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Topic:
INTRODUCTION
OF HUMAN BODY
Tanzila Arbab Arshad
MS MIT, BS MIT
INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY
Anatomy:
Anatomy is the study of the structure of the
body and the physical relationships involved
between body parts.
Physiology:
Physiology is the study of how the parts of the
body work, and the ways in which they
cooperate together to maintain life and health
of the individual.
Definition:
Atoms combine to form molecules, of which
there is a vast range in the body. The structures,
properties and functions of important biological
molecules.
Example:
 Neon (Ne)
 Hydrogen (H)
 Argon (Ar)
 Iron (Fe)
 Calcium (Ca)
ATOM
Cells
Definition:
Cells are the smallest independent units of
living matter and there are millions in the
body. They are too small to be seen with the
naked eye, but when magnified using a
microscope different types can be
distinguished by their size, shape and the dyes
they absorb when stained in the laboratory.
Each cell type has become specialized, and
carries out a particular function that
contributes to body needs.
Types of cells
Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. Instead, some prokaryotes
such as bacteria have a region within the cell where the
genetic material is freely suspended. This region is called the
nucleoid.
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a true nucleus. The
plasma membrane is responsible for monitoring the transport
of nutrients and electrolytes in and out of the cells. It is also
responsible for cell to cell communication.
Prokaryotes generally reproduce by binary fission, a form of
asexual reproduction.
They reproduce sexually as well as asexually.
The cell size ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 µm in diameter. The size of the cells ranges between 10–100 µm in diameter.
Examples include bacteria, and cyanobacteria. This broad category involves plants, fungi, protozoans, and
animals.
They all are single-celled microorganisms. There are some contrasting features between plant and animal
cells. For eg., the plant cell contains chloroplast, central
vacuoles, and other plastids, whereas the animal cells do not.
Structure of cell
Cell Wall:
The cell wall is present exclusively in plant cells.
It protects the plasma membrane and other cellular
components. The cell wall is also the outermost
layer of plant cells. It is made up of cellulose. It
provides shape and support to the cells and
protects.
Cell Membrane:
The cell membrane supports and protects the cell.
It controls the movement of substances in and out
of the cells. It separates the cell from the external
environment. The cell membrane is present in all
the cells.
Cont.
Cytoplasm:
The cytoplasm is a thick, clear, jelly-like
substance present inside the cell membrane.
Most of the chemical reactions within a cell
take place in this cytoplasm. The cell organelles
such as endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles,
mitochondria, ribosomes, are suspended in this
cytoplasm.
Nucleus:
The nucleus contains the hereditary material of
the cell, the DNA. It sends signals to the cells to
grow, mature, divide and die. The nucleus is
surrounded by the nuclear envelope that
separates the DNA from the rest of the cell. The
nucleus protects the DNA and is an integral
component of a plant’s cell structure.
Cell Organelles Cell Organelles and their Functions
Nucleolus
The nucleolus is the site of ribosome synthesis. Also, it is
involved in controlling cellular activities and cellular
reproduction.
Nuclear membrane
The nuclear membrane protects the nucleus by forming a
boundary between the nucleus and other cell organelles.
Chromosomes
Chromosomes play a crucial role in determining the sex of an
individual. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of
sex chromosomes (XX or XY). Each human cells contain 23
pairs of chromosomes.
Endoplasmic reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the transportation of
substances throughout the cell. It plays a primary role in the
metabolism of carbohydrates, synthesis of lipids, steroids and
proteins.
Golgi Bodies
Golgi bodies are called the cell’s post office as it is involved in the transportation
of materials within the cell.
Ribosome
Ribosomes are the protein synthesizers of the cell.
Mitochondria
The mitochondrion is called “the powerhouse of the cell.” It is called so because
it produces ATP – the cell’s energy currency.
Lysosomes
Lysosomes protect the cell by engulfing the foreign bodies entering the cell and
help in cell renewal. Therefore, they are known as the cell’s suicide bags.
Chloroplast
Chloroplasts are the primary organelles for photosynthesis. It contains the
pigment called chlorophyll.
Vacuoles
Vacuoles store food, water, and other waste materials in the cell.
Cont.
Animal and Plant cell

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Introduction of Human Body & Structure of cell.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Topic: INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY Tanzila Arbab Arshad MS MIT, BS MIT
  • 3. INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN BODY Anatomy: Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and the physical relationships involved between body parts. Physiology: Physiology is the study of how the parts of the body work, and the ways in which they cooperate together to maintain life and health of the individual.
  • 4. Definition: Atoms combine to form molecules, of which there is a vast range in the body. The structures, properties and functions of important biological molecules. Example:  Neon (Ne)  Hydrogen (H)  Argon (Ar)  Iron (Fe)  Calcium (Ca) ATOM
  • 5. Cells Definition: Cells are the smallest independent units of living matter and there are millions in the body. They are too small to be seen with the naked eye, but when magnified using a microscope different types can be distinguished by their size, shape and the dyes they absorb when stained in the laboratory. Each cell type has become specialized, and carries out a particular function that contributes to body needs.
  • 6. Types of cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. Instead, some prokaryotes such as bacteria have a region within the cell where the genetic material is freely suspended. This region is called the nucleoid. Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a true nucleus. The plasma membrane is responsible for monitoring the transport of nutrients and electrolytes in and out of the cells. It is also responsible for cell to cell communication. Prokaryotes generally reproduce by binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction. They reproduce sexually as well as asexually. The cell size ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 µm in diameter. The size of the cells ranges between 10–100 µm in diameter. Examples include bacteria, and cyanobacteria. This broad category involves plants, fungi, protozoans, and animals. They all are single-celled microorganisms. There are some contrasting features between plant and animal cells. For eg., the plant cell contains chloroplast, central vacuoles, and other plastids, whereas the animal cells do not.
  • 7. Structure of cell Cell Wall: The cell wall is present exclusively in plant cells. It protects the plasma membrane and other cellular components. The cell wall is also the outermost layer of plant cells. It is made up of cellulose. It provides shape and support to the cells and protects. Cell Membrane: The cell membrane supports and protects the cell. It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cells. It separates the cell from the external environment. The cell membrane is present in all the cells.
  • 8. Cont. Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is a thick, clear, jelly-like substance present inside the cell membrane. Most of the chemical reactions within a cell take place in this cytoplasm. The cell organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, are suspended in this cytoplasm. Nucleus: The nucleus contains the hereditary material of the cell, the DNA. It sends signals to the cells to grow, mature, divide and die. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope that separates the DNA from the rest of the cell. The nucleus protects the DNA and is an integral component of a plant’s cell structure.
  • 9. Cell Organelles Cell Organelles and their Functions Nucleolus The nucleolus is the site of ribosome synthesis. Also, it is involved in controlling cellular activities and cellular reproduction. Nuclear membrane The nuclear membrane protects the nucleus by forming a boundary between the nucleus and other cell organelles. Chromosomes Chromosomes play a crucial role in determining the sex of an individual. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX or XY). Each human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the transportation of substances throughout the cell. It plays a primary role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, synthesis of lipids, steroids and proteins.
  • 10. Golgi Bodies Golgi bodies are called the cell’s post office as it is involved in the transportation of materials within the cell. Ribosome Ribosomes are the protein synthesizers of the cell. Mitochondria The mitochondrion is called “the powerhouse of the cell.” It is called so because it produces ATP – the cell’s energy currency. Lysosomes Lysosomes protect the cell by engulfing the foreign bodies entering the cell and help in cell renewal. Therefore, they are known as the cell’s suicide bags. Chloroplast Chloroplasts are the primary organelles for photosynthesis. It contains the pigment called chlorophyll. Vacuoles Vacuoles store food, water, and other waste materials in the cell. Cont.