 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 14
Evaluation of Tool – Effect on Mental Models 
of Users (cont’d) 
•Results 
p = 0.0001 
p = 0.0114 
N.S. 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 15
Evaluation of Tool - Effect on Mental Models of 
Users (cont’d) 
•Discussion 
– participants used mostly spreadsheet terms when describing an error 
in the without tool case while with the tool, the spreadsheet model is 
less prominent whereas the share of the domain model increases 
– tool, therefore, improves the mapping between the spreadsheet and 
domain models which makes understanding and debugging 
spreadsheets more efficient (located more errors with the tool) 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 16
Conclusion 
•Reported on a domain terms visualization tool developed to aid in 
spreadsheet comprehension and debugging 
– tool was found to be learnable 
– tool helped the participants to locate more errors in spreadsheets 
– participants also found the tool useful in an error locating task 
– tool makes the spreadsheet model to decrease while at the same time 
increasing the domain model 
– hence we put forward that the tool improves the mapping between 
the spreadsheet and domain models which improves performance in 
understanding and debugging a spreadsheet 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 17
Thank you for your attention! 
www.uef.fi
References 
1. B. Kankuzi and J. Sajaniemi, “An Empirical Study of Spreadsheet Authors’ 
Mental Models in Explaining and Debugging Tasks,” in 2013 IEEE Symposium on 
Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC). IEEE, 2013, pp. 15–18. 
2. J. Nielsen, Usability Engineering. Boston: AP Professional, 1994 
3. M. Wertheimer, A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan 
Paul, 1938. 
4. M. Fisher and G. Rothermel, “The EUSES spreadsheet corpus: a shared resource 
for supporting experimentation with spreadsheet dependability mechanisms,” in 
Proceedings of the First Workshop on End-User Software Engineering, ser. WEUSE I. 
New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2005, pp. 1–5. 
5. J. Sajaniemi, “Modeling spreadsheet audit: A rigorous approach to automatic 
visualization,” Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 49– 
82, 2000. 
6. J. S. Davis, “Tools for spreadsheet auditing,” International Journal of Human- 
Computer Studies, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 429–442, 1996. 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 19
References (cont’d) 
5. R. Desimone and J. Duncan, “Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention,” 
Annual Review of Neurosciences, vol. 18, pp. 193–222, 1995. 
6. P. Duggirala, Excel Auditing Functions [Spreadsheet Risk Management – Part 3 
of 4], 2012, accessed December 2012. [Online]. Available: 
http://chandoo.org/wp/2012/01/18/excel-auditing-functions/ 
7. G. Engels and M. Erwig, “ClassSheets: automatic generation of spreadsheet 
applications from object-oriented specifications,” in Proceedings of the 20th 
IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering. ACM, 
2005, pp. 124–133. 
8. J. F. Raffensperger, The Art of the Spreadsheet, 2008, accessed December 2012. 
[Online]. Available: http://john.raffensperger.org/john/ArtOfTheSpreadsheet/ 
9. J. K. Doyle and D. N. Ford, “Mental Models Concepts for System Dynamics 
Research,” System Dynamics Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3–29, 1998. 
Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 20

More Related Content

Viewers also liked

Managing change risk in Excel spreadsheets
Managing change risk in Excel spreadsheetsManaging change risk in Excel spreadsheets
Managing change risk in Excel spreadsheetsExcelForManagers.com
 
Improving Spreadsheet Test Practices
Improving Spreadsheet Test PracticesImproving Spreadsheet Test Practices
Improving Spreadsheet Test PracticesFelienne Hermans
 
Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)
Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)
Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)MFMinickiello
 
Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013
Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013
Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013Quang Trung
 
Mídias sociais e blogs corporativos
Mídias sociais e blogs corporativosMídias sociais e blogs corporativos
Mídias sociais e blogs corporativoscafecomblogueiros
 
Class newsletter pp
Class newsletter ppClass newsletter pp
Class newsletter ppkathomas4
 
LinkedIn Pages for Industrial Companies
LinkedIn Pages for Industrial CompaniesLinkedIn Pages for Industrial Companies
LinkedIn Pages for Industrial CompaniesBLOCKbETA Marketing
 
Marketing process needs market research
Marketing process needs market researchMarketing process needs market research
Marketing process needs market researchkrishymohan
 
Desing of Factorial Experiments
Desing of Factorial ExperimentsDesing of Factorial Experiments
Desing of Factorial ExperimentsRamon Saviñon
 

Viewers also liked (15)

Managing change risk in Excel spreadsheets
Managing change risk in Excel spreadsheetsManaging change risk in Excel spreadsheets
Managing change risk in Excel spreadsheets
 
Infinite Spreadsheet
Infinite SpreadsheetInfinite Spreadsheet
Infinite Spreadsheet
 
Improving Spreadsheet Test Practices
Improving Spreadsheet Test PracticesImproving Spreadsheet Test Practices
Improving Spreadsheet Test Practices
 
Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)
Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)
Excel 2010 training presentation create your first spreadsheet (revised)
 
The devil's guide to spreadsheet creation
The devil's guide to spreadsheet creationThe devil's guide to spreadsheet creation
The devil's guide to spreadsheet creation
 
Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013
Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013
Bộ sưu tập áo khoác thu đông 2013
 
Ad
AdAd
Ad
 
Actividad jueves 25
Actividad jueves 25Actividad jueves 25
Actividad jueves 25
 
Mídias sociais e blogs corporativos
Mídias sociais e blogs corporativosMídias sociais e blogs corporativos
Mídias sociais e blogs corporativos
 
General studies
General studies General studies
General studies
 
Analisis numerico
Analisis numericoAnalisis numerico
Analisis numerico
 
Class newsletter pp
Class newsletter ppClass newsletter pp
Class newsletter pp
 
LinkedIn Pages for Industrial Companies
LinkedIn Pages for Industrial CompaniesLinkedIn Pages for Industrial Companies
LinkedIn Pages for Industrial Companies
 
Marketing process needs market research
Marketing process needs market researchMarketing process needs market research
Marketing process needs market research
 
Desing of Factorial Experiments
Desing of Factorial ExperimentsDesing of Factorial Experiments
Desing of Factorial Experiments
 

Similar to Visualizing the Problem Domain for Spreadsheet Users: A Mental Model Perspective

Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...
Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...
Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...Joshua Penman
 
Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...
Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...
Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...musart
 
Requirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage Model
Requirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage ModelRequirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage Model
Requirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage ModelBirgit Penzenstadler
 
Collaborative Lesson Plan Farooqi
Collaborative Lesson Plan  FarooqiCollaborative Lesson Plan  Farooqi
Collaborative Lesson Plan FarooqiAysha Farooqi
 
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or ProductEvaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or ProductKhalid Md Saifuddin
 
Identifying and changing key curriculum design practices
Identifying and changing key curriculum design practicesIdentifying and changing key curriculum design practices
Identifying and changing key curriculum design practicesJisc
 
3rd Workshop on Social Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...
3rd Workshop onSocial  Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...3rd Workshop onSocial  Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...
3rd Workshop on Social Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...Hendrik Drachsler
 
Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)
Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)
Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)evabl444
 
Opinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An Overview
Opinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An OverviewOpinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An Overview
Opinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An OverviewCSCJournals
 
sample-annotated-research-proposal.pdf
sample-annotated-research-proposal.pdfsample-annotated-research-proposal.pdf
sample-annotated-research-proposal.pdfmebrahten1
 
Human Computer Interaction - Heuristic Evaluation
Human Computer Interaction - Heuristic EvaluationHuman Computer Interaction - Heuristic Evaluation
Human Computer Interaction - Heuristic Evaluationemmadmd
 
Measuring the user experience
Measuring the user experienceMeasuring the user experience
Measuring the user experienceAndres Baravalle
 
ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)
ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)
ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)Shweta Gupte
 
Impact the UX of Your Website with Contextual Inquiry
Impact the UX of Your Website with Contextual InquiryImpact the UX of Your Website with Contextual Inquiry
Impact the UX of Your Website with Contextual InquiryRachel Vacek
 
User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...
User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...
User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...Arthi Krishnaswami
 
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal Weighting 30 tow.docx
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal    Weighting 30 tow.docxASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal    Weighting 30 tow.docx
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal Weighting 30 tow.docxsherni1
 
Changing a workshop from physical to online delivery
Changing a workshop from physical to online deliveryChanging a workshop from physical to online delivery
Changing a workshop from physical to online deliverynortherncollaboration
 

Similar to Visualizing the Problem Domain for Spreadsheet Users: A Mental Model Perspective (20)

Information Skills
Information SkillsInformation Skills
Information Skills
 
Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...
Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...
Evaluation2016_Session2667_Mapping_Programs_Roundtable_10272016_draft3_AEAtem...
 
Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...
Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...
Analysing and supporting the process of co-designing inquiry-based and techno...
 
Requirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage Model
Requirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage ModelRequirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage Model
Requirements Engineering for Sustainability - 3 - System Vision and Usage Model
 
Collaborative Lesson Plan Farooqi
Collaborative Lesson Plan  FarooqiCollaborative Lesson Plan  Farooqi
Collaborative Lesson Plan Farooqi
 
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or ProductEvaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
Evaluation of Interactive Systems Design or Prototype or Product
 
Identifying and changing key curriculum design practices
Identifying and changing key curriculum design practicesIdentifying and changing key curriculum design practices
Identifying and changing key curriculum design practices
 
3rd Workshop on Social Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...
3rd Workshop onSocial  Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...3rd Workshop onSocial  Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...
3rd Workshop on Social Information Retrieval for Technology-Enhanced Learnin...
 
Sirtel Workshop
Sirtel WorkshopSirtel Workshop
Sirtel Workshop
 
Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)
Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)
Experimenting with eXtreme Design (EKAW2010)
 
Opinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An Overview
Opinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An OverviewOpinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An Overview
Opinion Mining Techniques for Non-English Languages: An Overview
 
sample-annotated-research-proposal.pdf
sample-annotated-research-proposal.pdfsample-annotated-research-proposal.pdf
sample-annotated-research-proposal.pdf
 
writing scientific abstracts
writing scientific abstractswriting scientific abstracts
writing scientific abstracts
 
Human Computer Interaction - Heuristic Evaluation
Human Computer Interaction - Heuristic EvaluationHuman Computer Interaction - Heuristic Evaluation
Human Computer Interaction - Heuristic Evaluation
 
Measuring the user experience
Measuring the user experienceMeasuring the user experience
Measuring the user experience
 
ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)
ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)
ECE695DVisualAnalyticsprojectproposal (2)
 
Impact the UX of Your Website with Contextual Inquiry
Impact the UX of Your Website with Contextual InquiryImpact the UX of Your Website with Contextual Inquiry
Impact the UX of Your Website with Contextual Inquiry
 
User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...
User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...
User Centered Design Process to Develop a Multi-modal Family Needs Assessment...
 
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal Weighting 30 tow.docx
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal    Weighting 30 tow.docxASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal    Weighting 30 tow.docx
ASSIGNMENT 2 - Research Proposal Weighting 30 tow.docx
 
Changing a workshop from physical to online delivery
Changing a workshop from physical to online deliveryChanging a workshop from physical to online delivery
Changing a workshop from physical to online delivery
 

Recently uploaded

Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...
Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...
Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...drm1699
 
Weeding your micro service landscape.pdf
Weeding your micro service landscape.pdfWeeding your micro service landscape.pdf
Weeding your micro service landscape.pdftimtebeek1
 
Evolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI Era
Evolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI EraEvolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI Era
Evolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI Eraconfluent
 
The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)
The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)
The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)Roberto Bettazzoni
 
[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)
[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)
[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)Dimitrios Platis
 
OpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCA
OpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCAOpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCA
OpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCAShane Coughlan
 
Auto Affiliate AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdf
Auto Affiliate  AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdfAuto Affiliate  AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdf
Auto Affiliate AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdfSelfMade bd
 
Lessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdf
Lessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdfLessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdf
Lessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdfSrushith Repakula
 
From Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST API
From Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST APIFrom Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST API
From Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST APIInflectra
 
Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?
Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?
Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?Maxim Salnikov
 
GraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with Graph
GraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with GraphGraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with Graph
GraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with GraphNeo4j
 
Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...
Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...
Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...Flutter Agency
 
Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024
Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024
Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024Chirag Panchal
 
Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024
Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024
Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024SimonedeGijt
 
UNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale Ibrida
UNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale IbridaUNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale Ibrida
UNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale IbridaNeo4j
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...
Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...
Abortion Pills For Sale WhatsApp[[+27737758557]] In Birch Acres, Abortion Pil...
 
Weeding your micro service landscape.pdf
Weeding your micro service landscape.pdfWeeding your micro service landscape.pdf
Weeding your micro service landscape.pdf
 
Evolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI Era
Evolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI EraEvolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI Era
Evolving Data Governance for the Real-time Streaming and AI Era
 
Abortion Clinic In Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Pretor...
Abortion Clinic In Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Pretor...Abortion Clinic In Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Pretor...
Abortion Clinic In Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Pretor...
 
The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)
The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)
The mythical technical debt. (Brooke, please, forgive me)
 
[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)
[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)
[GRCPP] Introduction to concepts (C++20)
 
OpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCA
OpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCAOpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCA
OpenChain Webinar: AboutCode and Beyond - End-to-End SCA
 
Auto Affiliate AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdf
Auto Affiliate  AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdfAuto Affiliate  AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdf
Auto Affiliate AI Earns First Commission in 3 Hours..pdf
 
Lessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdf
Lessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdfLessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdf
Lessons Learned from Building a Serverless Notifications System.pdf
 
From Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST API
From Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST APIFrom Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST API
From Theory to Practice: Utilizing SpiraPlan's REST API
 
Abortion Pill Prices Germiston ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Women's Abortion Clinic in...
Abortion Pill Prices Germiston ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Women's Abortion Clinic in...Abortion Pill Prices Germiston ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Women's Abortion Clinic in...
Abortion Pill Prices Germiston ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Women's Abortion Clinic in...
 
Abortion Clinic In Pongola ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills In Pongola...
Abortion Clinic In Pongola ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills In Pongola...Abortion Clinic In Pongola ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills In Pongola...
Abortion Clinic In Pongola ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills In Pongola...
 
Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?
Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?
Prompt Engineering - an Art, a Science, or your next Job Title?
 
GraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with Graph
GraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with GraphGraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with Graph
GraphSummit Milan - Neo4j: The Art of the Possible with Graph
 
Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...
Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...
Navigation in flutter – how to add stack, tab, and drawer navigators to your ...
 
Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024
Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024
Food Delivery Business App Development Guide 2024
 
Abortion Clinic Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ Abortion Clinic Near Me ● Abortion...
Abortion Clinic Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ Abortion Clinic Near Me ● Abortion...Abortion Clinic Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ Abortion Clinic Near Me ● Abortion...
Abortion Clinic Pretoria ](+27832195400*)[ Abortion Clinic Near Me ● Abortion...
 
Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024
Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024
Wired_2.0_CREATE YOUR ULTIMATE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT_JCON_16052024
 
UNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale Ibrida
UNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale IbridaUNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale Ibrida
UNI DI NAPOLI FEDERICO II - Il ruolo dei grafi nell'AI Conversazionale Ibrida
 
Abortion Clinic In Johannesburg ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Jo...
Abortion Clinic In Johannesburg ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Jo...Abortion Clinic In Johannesburg ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Jo...
Abortion Clinic In Johannesburg ](+27832195400*)[ 🏥 Safe Abortion Pills in Jo...
 

Visualizing the Problem Domain for Spreadsheet Users: A Mental Model Perspective

  • 1. Visualizing the Problem Domain for Spreadsheet Users: A Mental Model Perspective Bennett Kankuzi, Jorma Sajaniemi School of Computing, Joensuu Campus University of Eastern Finland, Finland
  • 2. Outline •Introduction •Description of Proposed Tool •Evaluation of the Tool (Methodology, Results and Discussion) •Conclusion Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 2
  • 3. Introduction •A mental model can be defined as “a mental image of the world around us that we carry in our heads depicting only selected concepts and relationships that represent real systems” (Doyle & Ford, 1998) – a mental model for a spreadsheet, therefore, does not carry all possible information, but just those aspects that the user finds appropriate for the current task Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 3
  • 4. Introduction (cont’d) •Important to understand spreadsheet authors’ mental models when doing different spreadsheet process activities – to understand why the spreadsheet process is so error-prone – to develop the right tools and techniques for spreadsheet activities Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 4
  • 5. Introduction (cont’d) •Spreadsheet authors have at least three mental models: real-world, domain and spreadsheet models (Kankuzi & Sajaniemi, 2013) – the real-world model that comprises general knowledge of the world around us e.g. “motor vehicle” – the domain model that represents knowledge of the problem domain and the functionality of the spreadsheet in problem domain or application terms e.g. “fixed assets” – the spreadsheet model that codes the expressions and data relationships in the spreadsheet e.g. “cell B1” Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 5
  • 6. Introduction (cont’d) •Research Question: – Is it possible to develop an easy to use spreadsheet understanding and debugging tool that relieves users from spreadsheet details and lets them utilize more of their mental model of the application domain and hence improving the mapping between the domain/real-world mental models and the spreadsheet mental model? Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 6
  • 7. The Tool •Translates traditional spreadsheet formulas into problem domain narratives and highlights referenced cells – domain terms formed from labels (headers) through spatial layout information of each cell referenced to in the formula •Implemented as an MS Excel add-on Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 7
  • 8. Related Tools and Techniques •In spreadsheets, symbolic names and formula translation have been used with the hope to clarify the mapping between various levels of abstraction – use of named ranges such as in MS Excel and Google Spreadsheets – some spreadsheet visualization tools also do formula translations e.g. Spreadsheet Professional – model-driven spreadsheet development approaches such as ClassSheet models (Engels & Erwig, 2005) also translate formulas to more humanized higher level object oriented style formulas •All these tools and techniques anecdotally assume that symbolic names and formula translation are useful to spreadsheet authors, but their usability has not been empirically evaluated nor psychologically justified Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 8
  • 9. Evaluation of Tool - Overview •Adapted Nielsen’s usability attributes of learnability, efficiency and satisfaction (Nielsen, 1994) in the evaluation tasks – evaluation involved 12 volunteering accountants (one woman and eleven men) who are frequent users of spreadsheets – none of the participants had participated earlier in similar studies – first author visited each participant at their place of work •Also investigated on effect of tool on the mental models of spreadsheet authors Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 9
  • 10. Evaluation of Tool - Learnability •Methodology – short demo followed by two tasks •Results – highlighting task (mark a narrated area on spreadsheet): mean 85% correct (min 60%, max 100%) – translation task (convert narration into spreadsheet terms): mean 83% correct (min 60%, max 100%) •Discussion – good enough to proceed to the other evaluation tasks Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 10
  • 11. Evaluation of Tool - Efficiency •Methodology – within-subjects design experiment where the task was to locate errors in a spreadsheet without the tool and with the tool – two roughly equivalent spreadsheets sourced from EUSES spreadsheet corpus (Fisher & Rothermel, 2005) seeded with similar errors adapted from Raffensperger(2005) and Duggirala(2012) – some error types for seeded errors • Formula accidentally overwritten with constants (Error Type C) • Formula missing some range (Error Type D) • A wrong problem domain formula (Error Type G) Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 11
  • 12. Evaluation of Tool - Efficiency (cont’d) •Results •Discussion – tool generally helps authors to catch more errors in spreadsheets (p = 0.021) although different aspects of the tool may be more helpful for some error types than others Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 12
  • 13. Evaluation of Tool - Satisfaction •Methodology – participants were requested to write down their opinion of the two scenarios in terms of how they find it easier to locate errors as well as well as any suggested improvements to the tool •Results – eleven out of the twelve participants found the tool helpful in locating errors – one participant said that he found the tool confusing as he is used to the “normal Excel” •Discussion – generally, participants found the tool useful Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 13
  • 14. Evaluation of Tool - Effect on Mental Models of Users •Methodology – nine of the twelve participants wrote down explanations for each of the located errors in the assigned tasks – explanations were analyzed and classified using an inter-rater reliability verified adaptation of Good’s program summary analysis technique in which each object/noun is classified as spreadsheet specific or domain specific or real-world specific (Kankuzi & Sajaniemi, 2013) •e.g. “column D” is classified as spreadsheet specific; ``total liabilities’’ is classified as domain specific; and “money” is classified as real-world specific Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 14
  • 15. Evaluation of Tool – Effect on Mental Models of Users (cont’d) •Results p = 0.0001 p = 0.0114 N.S. Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 15
  • 16. Evaluation of Tool - Effect on Mental Models of Users (cont’d) •Discussion – participants used mostly spreadsheet terms when describing an error in the without tool case while with the tool, the spreadsheet model is less prominent whereas the share of the domain model increases – tool, therefore, improves the mapping between the spreadsheet and domain models which makes understanding and debugging spreadsheets more efficient (located more errors with the tool) Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 16
  • 17. Conclusion •Reported on a domain terms visualization tool developed to aid in spreadsheet comprehension and debugging – tool was found to be learnable – tool helped the participants to locate more errors in spreadsheets – participants also found the tool useful in an error locating task – tool makes the spreadsheet model to decrease while at the same time increasing the domain model – hence we put forward that the tool improves the mapping between the spreadsheet and domain models which improves performance in understanding and debugging a spreadsheet Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 17
  • 18. Thank you for your attention! www.uef.fi
  • 19. References 1. B. Kankuzi and J. Sajaniemi, “An Empirical Study of Spreadsheet Authors’ Mental Models in Explaining and Debugging Tasks,” in 2013 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC). IEEE, 2013, pp. 15–18. 2. J. Nielsen, Usability Engineering. Boston: AP Professional, 1994 3. M. Wertheimer, A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1938. 4. M. Fisher and G. Rothermel, “The EUSES spreadsheet corpus: a shared resource for supporting experimentation with spreadsheet dependability mechanisms,” in Proceedings of the First Workshop on End-User Software Engineering, ser. WEUSE I. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2005, pp. 1–5. 5. J. Sajaniemi, “Modeling spreadsheet audit: A rigorous approach to automatic visualization,” Journal of Visual Languages & Computing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 49– 82, 2000. 6. J. S. Davis, “Tools for spreadsheet auditing,” International Journal of Human- Computer Studies, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 429–442, 1996. Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 19
  • 20. References (cont’d) 5. R. Desimone and J. Duncan, “Neural Mechanisms of Selective Visual Attention,” Annual Review of Neurosciences, vol. 18, pp. 193–222, 1995. 6. P. Duggirala, Excel Auditing Functions [Spreadsheet Risk Management – Part 3 of 4], 2012, accessed December 2012. [Online]. Available: http://chandoo.org/wp/2012/01/18/excel-auditing-functions/ 7. G. Engels and M. Erwig, “ClassSheets: automatic generation of spreadsheet applications from object-oriented specifications,” in Proceedings of the 20th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering. ACM, 2005, pp. 124–133. 8. J. F. Raffensperger, The Art of the Spreadsheet, 2008, accessed December 2012. [Online]. Available: http://john.raffensperger.org/john/ArtOfTheSpreadsheet/ 9. J. K. Doyle and D. N. Ford, “Mental Models Concepts for System Dynamics Research,” System Dynamics Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 3–29, 1998. Kankuzi, Sajaniemi VL/HCC 2014 1.8.2014 20