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Sub Code: 21MBA214
Sub Name: Business Research
Methods
Faculty: Dr. Noor Firdoos Jahan
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 1
MODULE 1: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH, TYPES OF RESEARCH, DESIGN AND
DEFINING RESEARCH PROBLEM 05HRS
• What is Research
• Objectives & motivations for research
• Types of Research- Introduction to Qualitative Research, Quantitative
Research
• Defining Business Problem- Problem Formulation, Techniques involved in
defining a problem
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 2
Definition of Business Research
According to McDaniel and Gates___” Business
research is the planning, collection, and analysis of
data relevant to business decision-making and the
communication of the results of this analysis to
management”.
According to Zikmund___” It is a management
tool that companies use to reduce uncertainty. It is a
manager’s source of information about organizational
and environmental conditions, and covers topics
ranging from long-range planning to the most
ephemeral tactical decisions”.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 3
Business Research Defined
Business research is defined as the
systematic and objective process of
gathering, recording and analyzing data
for aid in making business decisions.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 4
Nature of business research
• Clearly defined objectives
• Choose the right methodology
• Promoting business
• Covers region in which business
operates
• Judging problems
• Flexibility
• Help determine how to produce
the product
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 5
Importance of BR/
Managerial Value of Business Research
• Product-Oriented firms: Prioritizes decision
making that emphasizes the physical
product design trendiness or technical
superiority. Research focuses on
technicians and experts in the field.
• Production-Oriented firms: Prioritizes
efficiency and effectiveness of the
production processes in making decisions.
Research focuses on line employees,
engineers and other efficiency experts.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 6
• Marketing-Oriented firms: Focuses on how
the firm provides value to customers.
Research focuses on customers
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 7
• Decision making process:
1)Indentifying problems or
opportunities:
2)Diagnosing and Assessing
problems or opportunities.
3)Selecting and implementing a
course of action
4) Evaluating the course of action.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 8
NEED OF BUSINESS RESEARCH
• Time constraints: If the decision does not need to be taken
immediately then research is needed otherwise not.
• Availability of data: If the required data to conduct the research
is available then research should be conducted otherwise it is
not possible to undertake a research.
• The nature of decision to be made: Deciding about the need of
research also depends upon the nature of the decision to be
made. If the decision is not a routine decision and needs high
investment then research should be undertaken otherwise not.
• Benefits versus Costs: Deciding about the research also depends
upon the benefits and costs associated with the underlying
project. In order to conduct a research for a project, the project’s
benefit must be higher than its cost.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 9
MAJOR TOPICS FOR RESEARCH IN
BUSINESS
• General Business Conditions and
Corporate Research
• Financial and Accounting Research
• Management and Organizational
Behavior Research
• Sales and Marketing Research
• Information Systems Research
• Corporate Responsibility Research
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 10
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 11
Types of Business
Research
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 12
Basic research is “experimental and theoretical work undertaken
to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term
benefits other than the advancement of knowledge.”
 It Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge.
 It is not directly involved in the solution to a pragmatic or real
life problem.
 Basic research is conducted to test theory or to discover more
about a concept.
 It focuses on generating fundamental knowledge
BASIC RESEARCH
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 13
Basic Research Example
 Is executive success correlated with high need for
achievement?
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 14
Applied Research
Applied research is research undertaken to solve
practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for
knowledge sake.
 It is conducted when a decision must be made about a
specific real-life problem.
 Focuses on real-world questions and applications
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 15
Applied Research Examples
 Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners to its menu?
 Business research told McDonald’s it should not?
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 16
THEORY
Goals of theory:
1)Understanding:
2) Predicting
The meaning of Theory:
A coherent set of general propositions used
to explain the apparent relationships
among certain observed phenomena.
Theories allow generalizations beyond
individuals facts or situations.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 17
CONCEPT
• A concept (or construct) is a generalized
idea about a class of objects, attributes,
occurrences, or processes that has been
given a name.
• Concepts are the building block of a theory
• Concepts abstract reality. That is, concepts
are expressed in words, letters, signs, and
symbols that refer to various events or
objects. For example assets, liabilities,
customer equity, raw material etc.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 18
CONCEPT
• Ladder of
abstraction
Assets
Plant Machinery
Punch Press
Reality
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 19
CONCEPT
• Concepts are abstractions of reality
Observations of objects and events
(reality)
Concepts
Abstract Level
Empirical level
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 20
Nature of PROPOSITIONS
• Concepts are the basic units of theory
development. However, theories require an
understanding of the relationship among concepts.
Thus, once reality is abstracted into concepts, the
scientist is interested in the relationship among
various concepts. Propositions are statements
concerned with the logical relationships among
concepts. A proposition explains the logical
linkage among certain concepts by asserting a
universal connection between concepts.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 21
The Scientific Method
• Definition: The Scientific Method is a set of prescribed
procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical
statements about events for analyzing empirical evidence and
for predicting events yet unknown.
• Following are the steps involved in the application of the
scientific method
1.Assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a
phenomenon
2.Formulation of concepts and propositions
3.Statement of Hypothesis
4.Design of research to test the hypothesis
5.Acquisition of meaningful empirical data
6.Analysis and evaluation of data
7.Proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and
statement of
new problems raised by the research.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 22
Theory building is a process of
increasing abstraction
Increasingly
more
abstract Theories
Propositions
Concepts
Observation of objects and
events (reality)
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 23
An example of a theory
Labor market conditions,
number of
organizations,
personal
characteristics,and
other partial
dterminantas of ease
of movement
Perceived ease of
movement (e.g.
expectation of finding
alternatives,
unsolicited
opportunities)
Perceived
desirability of
movement
(e.g job
satisfaction)
Equity of pay, job
complexity,
participation in
decision making and
other partial
determinants of
desirability of
movement
Job
performance
s
Intention to
quit
Voluntar
y job
turnover
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM
24
Generation of Theory
• Deductive reasoning: The logical process of
deriving a conclusion about a specific instance
based on a known general premise or something
known to be true.
For example: we know that all professors are
human beings. If we also know that Mr.Ahmad is
a professor, then we can deduce that Ahmad is a
human being.
• Inductive reasoning: The logical process of
establishing a general proposition on the basis of
observation of particular facts.
For example: All professors that have ever been
seen are human beings; therefore all professors
are human beings.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 25
Verifying theory
• In order to make predictions on the basis
of theory, the theory must be tested and
verified first. Once the theory is verified,
we can utilize it to make predictions.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 26
• Decision making: The process of
resolving a problem or choosing among
alternative opportunities.
• Every decision-making situation can be
classified based on whether it best
represents a problem or an opportunity
and where the situation falls on
continuum from absolute ambiguity to
complete certainty.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 27
• Certainty: Complete certainty means that
the decision-maker has all information
needed to make an optimal decision.
• Uncertainty: Uncertainty means that the
manager grasps the general nature of
desired objectives but the information about
alternatives is incomplete.
• Ambiguity: Ambiguity means that the nature
of the problem itself is unclear. Objectives
are vague and decision alternatives are
difficult to define.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 28
TYPES OF BUSINESS
RESEARCH
• Exploratory research: It is conducted to clarify ambiguous situations
or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities.
Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not
know much about the problem and needs additional information or
desires new or more recent information.
It is the Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a
problem.
it Does not provide conclusive evidence.
Subsequent research expected.
• Descriptive Research: It describes characteristics of objects,
people,
groups, organizations or environments tries to“paint apicture” about
a given situation.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 29
TYPES OF BUSINESS
RESEARCH
Descriptive research is undertaken to provide
answers to questions of who, what, where,
when, and how.
Describes characteristics of a population or
phenomenon
Some understanding of the nature of the problem
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 30
TYPES OF BUSINESS
RESEARCH
• Causal Research: It allows causal inferences to be made,
seeks to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
• Causal inference: A conclusion that when one thing
happens,
another specific thing will follow.
A causal inference can only be supported when very
specific evidence exists. Three critical pieces of causal
evidence are:
1)Temporal Sequence: It deals with the time order of
events, i.e. the cause must occur before the effect.
2)Concomitant Variance: It occurs when two events “covary” or
correlate meaning they vary systematically.
3)Nonspurious Association: It means that A cause and an
effect is true and not simply due to some other variable. For
example if murder rates increase with increase in ice cream
rates, we cannot say that there is a causality between the
two variables. They may be under effect of a third variable
like weather. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 31
Degrees of Causality
• Absolute causality: Means the cause is
necessary and sufficient to bring about
the effect.
• Conditional causality: Means that a cause
is necessary but not sufficient to bring
about an effect.
• Contributory causality: Means the cause
need be neither necessary nor sufficient
to bring about an effect.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 32
STAGES IN THE RESEARCH
PROCESS
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 33
Define Research
Problem &
Research Objective
[II] Review concepts
and theories
[II] Review previous
research finding
[IV] Design research
(Including Sample
design)
[V] Collect data
(Execution)
[VI] Analyze Data
(Test Hypothesis)
[VII] Interpretation
and Implications
[III]
Formulate Hypothesis
FF
F
F
FF
F
[VIII] Actionable
Proposition
[IX] Report
preparation
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 34
(I) Defining the Research Problem
“ A problem well defined is half solved “
Two steps are involved defining the research problem
a. Understanding the problem thoroughly and
b. Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from
analytical point of view
Techniques for preliminary investigation
a. Situation Analysis
b. Informal investigations
Researcher can review two types of literature
a. The conceptual literature
b. The empirical literature
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 35
(II) Review of theories,
concepts and previous
research finding
•Background of the study
•Research questions
•Formulation of Hypothesis
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 36
(III) Development of Working Hypothesis
Working hypothesis is tentative
assumption
made in order to draw out and test its
logical
or empirical consequences
Approach
1.Discussion with colleagues and experts
2. Examination of data and records
3. Review of the same
4. Exploratory personal investigation
which
involves original field interviews
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 37
(IV) Research Designs (including
sample design)
Research Design is the basic framework
which provides guidelines for the rest
of the research work. It is a map or a
blueprint according to which the
research is to be conducted.
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 38
Research design categories
a. Exploratory research
designs
b. Descriptive research
designs
c. Causal research designs
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 39
Following points must be considered while selecting
any of the research designs available
1. The means of obtaining the information
2. The availability and skills of the
researcher and his staff
3. Time available
4. Cost factor
5. sampling plan
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 40
Sample design
A sample design is a definite plan determined before
any data is actually collected for obtaining a sample
from a given population
It provides answer to the following four questions;
1. What sampling unit should be studied ?
2. What should be the sample size?
3. What sample procedure should be used?
4. What contact method should be used
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 41
(IV) Data collection
A. Primary Data Collection Tools
1. By observation
2. Through personal interview
3. Through telephone interviews
4. Through Schedules
5. By mailing questionnaire
B. Secondary Data Collection Tools
1. Printed information
2. Already available information in
other forms
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 42
(V) Analysis of data
The researcher should classify the
raw data into some purposeful and
usable categories.
Three operations have to de done
before the raw data is brought in a
form to be analyzed further.
a. Coding
b. Editing
c. Tabulation
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 43
After successful completion of
above operations following three
steps are there to follow to
complete Data analysis
1. Hypothesis Testing
a. Chi Square
b. F- test
c. Z test
2. Generalization
3. Interpretation
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 44
(VII) Interpretation and
Implications
(VIII) Actionable
Implications
(IX) Report Preparation
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 45
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 46
Thank You
Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 47

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Introduction to Business Research Methods

  • 1. Sub Code: 21MBA214 Sub Name: Business Research Methods Faculty: Dr. Noor Firdoos Jahan Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 1
  • 2. MODULE 1: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH, TYPES OF RESEARCH, DESIGN AND DEFINING RESEARCH PROBLEM 05HRS • What is Research • Objectives & motivations for research • Types of Research- Introduction to Qualitative Research, Quantitative Research • Defining Business Problem- Problem Formulation, Techniques involved in defining a problem Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 2
  • 3. Definition of Business Research According to McDaniel and Gates___” Business research is the planning, collection, and analysis of data relevant to business decision-making and the communication of the results of this analysis to management”. According to Zikmund___” It is a management tool that companies use to reduce uncertainty. It is a manager’s source of information about organizational and environmental conditions, and covers topics ranging from long-range planning to the most ephemeral tactical decisions”. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 3
  • 4. Business Research Defined Business research is defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering, recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 4
  • 5. Nature of business research • Clearly defined objectives • Choose the right methodology • Promoting business • Covers region in which business operates • Judging problems • Flexibility • Help determine how to produce the product Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 5
  • 6. Importance of BR/ Managerial Value of Business Research • Product-Oriented firms: Prioritizes decision making that emphasizes the physical product design trendiness or technical superiority. Research focuses on technicians and experts in the field. • Production-Oriented firms: Prioritizes efficiency and effectiveness of the production processes in making decisions. Research focuses on line employees, engineers and other efficiency experts. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 6
  • 7. • Marketing-Oriented firms: Focuses on how the firm provides value to customers. Research focuses on customers Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 7
  • 8. • Decision making process: 1)Indentifying problems or opportunities: 2)Diagnosing and Assessing problems or opportunities. 3)Selecting and implementing a course of action 4) Evaluating the course of action. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 8
  • 9. NEED OF BUSINESS RESEARCH • Time constraints: If the decision does not need to be taken immediately then research is needed otherwise not. • Availability of data: If the required data to conduct the research is available then research should be conducted otherwise it is not possible to undertake a research. • The nature of decision to be made: Deciding about the need of research also depends upon the nature of the decision to be made. If the decision is not a routine decision and needs high investment then research should be undertaken otherwise not. • Benefits versus Costs: Deciding about the research also depends upon the benefits and costs associated with the underlying project. In order to conduct a research for a project, the project’s benefit must be higher than its cost. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 9
  • 10. MAJOR TOPICS FOR RESEARCH IN BUSINESS • General Business Conditions and Corporate Research • Financial and Accounting Research • Management and Organizational Behavior Research • Sales and Marketing Research • Information Systems Research • Corporate Responsibility Research Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 10
  • 11. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 11
  • 12. Types of Business Research Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 12
  • 13. Basic research is “experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge.”  It Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge.  It is not directly involved in the solution to a pragmatic or real life problem.  Basic research is conducted to test theory or to discover more about a concept.  It focuses on generating fundamental knowledge BASIC RESEARCH Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 13
  • 14. Basic Research Example  Is executive success correlated with high need for achievement? Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 14
  • 15. Applied Research Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake.  It is conducted when a decision must be made about a specific real-life problem.  Focuses on real-world questions and applications Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 15
  • 16. Applied Research Examples  Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners to its menu?  Business research told McDonald’s it should not? Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 16
  • 17. THEORY Goals of theory: 1)Understanding: 2) Predicting The meaning of Theory: A coherent set of general propositions used to explain the apparent relationships among certain observed phenomena. Theories allow generalizations beyond individuals facts or situations. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 17
  • 18. CONCEPT • A concept (or construct) is a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes that has been given a name. • Concepts are the building block of a theory • Concepts abstract reality. That is, concepts are expressed in words, letters, signs, and symbols that refer to various events or objects. For example assets, liabilities, customer equity, raw material etc. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 18
  • 19. CONCEPT • Ladder of abstraction Assets Plant Machinery Punch Press Reality Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 19
  • 20. CONCEPT • Concepts are abstractions of reality Observations of objects and events (reality) Concepts Abstract Level Empirical level Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 20
  • 21. Nature of PROPOSITIONS • Concepts are the basic units of theory development. However, theories require an understanding of the relationship among concepts. Thus, once reality is abstracted into concepts, the scientist is interested in the relationship among various concepts. Propositions are statements concerned with the logical relationships among concepts. A proposition explains the logical linkage among certain concepts by asserting a universal connection between concepts. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 21
  • 22. The Scientific Method • Definition: The Scientific Method is a set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events for analyzing empirical evidence and for predicting events yet unknown. • Following are the steps involved in the application of the scientific method 1.Assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon 2.Formulation of concepts and propositions 3.Statement of Hypothesis 4.Design of research to test the hypothesis 5.Acquisition of meaningful empirical data 6.Analysis and evaluation of data 7.Proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and statement of new problems raised by the research. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 22
  • 23. Theory building is a process of increasing abstraction Increasingly more abstract Theories Propositions Concepts Observation of objects and events (reality) Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 23
  • 24. An example of a theory Labor market conditions, number of organizations, personal characteristics,and other partial dterminantas of ease of movement Perceived ease of movement (e.g. expectation of finding alternatives, unsolicited opportunities) Perceived desirability of movement (e.g job satisfaction) Equity of pay, job complexity, participation in decision making and other partial determinants of desirability of movement Job performance s Intention to quit Voluntar y job turnover Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 24
  • 25. Generation of Theory • Deductive reasoning: The logical process of deriving a conclusion about a specific instance based on a known general premise or something known to be true. For example: we know that all professors are human beings. If we also know that Mr.Ahmad is a professor, then we can deduce that Ahmad is a human being. • Inductive reasoning: The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts. For example: All professors that have ever been seen are human beings; therefore all professors are human beings. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 25
  • 26. Verifying theory • In order to make predictions on the basis of theory, the theory must be tested and verified first. Once the theory is verified, we can utilize it to make predictions. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 26
  • 27. • Decision making: The process of resolving a problem or choosing among alternative opportunities. • Every decision-making situation can be classified based on whether it best represents a problem or an opportunity and where the situation falls on continuum from absolute ambiguity to complete certainty. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 27
  • 28. • Certainty: Complete certainty means that the decision-maker has all information needed to make an optimal decision. • Uncertainty: Uncertainty means that the manager grasps the general nature of desired objectives but the information about alternatives is incomplete. • Ambiguity: Ambiguity means that the nature of the problem itself is unclear. Objectives are vague and decision alternatives are difficult to define. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 28
  • 29. TYPES OF BUSINESS RESEARCH • Exploratory research: It is conducted to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities. Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information. It is the Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem. it Does not provide conclusive evidence. Subsequent research expected. • Descriptive Research: It describes characteristics of objects, people, groups, organizations or environments tries to“paint apicture” about a given situation. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 29
  • 30. TYPES OF BUSINESS RESEARCH Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how. Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon Some understanding of the nature of the problem Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 30
  • 31. TYPES OF BUSINESS RESEARCH • Causal Research: It allows causal inferences to be made, seeks to identify cause-and-effect relationships. • Causal inference: A conclusion that when one thing happens, another specific thing will follow. A causal inference can only be supported when very specific evidence exists. Three critical pieces of causal evidence are: 1)Temporal Sequence: It deals with the time order of events, i.e. the cause must occur before the effect. 2)Concomitant Variance: It occurs when two events “covary” or correlate meaning they vary systematically. 3)Nonspurious Association: It means that A cause and an effect is true and not simply due to some other variable. For example if murder rates increase with increase in ice cream rates, we cannot say that there is a causality between the two variables. They may be under effect of a third variable like weather. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 31
  • 32. Degrees of Causality • Absolute causality: Means the cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect. • Conditional causality: Means that a cause is necessary but not sufficient to bring about an effect. • Contributory causality: Means the cause need be neither necessary nor sufficient to bring about an effect. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 32
  • 33. STAGES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 33
  • 34. Define Research Problem & Research Objective [II] Review concepts and theories [II] Review previous research finding [IV] Design research (Including Sample design) [V] Collect data (Execution) [VI] Analyze Data (Test Hypothesis) [VII] Interpretation and Implications [III] Formulate Hypothesis FF F F FF F [VIII] Actionable Proposition [IX] Report preparation Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 34
  • 35. (I) Defining the Research Problem “ A problem well defined is half solved “ Two steps are involved defining the research problem a. Understanding the problem thoroughly and b. Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from analytical point of view Techniques for preliminary investigation a. Situation Analysis b. Informal investigations Researcher can review two types of literature a. The conceptual literature b. The empirical literature Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 35
  • 36. (II) Review of theories, concepts and previous research finding •Background of the study •Research questions •Formulation of Hypothesis Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 36
  • 37. (III) Development of Working Hypothesis Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences Approach 1.Discussion with colleagues and experts 2. Examination of data and records 3. Review of the same 4. Exploratory personal investigation which involves original field interviews Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 37
  • 38. (IV) Research Designs (including sample design) Research Design is the basic framework which provides guidelines for the rest of the research work. It is a map or a blueprint according to which the research is to be conducted. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 38
  • 39. Research design categories a. Exploratory research designs b. Descriptive research designs c. Causal research designs Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 39
  • 40. Following points must be considered while selecting any of the research designs available 1. The means of obtaining the information 2. The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff 3. Time available 4. Cost factor 5. sampling plan Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 40
  • 41. Sample design A sample design is a definite plan determined before any data is actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population It provides answer to the following four questions; 1. What sampling unit should be studied ? 2. What should be the sample size? 3. What sample procedure should be used? 4. What contact method should be used Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 41
  • 42. (IV) Data collection A. Primary Data Collection Tools 1. By observation 2. Through personal interview 3. Through telephone interviews 4. Through Schedules 5. By mailing questionnaire B. Secondary Data Collection Tools 1. Printed information 2. Already available information in other forms Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 42
  • 43. (V) Analysis of data The researcher should classify the raw data into some purposeful and usable categories. Three operations have to de done before the raw data is brought in a form to be analyzed further. a. Coding b. Editing c. Tabulation Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 43
  • 44. After successful completion of above operations following three steps are there to follow to complete Data analysis 1. Hypothesis Testing a. Chi Square b. F- test c. Z test 2. Generalization 3. Interpretation Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 44
  • 45. (VII) Interpretation and Implications (VIII) Actionable Implications (IX) Report Preparation Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 45
  • 46. Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 46
  • 47. Thank You Dr. Noor firdoos Jahan, RVIM 47