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EY study:
Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)
The Class of 2017 – one year later
October 19, 2018
Executive
summary
In December 2017, we analyzed the top ICOs that represented 87% ICO funding in
2017. In that report, we found high risks of fraud, theft and major problems with the
accuracy of representations made by start-ups seeking funding.
In this follow-up study, we revisit the same group of companies to analyze their
progress and investment return:
► The performance of ICOs from The Class of 2017 did little to inspire
confidence.1
► 86% are now below their listing2 price; 30% have lost substantially all value.
An investor purchasing a portfolio of The Class of 2017 ICOs on 1 January 2018
would most likely have lost 66% of their investment.
► Of the ICO start-ups we looked at from The Class of 2017, only 29% (25) have
working products or prototypes, up by just 13% from the end of last year.
Of those 25, seven companies accept payment in both traditional fiat currency
(dollars) as well as ICO tokens, a decision that reduces the value of the tokens to
the holders.
► There were gains among The Class of 2017, concentrated in 10 ICO tokens,
most of which are in the blockchain infrastructure category. However, there
is no sign that these new projects have had any success in reducing the
dominance of Ethereum as the industry’s main platform.
• 1 See methodology in appendix.
• 2 Defined as when first available to trade on a cryptocurrency exchange.
ICO performance update02
Page 4 EY research: initial coin offerings
ICOs broke out in 2017. Demand continues to grow with claims of over US$15b
raised in the first half of 2018.
2015 First half of 20182016 2017
2,231
6,358
21,931
+4,127
+2,221
52%
10 ICOs
48%
475 ICOs
Cumulative ICO amounts
US$mm
Top 10 ICOs raised 52% of the total claimed funds in 2018
506
1,043
1,823
3,538
Cumulative VC funding of
blockchain projects US$mm Sources:
Amounts claimed by projects are reflected on their websites and ICO rating sites.
VC funding based on Techcrunch, Crunchbase, Coindesk.
EY is currently matching the amounts claimed to be raised with amounts verifiable on
the blockchain and expects to report on how well those figures match.
4,200
1,700
735
575
320
300
150
133
118
114
Petro
Telegram
EOS_2018
Bankera
Dragon
TaTaTu
Basis
Orbs
Ucash
Huobi token
VC
2015 2016 2017 (First half of 2018)
+15,573
Page 5 EY research: initial coin offerings
The Class of 2017 today: 86% below listing price, 30% lost substantially all
their value. This ICO portfolio is down around 66% from the peak.
-77%
-56%-66%
Class of
2017
Top 10
The Other
131 ICOs
Weighted Return
Jan-Sep 2018
Project Returns – 1 January to 2 September 2 2018
(as of 2 Sept 2018)
Sources: EY analysis of 141 ICOs from 2017, where items no longer listed as of 2 September 2018 are rated a
100% loss. Portfolio returns are weighted based on market capitalization as of 1 January 2018.
132 ICOs Below Peak Value
43 ICOs Declined by More Than 90%
-66%
-56%
-77%
-100%
-50%
0%
50%
100%
150%
200%
250%
300%
Page 6 EY research: initial coin offerings
About a year after raising money, only a small portion of ICO-funded start-ups
have progressed towards working product offerings.
5%
13%
11%
16%
84%
71%
% of all the projectsOur survey found companies
that have made meaningful
progress toward working
products only increased by
13% in 2018. 71% have no
offering in the market at all.
Source: EY analysis of 86 projects based
on their public sites and 2017 whitepapers 2017 2018
Idea
*Prototype
**Working product
+13%
Typically, within one year of a
traditional venture-backed
software start-up, you would
expect to see a significantly
higher percentage of the
companies with a functional
early stage product.
* Defined as the beginning phase of product development, provides testing models and validation.
** Defined as the beginning of product sales.
Page 7 EY research: initial coin offerings
For those that do have working products, many are effectively abandoning their
ICO investors by de-emphasizing the role of their tokens.
13%
16%Prototype
Working product
Idea
2018
71%
ICO projects accepting fiat usually offer some benefits
for token users, similar to points in traditional loyalty
programs.
However, users do not use utility tokens to store value.
To use the platform, users have to purchase the
necessary amount and incur related transaction costs
and token volatility risk.
Detokenization: One year after an ICO, Digipulse, a “crypto-
inheritance” service, has announced it will detokenize its
business, shifting exclusively to direct fiat currency payments.
7 out of 25 reviewed projects accept other
currencies, rendering utility tokens less valuable.
Some projects have altogether dropped their utility
tokens to focus on functionality. To become a
means of payment, utility tokens have to be
stable. If it remains stable, the token is of little
interest to speculative investors.
Source: EY analysis of 86 projects based on their public sites;
2017 whitepapers.
*Since 2017, companies suspended development
Accepted currency
Sector USD (Fiat) Own token
Raised
US$m
Mining No Yes* 70-100
Finance No Yes 70-100
Blockchain platform No Yes 60-70
Gaming, VR No Yes* 50-60
Healthcare No Yes 30-50
Social network Yes Yes 30-50
Finance Yes Yes 30-50
Identity, data verification Yes Yes 30-50
Social network No Yes 30-50
Data storage Yes Yes 20-30
Gaming, VR No Yes 20-30
Blockchain platform No Yes 20-30
Blockchain platform No Yes 20-30
Finance No Yes 20-30
Blockchain platform No Yes 10-50
Finance Yes Yes 10-20
Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20
Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20
Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20
Trading platform No Yes 10-20
Prediction market No Yes 10-20
Finance No Yes 10-20
Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20
Finance Yes Yes 10-20
Trading platform Yes Yes 10-20
Page 8 EY research: initial coin offerings
Dentacoin
Top 10 ICOs in The Class of 2017 bring 99% of the net gain (84% of the gross gain)
since the initial offerings. A majority are in blockchain infrastructure.
Source: EY analysis
of 141 ICOs from
2017
Page 9 EY research: initial coin offerings
The most successful investments from 2017 were blockchain platforms, but so
far, none are challenging Ethereum.
Source: EY analysis based on
ICO websites, Coinmarketcap,
Token Market, Coinmarketcal,
Icobench, Icodrops
Scope: 633 ICO from 2017 and
2018 (84% of the total amount).
Page 10 EY research: initial coin offerings
The Ethereum developer community is more dominant than the nearest
competing platforms.
+330%
waves
neo
stellar
Ethereum
May 2018Jan 2017 Jul 2017 Dec 2017
5.434
+657%
+105%
2,584
356.518
+290%
392.427
+24%
Development activity (forks)
Number of questions solved on GitHub Reddit
Facebook
Twitter
Developer activity Social media activity
May 2018Jan 2017 Jul 2017 Dec 2017
May 2018Jan 2017 Jul 2017 Dec 2017
Source: EY analysis based on Github; Ethereum, Coingecko
137,389
Page 11 EY research: initial coin offerings
Key takeaways and outlook
Nearly a year after the first big global wave of ICOs, there is not enough data yet to form a full perspective on the risk and return mix of this
new investment medium. In prior technological revolutions, many companies failed, and it took time for those that didn’t to mature into
investments appropriate for a wide variety of investors.
However, the early returns from ICOs are not encouraging. Compared to traditional venture capital investing, ICO-backed companies look
like they offer more risk based on a number of factors including the lack of progress towards usable products.
The highest performing ICO investments in the last year have been mostly focused on blockchain infrastructure, while those focused on
blockchain-enabled applications and business ecosystems generally have performed poorly.
In a year, we plan to revisit The Class of 2017 and provide an update. We also plan to issue a report later this year reconciling funding
claimed by projects to the activity reflected in their respective blockchains.
Globally, sources of funding will likely shift away from retail investors towards entities that can understand and manage the downside risks,
such as venture capital and digital asset-focused investment funds.
Regulatory concerns will likely continue to limit participation of certain classes of investors in various jurisdictions (e.g., non-accredited
investors in the US). We expect regulators in developed securities markets to proceed cautiously.
Page 12 EY research: initial coin offerings
Methodology
ICO market is unregulated, there is no single source of ICO data, reporting standards or generally accepted methodology. The findings are preliminary and based on
public sources, and EY cannot always match the information given by these sources with the transactional data available on the public blockchain. We based our study
on project websites, the most popular crypto exchanges, ICO trackers, data aggregators and interviews.
Our approach:
► Performed detailed analysis of the top 141 projects from 2017
► Analysis of ICO blockchain network statistics, based on network monitors sites, and third party analytics
► Verified our conclusions against other public studies
► Interviews
Exchanges and data
aggregators
• Coinmarketcap
• Coinbase
• Coindesk
ICO trackers
• Coingeko
• icobench.com
• icodrops.com
• TokenData
• IcoWatchList
• TokenMarket
• Tokenmarket.net
• Coinschedule
• TokenReport
Blockchain network scanners 
platforms
• Bloxy.info
• EtherScan
• Blockchain.info
• EthereumGasStation
• Bitinfocharts.com
• GitHub
News sites
• Coindesk
• Forklog
• Anycoin
• Bloomberg
• Fortune
• Business Insider
• TechCrunch
• Forbes
• cnbc.com
• Ccn.com
Public ICO reports
• CB Insight
• Funderbeam
• Autonomous Next
Dedicated
Blockchain social
media
• Bitcointalk
• Medium
• Reddit
Data sources:
EY | Assurance | Tax | Transactions | Advisory
About EY
EY is a global leader in assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services.
The insights and quality services we deliver help build trust and confidence in
the capital markets and in economies the world over. We develop outstanding
leaders who team to deliver on our promises to all of our stakeholders.
In so doing, we play a critical role in building a better working world for
our people, for our clients and for our communities.
EY refers to the global organization, and may refer to one or more,
of the member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is
a separate legal entity. Ernst & Young Global Limited, a UK company limited
by guarantee, does not provide services to clients. For more information
about our organization, please visit ey.com.
About EY's Advisory Services
EY Advisory believes a better working world means helping clients solve big,
complex industry issues and capitalize on opportunities to grow, optimize
and protect their businesses.
A global mindset, diversity and collaborative culture inspires EY consultants
to ask better questions, create innovative answers and realize long-lasting
results.
The better the question. The better the answer. The better the world works.
© 2018 EYGM Limited.
All Rights Reserved.
EYG no. 011628-18Gbl
ED None
This material has been prepared for general informational purposes only and is not intended to be relied
upon as accounting, tax or other professional advice. Please refer to your advisors for specific advice.
ey.com

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Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs): The Class of 2017 - one year later

  • 1. EY study: Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) The Class of 2017 – one year later October 19, 2018
  • 2. Executive summary In December 2017, we analyzed the top ICOs that represented 87% ICO funding in 2017. In that report, we found high risks of fraud, theft and major problems with the accuracy of representations made by start-ups seeking funding. In this follow-up study, we revisit the same group of companies to analyze their progress and investment return: ► The performance of ICOs from The Class of 2017 did little to inspire confidence.1 ► 86% are now below their listing2 price; 30% have lost substantially all value. An investor purchasing a portfolio of The Class of 2017 ICOs on 1 January 2018 would most likely have lost 66% of their investment. ► Of the ICO start-ups we looked at from The Class of 2017, only 29% (25) have working products or prototypes, up by just 13% from the end of last year. Of those 25, seven companies accept payment in both traditional fiat currency (dollars) as well as ICO tokens, a decision that reduces the value of the tokens to the holders. ► There were gains among The Class of 2017, concentrated in 10 ICO tokens, most of which are in the blockchain infrastructure category. However, there is no sign that these new projects have had any success in reducing the dominance of Ethereum as the industry’s main platform. • 1 See methodology in appendix. • 2 Defined as when first available to trade on a cryptocurrency exchange.
  • 4. Page 4 EY research: initial coin offerings ICOs broke out in 2017. Demand continues to grow with claims of over US$15b raised in the first half of 2018. 2015 First half of 20182016 2017 2,231 6,358 21,931 +4,127 +2,221 52% 10 ICOs 48% 475 ICOs Cumulative ICO amounts US$mm Top 10 ICOs raised 52% of the total claimed funds in 2018 506 1,043 1,823 3,538 Cumulative VC funding of blockchain projects US$mm Sources: Amounts claimed by projects are reflected on their websites and ICO rating sites. VC funding based on Techcrunch, Crunchbase, Coindesk. EY is currently matching the amounts claimed to be raised with amounts verifiable on the blockchain and expects to report on how well those figures match. 4,200 1,700 735 575 320 300 150 133 118 114 Petro Telegram EOS_2018 Bankera Dragon TaTaTu Basis Orbs Ucash Huobi token VC 2015 2016 2017 (First half of 2018) +15,573
  • 5. Page 5 EY research: initial coin offerings The Class of 2017 today: 86% below listing price, 30% lost substantially all their value. This ICO portfolio is down around 66% from the peak. -77% -56%-66% Class of 2017 Top 10 The Other 131 ICOs Weighted Return Jan-Sep 2018 Project Returns – 1 January to 2 September 2 2018 (as of 2 Sept 2018) Sources: EY analysis of 141 ICOs from 2017, where items no longer listed as of 2 September 2018 are rated a 100% loss. Portfolio returns are weighted based on market capitalization as of 1 January 2018. 132 ICOs Below Peak Value 43 ICOs Declined by More Than 90% -66% -56% -77% -100% -50% 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300%
  • 6. Page 6 EY research: initial coin offerings About a year after raising money, only a small portion of ICO-funded start-ups have progressed towards working product offerings. 5% 13% 11% 16% 84% 71% % of all the projectsOur survey found companies that have made meaningful progress toward working products only increased by 13% in 2018. 71% have no offering in the market at all. Source: EY analysis of 86 projects based on their public sites and 2017 whitepapers 2017 2018 Idea *Prototype **Working product +13% Typically, within one year of a traditional venture-backed software start-up, you would expect to see a significantly higher percentage of the companies with a functional early stage product. * Defined as the beginning phase of product development, provides testing models and validation. ** Defined as the beginning of product sales.
  • 7. Page 7 EY research: initial coin offerings For those that do have working products, many are effectively abandoning their ICO investors by de-emphasizing the role of their tokens. 13% 16%Prototype Working product Idea 2018 71% ICO projects accepting fiat usually offer some benefits for token users, similar to points in traditional loyalty programs. However, users do not use utility tokens to store value. To use the platform, users have to purchase the necessary amount and incur related transaction costs and token volatility risk. Detokenization: One year after an ICO, Digipulse, a “crypto- inheritance” service, has announced it will detokenize its business, shifting exclusively to direct fiat currency payments. 7 out of 25 reviewed projects accept other currencies, rendering utility tokens less valuable. Some projects have altogether dropped their utility tokens to focus on functionality. To become a means of payment, utility tokens have to be stable. If it remains stable, the token is of little interest to speculative investors. Source: EY analysis of 86 projects based on their public sites; 2017 whitepapers. *Since 2017, companies suspended development Accepted currency Sector USD (Fiat) Own token Raised US$m Mining No Yes* 70-100 Finance No Yes 70-100 Blockchain platform No Yes 60-70 Gaming, VR No Yes* 50-60 Healthcare No Yes 30-50 Social network Yes Yes 30-50 Finance Yes Yes 30-50 Identity, data verification Yes Yes 30-50 Social network No Yes 30-50 Data storage Yes Yes 20-30 Gaming, VR No Yes 20-30 Blockchain platform No Yes 20-30 Blockchain platform No Yes 20-30 Finance No Yes 20-30 Blockchain platform No Yes 10-50 Finance Yes Yes 10-20 Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20 Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20 Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20 Trading platform No Yes 10-20 Prediction market No Yes 10-20 Finance No Yes 10-20 Blockchain platform No Yes 10-20 Finance Yes Yes 10-20 Trading platform Yes Yes 10-20
  • 8. Page 8 EY research: initial coin offerings Dentacoin Top 10 ICOs in The Class of 2017 bring 99% of the net gain (84% of the gross gain) since the initial offerings. A majority are in blockchain infrastructure. Source: EY analysis of 141 ICOs from 2017
  • 9. Page 9 EY research: initial coin offerings The most successful investments from 2017 were blockchain platforms, but so far, none are challenging Ethereum. Source: EY analysis based on ICO websites, Coinmarketcap, Token Market, Coinmarketcal, Icobench, Icodrops Scope: 633 ICO from 2017 and 2018 (84% of the total amount).
  • 10. Page 10 EY research: initial coin offerings The Ethereum developer community is more dominant than the nearest competing platforms. +330% waves neo stellar Ethereum May 2018Jan 2017 Jul 2017 Dec 2017 5.434 +657% +105% 2,584 356.518 +290% 392.427 +24% Development activity (forks) Number of questions solved on GitHub Reddit Facebook Twitter Developer activity Social media activity May 2018Jan 2017 Jul 2017 Dec 2017 May 2018Jan 2017 Jul 2017 Dec 2017 Source: EY analysis based on Github; Ethereum, Coingecko 137,389
  • 11. Page 11 EY research: initial coin offerings Key takeaways and outlook Nearly a year after the first big global wave of ICOs, there is not enough data yet to form a full perspective on the risk and return mix of this new investment medium. In prior technological revolutions, many companies failed, and it took time for those that didn’t to mature into investments appropriate for a wide variety of investors. However, the early returns from ICOs are not encouraging. Compared to traditional venture capital investing, ICO-backed companies look like they offer more risk based on a number of factors including the lack of progress towards usable products. The highest performing ICO investments in the last year have been mostly focused on blockchain infrastructure, while those focused on blockchain-enabled applications and business ecosystems generally have performed poorly. In a year, we plan to revisit The Class of 2017 and provide an update. We also plan to issue a report later this year reconciling funding claimed by projects to the activity reflected in their respective blockchains. Globally, sources of funding will likely shift away from retail investors towards entities that can understand and manage the downside risks, such as venture capital and digital asset-focused investment funds. Regulatory concerns will likely continue to limit participation of certain classes of investors in various jurisdictions (e.g., non-accredited investors in the US). We expect regulators in developed securities markets to proceed cautiously.
  • 12. Page 12 EY research: initial coin offerings Methodology ICO market is unregulated, there is no single source of ICO data, reporting standards or generally accepted methodology. The findings are preliminary and based on public sources, and EY cannot always match the information given by these sources with the transactional data available on the public blockchain. We based our study on project websites, the most popular crypto exchanges, ICO trackers, data aggregators and interviews. Our approach: ► Performed detailed analysis of the top 141 projects from 2017 ► Analysis of ICO blockchain network statistics, based on network monitors sites, and third party analytics ► Verified our conclusions against other public studies ► Interviews Exchanges and data aggregators • Coinmarketcap • Coinbase • Coindesk ICO trackers • Coingeko • icobench.com • icodrops.com • TokenData • IcoWatchList • TokenMarket • Tokenmarket.net • Coinschedule • TokenReport Blockchain network scanners platforms • Bloxy.info • EtherScan • Blockchain.info • EthereumGasStation • Bitinfocharts.com • GitHub News sites • Coindesk • Forklog • Anycoin • Bloomberg • Fortune • Business Insider • TechCrunch • Forbes • cnbc.com • Ccn.com Public ICO reports • CB Insight • Funderbeam • Autonomous Next Dedicated Blockchain social media • Bitcointalk • Medium • Reddit Data sources:
  • 13. EY | Assurance | Tax | Transactions | Advisory About EY EY is a global leader in assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services. The insights and quality services we deliver help build trust and confidence in the capital markets and in economies the world over. We develop outstanding leaders who team to deliver on our promises to all of our stakeholders. In so doing, we play a critical role in building a better working world for our people, for our clients and for our communities. EY refers to the global organization, and may refer to one or more, of the member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity. Ernst & Young Global Limited, a UK company limited by guarantee, does not provide services to clients. For more information about our organization, please visit ey.com. About EY's Advisory Services EY Advisory believes a better working world means helping clients solve big, complex industry issues and capitalize on opportunities to grow, optimize and protect their businesses. A global mindset, diversity and collaborative culture inspires EY consultants to ask better questions, create innovative answers and realize long-lasting results. The better the question. The better the answer. The better the world works. © 2018 EYGM Limited. All Rights Reserved. EYG no. 011628-18Gbl ED None This material has been prepared for general informational purposes only and is not intended to be relied upon as accounting, tax or other professional advice. Please refer to your advisors for specific advice. ey.com