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Introduction to M&E
USAID PROGATI
June 22, 2008
& July 09, 2008
What is monitoring?
Day-to-day follow up of activities during
implementation to measure progress
and identify deviations of projects
Routine follow up to ensure activities
are proceeding as planned and are on
schedule
Routine assessment of activities and
results
Answers the question, “what are we
doing?”
Why monitoring?
Tracks inputs and outputs and
compares them to plan
Identifies and addresses problems
Ensures effective use of resources
Ensures quality and learning to improve
activities and services
Strengthens accountability
To influence future decisions on
projects
Program management tool
To provide data for program evaluation
Types of monitoring:
Progress/Traditional/conventional
monitoring
Participatory/&Process monitoring
Qualitative monitoring
Quantitative monitoring
Routine monitoring
Periodic monitoring
Progress monitoring vs Process monitoring:
Progress Monitoring
Primarily concerned with physical
inputs and outputs
measures result against targets
relatively inflexible
Focus on project activities/outcomes
monitoring or pre-selected
indicators/activities
measures both quali & quanti but main
focus on quanti
one way process where information
flows in one direction from field to
management
Process Monitoring
Concerned with key process for project
success
Measures results against project
objective
Flexible and adaptive
Looks at broader socio-economic
context in which the project operates,
and which aftects project outcome
Selection of activities and process to
be monitored is iterative i.e. evolves
during process of investigation
measures both quali & quanti but main
focus on quali
A two way process where information
flows back and borth between field
staff and management
Progress monitoring vs Process monitoring:
Progress monitoring
paper oriented
Tends to focus in effects of
problems
No post-action review
Takes communication
between stakeholders for
granted
Process Monitoring
People oriented and
interactive
Identifies reasons for
problems
Post –action review and
follow up
Includes effectiveness of
communications between
stakeholders at different
levels as a key indicator
Common terminology for project hierarchy:
Inputs
Outputs
Outcomes
M&E Terminology for project hierarchy
 Impact : Sustainable improvement in human
condition and well being
 Effects : Changes in individual behavior or
systematic capacity
_______________________________
 Outputs: products of project activities
 Activities : Interventions/process implemented by
project
 Inputs: Resources needed by project (e.g. funds,
staff, commodities)
The quality of each level is measured by the
next higher level
If sufficient INPUTS are received, then we will be able to do
ACTIVITIES (interventions) which should lead to
OUTPUTS, which , if our hypotheses is correct, the effectiveness
can be measured by
Effects, which, if our assumptions hold true, should be shown to
lead to
IMPACT !
What is evaluation ?
 Episodic assessment of overall achievement and
impacts
 Systematic way of learning from experience to
IMPROVE current activities and promote better
planning for future action
 Designed specifically with intention to attribute
changes to intervention itself
 Answers the question, “what have we achieved
and what impact have we made”
Why evaluate activities?
 Determines program effectiveness
 Shows impact
 Strengthens financial responses and
accountability
 Promotes a learning culture focused on
service improvement
 Promotes replication of successful
interventions
Types of evaluation
Type Purpose
Formative Initial assessment of the target populations and contextual
environment. Determines concept and design
Process Seeks to identify the extent to which planned activities have been
achieved and assesses the quality of the activities/services
Outcome Examines specific program outcomes and accomplishments. What
changes were observed, what does it mean, and if changes are a
result of the interventions?
Impact Gauges the program’s overall impact and effectiveness. Aims to
strengthen design and replication of effective programs and
strategies
Monitoring vs evaluation
Monitoring Evaluation
Continuous: day-to-day Periodic: important milestones
Documents progress In-depth analysis of
achievements
Focuses on inputs and outputs Focuses on outcomes and
impacts
Alerts managers to problems Provides managers with
strategy and policy options
Self-assessment External analysis
M&E Framework
Level Description Frequency
Inputs Resources that are put into the project.
Lead to the achievement of the outputs
Continuous
Outputs Activities or services that the project is
providing. Outputs lead to outcomes
Quarterly
Outcomes Changes in behaviors or skills as a result
of the implemented project. Outcomes are
anticipated to lead to impacts
2-3 years
(short to
medium term)
Impacts Measurable changes in health status,
particularly reduced STI/HIV transmission
and reduced AIDS impact. Impact results
are effects of the intervention
3-5 years
(long term)
Conclusions: Why M&E?
 M&E should be part of the design of a program
 Ensures systematic reporting
 Communicates results and accountability
 Measures efficiency and effectiveness
 Provides information for improved decision
making
 Ensures effective allocation of resources
 Promotes continuous learning and improvement
Thank you

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Introduction to M&E- WG1&2.ppt

  • 1. Introduction to M&E USAID PROGATI June 22, 2008 & July 09, 2008
  • 2. What is monitoring? Day-to-day follow up of activities during implementation to measure progress and identify deviations of projects Routine follow up to ensure activities are proceeding as planned and are on schedule Routine assessment of activities and results Answers the question, “what are we doing?”
  • 3. Why monitoring? Tracks inputs and outputs and compares them to plan Identifies and addresses problems Ensures effective use of resources Ensures quality and learning to improve activities and services Strengthens accountability To influence future decisions on projects Program management tool To provide data for program evaluation
  • 4. Types of monitoring: Progress/Traditional/conventional monitoring Participatory/&Process monitoring Qualitative monitoring Quantitative monitoring Routine monitoring Periodic monitoring
  • 5. Progress monitoring vs Process monitoring: Progress Monitoring Primarily concerned with physical inputs and outputs measures result against targets relatively inflexible Focus on project activities/outcomes monitoring or pre-selected indicators/activities measures both quali & quanti but main focus on quanti one way process where information flows in one direction from field to management Process Monitoring Concerned with key process for project success Measures results against project objective Flexible and adaptive Looks at broader socio-economic context in which the project operates, and which aftects project outcome Selection of activities and process to be monitored is iterative i.e. evolves during process of investigation measures both quali & quanti but main focus on quali A two way process where information flows back and borth between field staff and management
  • 6. Progress monitoring vs Process monitoring: Progress monitoring paper oriented Tends to focus in effects of problems No post-action review Takes communication between stakeholders for granted Process Monitoring People oriented and interactive Identifies reasons for problems Post –action review and follow up Includes effectiveness of communications between stakeholders at different levels as a key indicator
  • 7. Common terminology for project hierarchy: Inputs Outputs Outcomes
  • 8. M&E Terminology for project hierarchy  Impact : Sustainable improvement in human condition and well being  Effects : Changes in individual behavior or systematic capacity _______________________________  Outputs: products of project activities  Activities : Interventions/process implemented by project  Inputs: Resources needed by project (e.g. funds, staff, commodities)
  • 9. The quality of each level is measured by the next higher level If sufficient INPUTS are received, then we will be able to do ACTIVITIES (interventions) which should lead to OUTPUTS, which , if our hypotheses is correct, the effectiveness can be measured by Effects, which, if our assumptions hold true, should be shown to lead to IMPACT !
  • 10. What is evaluation ?  Episodic assessment of overall achievement and impacts  Systematic way of learning from experience to IMPROVE current activities and promote better planning for future action  Designed specifically with intention to attribute changes to intervention itself  Answers the question, “what have we achieved and what impact have we made”
  • 11. Why evaluate activities?  Determines program effectiveness  Shows impact  Strengthens financial responses and accountability  Promotes a learning culture focused on service improvement  Promotes replication of successful interventions
  • 12. Types of evaluation Type Purpose Formative Initial assessment of the target populations and contextual environment. Determines concept and design Process Seeks to identify the extent to which planned activities have been achieved and assesses the quality of the activities/services Outcome Examines specific program outcomes and accomplishments. What changes were observed, what does it mean, and if changes are a result of the interventions? Impact Gauges the program’s overall impact and effectiveness. Aims to strengthen design and replication of effective programs and strategies
  • 13. Monitoring vs evaluation Monitoring Evaluation Continuous: day-to-day Periodic: important milestones Documents progress In-depth analysis of achievements Focuses on inputs and outputs Focuses on outcomes and impacts Alerts managers to problems Provides managers with strategy and policy options Self-assessment External analysis
  • 14. M&E Framework Level Description Frequency Inputs Resources that are put into the project. Lead to the achievement of the outputs Continuous Outputs Activities or services that the project is providing. Outputs lead to outcomes Quarterly Outcomes Changes in behaviors or skills as a result of the implemented project. Outcomes are anticipated to lead to impacts 2-3 years (short to medium term) Impacts Measurable changes in health status, particularly reduced STI/HIV transmission and reduced AIDS impact. Impact results are effects of the intervention 3-5 years (long term)
  • 15. Conclusions: Why M&E?  M&E should be part of the design of a program  Ensures systematic reporting  Communicates results and accountability  Measures efficiency and effectiveness  Provides information for improved decision making  Ensures effective allocation of resources  Promotes continuous learning and improvement