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INCOME TAX
Presented By
Vikash Barnwal
Asst. Professor
Arni University
BASIC CONCEPTS, MEANING AND DEFINITION
 In India, this tax was introduced for the first time in 1860, by Sir James
Wilson in order to meet the losses sustained by the Government on account
of the Military Mutiny of 1857.
 In 1918, a new income tax was passed and again it was replaced by another
new act which was passed in 1922.This Act remained in force up to the
assessment year 1961-62 with numerous amendments.
 In consultation with the Ministry of Law finally the Income Tax Act, 1961
was passed. The Income Tax Act 1961 has been brought into force with 1
April 1962. It applies to the whole of India and Sikkim (including Jammu
and Kashmir).
 Since 1962 several amendments of far-reaching nature have been made in
the Income Tax Act by the Union Budget every year.
MEANING OF TAX
 The tax is a compulsory payment that has to be
made by individual or other persons to central
government, state government or local government.
Tax is based on certain will establishment rules or
criteria such as income earned, property owned or
expenditure made.
TYPES OF TAX
 Direct
 Indirect tax
Direct tax is a payment directly made to the stable
by the person who bears it.
Indirect tax is a tax which is paid by one person
and burned by another person.
INCOME TAX ACT
 Income tax act :The income tax act of 1961 has been in effect
from the first day of April 1962 (sec 1).
 It contains 298 sec, sub sections, schedules etc. the income tax
rules of 1962 was framed by central board of Direct Taxes
(CBDT)
ASSESSMENT YEAR (SEC 2(9) )
 Assessment year may be defined as a year in
which the income tax of the previous year is to be
assessed. It is a period of twelve months starting
from April 1 of every year and ending on March 31
of the next year.
PREVIOUS YEAR (SEC 3)
 For the purposes of this Act, the term “previous
year” means that the financial year immediately
preceding the assessment year. ... Under Income
Tax, the returns are filed by assesses after end of
the year/ period during which earnings are made
and that period is called as previous year/ financial
year.
DEFINITION OF 'ASSESSEE'
 Section 2(7) of Income Tax Act. As per S. 2(7) of the
Income Tax Act, 1961, unless the context otherwise
requires, the term “Assessee” means a person who
is responsible for payment of any tax or any other
sum of money under this Act, and includes
PERSON 2(31)
 It includes an individual and Hindu Undivided
Family (HUF), Company, Firm, Association of
Person (AOP), Body of Individual (BOI) Local
Authority & Artificial Juridical Persons.
AGRICULTURAL INCOME (SEC 2(1A))
 In India, agricultural income refers to income
earned or revenue derived from sources that
include farming land, buildings on or identified with
an agricultural land and commercial produce from a
horticultural land. Agricultural income is defined
under section 2(1A) of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL INCOME
 Rent or Revenue Derived from land.
➢Income from Agriculture Operations.
➢ Income from Farm House/Building Attached to
Agricultural Land.
NON-AGRICULTURAL INCOME FROM LAND
 Income from markets
➢ Income from stone quarries
➢ Income from mining royalties
➢ Income from land used for storing agricultural produce
➢ Income from supply of water for irrigation purpose
➢ Income from self-grown, grass and trees
➢ Income from fisheries
➢ Remuneration received as manager of an agricultural
farm
➢ Income from interest on arrears of rent of agricultural
land
INCOME EXEMPTED FROM TAX
 The taxability of an individual in India depends upon his
residential status in India for any particular financial
year. The term residential status has been coined under
the income tax laws of India and must not be confused
with an individual’s citizenship of India. An individual
may be a citizen of India but may end up being a non-
resident for a particular year.
Similarly, a foreign citizen may end up being
a resident of India for income tax purposes for a
particular year. Also to note that the residential status of
different types of persons via an individual, a firm, a
company etc is determined differently in this article, we
have discussed about how the residential status of an
individual taxpayer can be determined for any particular
financial year
HOW TO DETERMINE RESIDENTIAL STATUS?
 For the purpose of income tax in India, the income
tax laws in India classify taxable persons as:
➢ A resident
➢ A resident not ordinarily resident (RNOR)
➢ A non-resident (NR)
The taxability differs for each of the above
categories of taxpayers. Before we get into
taxability, let us first understand how a taxpayer
becomes a resident, an RNOR or and NR.
RESIDENTIAL STATUS
[Sec. 6]
Resident [Sec. 6 (1)] Non Resident [3(30)]
Ordinary Resident
Non Ordinarily Resident
[Sec 6(6)]
Only for individual & HUF
RESIDENT
A taxpayer would be qualified as a resident of
India if he satisfies any one of the following 2
conditions:
➢ Stay in India for a year is 182 days or more
➢ Stay in India for the immediately 4 preceding years
is 365 days or more and 60 days or more in the
relevant financial year .
In the event an individual leaves India for
employment during an FY, he will be qualified as a
resident of India only if he stays in India for 182
days or more. else the condition (b) above 60 days
will not apply to him
CASE:1
 consider the case of Mr. D, who is business head
for Asia Pacific regions for a private firm. Mr. D was
born and brought up in India. He has to travel to
various locations of the continent for business
purposes. He has spent 200 days travelling in the
current financial year. Also, he has been travelling
abroad from the past two years and has stayed out
of India for about 400 days in this period.
 Condition I (Resides in India for a minimum of 182 days in a
year) – Not satisfied
 To figure out the resident status of Mr. D, you will understand that
he has only spent 165 days in India during the current financial
year. Hence, he does not satisfy the first condition.
 Condition II (Resides in India for a minimum of 365 days in
the immediately preceding four years and for a minimum of
60 days in the current financial year)– Satisfied
 However, It is given that Mr. D has been travelling only from the
past two years. Also, it is said that he has travelled for 400 days
in the past two years. That means, in the past four years, Mr. D
has stayed in India for more than 365 days (1061 days).
Hence, Mr. D has resided for atleast 60 days in the current
financial year and for more than 365 days in the immediately
preceding four financial years. Therefore, Mr. D satisfies the
second condition.
RESIDENT NOT ORDINARILY RESIDENT
 If an individual qualifies as a resident, the next step
is to determine if he/she is a Resident ordinarily
resident (ROR) or an RNOR. He will be a ROR if he
meets both the following conditions:
➢ Has been a resident of India For at least 2 out of
10 years immediately, For the previous years
➢ Has stayed in India for at least 730 days in 7
immediately after the preceding years Therefore, if
any individual fails to satisfy even one of the above
conditions, he would be an RNOR.
 In above example Mr D has satisfed as resident of India. Let us
further classify whether Mr. D is ROR or RNOR
 If both the additional conditions are satisfied then Mr. D is ROR
 Considering the example, Mr. D was travelling out of India since past 2
years only. Hence, the first condition is satisfied as he resided in India for
atleast 2 years out of the immediate previous 10 years. Also, he has
fulfilled the criteria of residing for at least 730 days in seven immediately
preceding years. Therefore, he can be considered as Resident
Ordinarily Resident.
If any one of the additional conditions is satisfied then Mr. D is
RNOR.
Alternatively, consider that he had to work from the headquarters of his
firm, located in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia for the past six years. He has
only visited his parents for a week, twice a year during this time. That
means, he has resided in India for 449 days in the past six years and the
same applies for the current financial year too. In this case, first condition
is satisfied but not the second. Therefore, Mr. D is Resident Not
Ordinarily Resident.
NON-RESIDENT
 An individual satisfying neither of the conditions stated in (a)
or (b) above would be an NR for the year.
Taxability
Resident:
A resident will be charged to tax in India on his global
income i.e. income earned in India as well as the income
earned outside India.
NR and RNOR:
Their tax liability in India is restricted to the income
they earn in India. They are not in need to pay any tax in India
on their foreign income. Also note that in case of double
taxation of income where the same income is getting taxed in
India as well as in abroad, one may resort to the Double
Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) that India would have
entered into with the other country in order to eliminate the
possibility of paying taxes twice.
 Scope of total income Section -5 of Income Tax Act,
1961 provides Scope of total Income in case a
person who is a resident, not an ordinarily resident
in India and person who is a non-resident which
includes. Income can be Income from any source
which
 (a) is received or is deemed to be received in India
in such year by or on behalf of such person; or
 (b) accrues or arises or is deemed to accrue or
arise to him in India during such year; or
 (c) accrues or arises to him outside India during
such year.
EXAMPLE
Ms. G went to London to join a reputed university for a
graduation course (three years). While studying there,
her professor suggested her to join a post-graduate
course at the same university (two years). She had to
get an internship certificate to complete the course.
Upon completion, the firm offered her a permanent
position. She has been an employee there for the past
four years. That is, Ms G has stayed out of India for nine
years now. She receives rental income from the property
that she inherited from her parents. Both the basic
condition are not satisfied. That makes Ms. G a non-
resident.
Note:
The condition of minimum 60 days stay in the
current financial year will get extended to 182 days
in all the cases if:
 A person is a citizen of India and he leaves India for
the purpose of employment during the current
financial year.
 A person who stays outside India, being a citizen of
India or a Person of Indian Origin (PIO), and comes
on a visit to India during the year.
TABLE EXPLAINING SCOPE OF TOTAL INCOME UNDER SECTION 5
SL
NO
.
Particulars Resident Ordinary
Resident (ROR)
Resident Not
Ordinary Resident
(RNOR) – 5(1)
Non
Resident
(NR)– 5(2)
1 Income received in India Taxed Taxed Taxed
2 Income Deemed to be
received in India
Taxed Taxed Taxed
3 Income accrues or arises in
India
Taxed Taxed Taxed
4 Income deemed to accrues or
arises in India
Taxed Taxed Taxed
5 Income accrues or arises
outside India
Taxed No No
6 Income accrues or arises
outside India from
business/profession
controlled/set up in India
Taxed Taxed NO
7 Income Other than Above (No
Relation In India)
Taxed NO NO
 Note-
1.Residential status is as per section 6 of Income Tax
Act, 1961.
2.Deemed income is not actually accrued but is
supposed to be accrued notionally.
3.The income accrued is when the assesse obtains the
rights to receive it.
4.Previous year means the financial year immediately
preceding the assessment year.
 Explanation 1 & 2:- Income accruing or arising
outside India shall not be deemed to be received in
India within the meaning of this section by reason
only of the fact that it is taken into account in a
balance sheet prepared in India.
 Income which has been included in the total income
of a person on the basis that it has accrued or
arisen or is deemed to have accrued or arisen to
him shall not again be so included on the basis that
it is received or deemed to be received by him in
India.
 Certain Examples of incomes which treated as
incomes deemed to have accrued or arisen in India:
➢If Mr. X Transfer his Residential Property situated in
Delhi then Capital gain arising on transfer of such
Capital Asset is deemed to accrue in India. It means
Capital gain arising on transfer of property situated in
India.
➢ Income from business connection in India.
➢ Dividend paid by an Indian company.
➢ Income from any property, asset or other source of
income located in India.
EXERCISES
 Mr. Rajan left India for the first time on 15th
December 2020 and returned back to India on 2nd
February 2021. Identify his residential status for the
assessment year 2021-22.
 MR. Williams is an Indian citizen who lives, in India
since 1986.During the previous year 2021-2022 he
went to Arabia for 325 days. Identify the residential
status.
 Solution: Mr.Rajan Singh will get the status
“Ordinary Resident”, since he satisfies the first
basic condition and both the additional conditions.
 Solution: Mr. Williams will get the status “Non-
Resident”, since he not satisfy the basic conditions
itself as he had stayed only for 40 days in the
previous year 2021-22
Thank you

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Income tax

  • 1. INCOME TAX Presented By Vikash Barnwal Asst. Professor Arni University
  • 2. BASIC CONCEPTS, MEANING AND DEFINITION  In India, this tax was introduced for the first time in 1860, by Sir James Wilson in order to meet the losses sustained by the Government on account of the Military Mutiny of 1857.  In 1918, a new income tax was passed and again it was replaced by another new act which was passed in 1922.This Act remained in force up to the assessment year 1961-62 with numerous amendments.  In consultation with the Ministry of Law finally the Income Tax Act, 1961 was passed. The Income Tax Act 1961 has been brought into force with 1 April 1962. It applies to the whole of India and Sikkim (including Jammu and Kashmir).  Since 1962 several amendments of far-reaching nature have been made in the Income Tax Act by the Union Budget every year.
  • 3. MEANING OF TAX  The tax is a compulsory payment that has to be made by individual or other persons to central government, state government or local government. Tax is based on certain will establishment rules or criteria such as income earned, property owned or expenditure made.
  • 4. TYPES OF TAX  Direct  Indirect tax Direct tax is a payment directly made to the stable by the person who bears it. Indirect tax is a tax which is paid by one person and burned by another person.
  • 5. INCOME TAX ACT  Income tax act :The income tax act of 1961 has been in effect from the first day of April 1962 (sec 1).  It contains 298 sec, sub sections, schedules etc. the income tax rules of 1962 was framed by central board of Direct Taxes (CBDT)
  • 6. ASSESSMENT YEAR (SEC 2(9) )  Assessment year may be defined as a year in which the income tax of the previous year is to be assessed. It is a period of twelve months starting from April 1 of every year and ending on March 31 of the next year.
  • 7. PREVIOUS YEAR (SEC 3)  For the purposes of this Act, the term “previous year” means that the financial year immediately preceding the assessment year. ... Under Income Tax, the returns are filed by assesses after end of the year/ period during which earnings are made and that period is called as previous year/ financial year.
  • 8. DEFINITION OF 'ASSESSEE'  Section 2(7) of Income Tax Act. As per S. 2(7) of the Income Tax Act, 1961, unless the context otherwise requires, the term “Assessee” means a person who is responsible for payment of any tax or any other sum of money under this Act, and includes
  • 9. PERSON 2(31)  It includes an individual and Hindu Undivided Family (HUF), Company, Firm, Association of Person (AOP), Body of Individual (BOI) Local Authority & Artificial Juridical Persons.
  • 10. AGRICULTURAL INCOME (SEC 2(1A))  In India, agricultural income refers to income earned or revenue derived from sources that include farming land, buildings on or identified with an agricultural land and commercial produce from a horticultural land. Agricultural income is defined under section 2(1A) of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
  • 11. DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL INCOME  Rent or Revenue Derived from land. ➢Income from Agriculture Operations. ➢ Income from Farm House/Building Attached to Agricultural Land.
  • 12. NON-AGRICULTURAL INCOME FROM LAND  Income from markets ➢ Income from stone quarries ➢ Income from mining royalties ➢ Income from land used for storing agricultural produce ➢ Income from supply of water for irrigation purpose ➢ Income from self-grown, grass and trees ➢ Income from fisheries ➢ Remuneration received as manager of an agricultural farm ➢ Income from interest on arrears of rent of agricultural land
  • 14.  The taxability of an individual in India depends upon his residential status in India for any particular financial year. The term residential status has been coined under the income tax laws of India and must not be confused with an individual’s citizenship of India. An individual may be a citizen of India but may end up being a non- resident for a particular year. Similarly, a foreign citizen may end up being a resident of India for income tax purposes for a particular year. Also to note that the residential status of different types of persons via an individual, a firm, a company etc is determined differently in this article, we have discussed about how the residential status of an individual taxpayer can be determined for any particular financial year
  • 15. HOW TO DETERMINE RESIDENTIAL STATUS?  For the purpose of income tax in India, the income tax laws in India classify taxable persons as: ➢ A resident ➢ A resident not ordinarily resident (RNOR) ➢ A non-resident (NR) The taxability differs for each of the above categories of taxpayers. Before we get into taxability, let us first understand how a taxpayer becomes a resident, an RNOR or and NR.
  • 16. RESIDENTIAL STATUS [Sec. 6] Resident [Sec. 6 (1)] Non Resident [3(30)] Ordinary Resident Non Ordinarily Resident [Sec 6(6)] Only for individual & HUF
  • 17. RESIDENT A taxpayer would be qualified as a resident of India if he satisfies any one of the following 2 conditions: ➢ Stay in India for a year is 182 days or more ➢ Stay in India for the immediately 4 preceding years is 365 days or more and 60 days or more in the relevant financial year . In the event an individual leaves India for employment during an FY, he will be qualified as a resident of India only if he stays in India for 182 days or more. else the condition (b) above 60 days will not apply to him
  • 18. CASE:1  consider the case of Mr. D, who is business head for Asia Pacific regions for a private firm. Mr. D was born and brought up in India. He has to travel to various locations of the continent for business purposes. He has spent 200 days travelling in the current financial year. Also, he has been travelling abroad from the past two years and has stayed out of India for about 400 days in this period.
  • 19.  Condition I (Resides in India for a minimum of 182 days in a year) – Not satisfied  To figure out the resident status of Mr. D, you will understand that he has only spent 165 days in India during the current financial year. Hence, he does not satisfy the first condition.  Condition II (Resides in India for a minimum of 365 days in the immediately preceding four years and for a minimum of 60 days in the current financial year)– Satisfied  However, It is given that Mr. D has been travelling only from the past two years. Also, it is said that he has travelled for 400 days in the past two years. That means, in the past four years, Mr. D has stayed in India for more than 365 days (1061 days). Hence, Mr. D has resided for atleast 60 days in the current financial year and for more than 365 days in the immediately preceding four financial years. Therefore, Mr. D satisfies the second condition.
  • 20. RESIDENT NOT ORDINARILY RESIDENT  If an individual qualifies as a resident, the next step is to determine if he/she is a Resident ordinarily resident (ROR) or an RNOR. He will be a ROR if he meets both the following conditions: ➢ Has been a resident of India For at least 2 out of 10 years immediately, For the previous years ➢ Has stayed in India for at least 730 days in 7 immediately after the preceding years Therefore, if any individual fails to satisfy even one of the above conditions, he would be an RNOR.
  • 21.  In above example Mr D has satisfed as resident of India. Let us further classify whether Mr. D is ROR or RNOR  If both the additional conditions are satisfied then Mr. D is ROR  Considering the example, Mr. D was travelling out of India since past 2 years only. Hence, the first condition is satisfied as he resided in India for atleast 2 years out of the immediate previous 10 years. Also, he has fulfilled the criteria of residing for at least 730 days in seven immediately preceding years. Therefore, he can be considered as Resident Ordinarily Resident. If any one of the additional conditions is satisfied then Mr. D is RNOR. Alternatively, consider that he had to work from the headquarters of his firm, located in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia for the past six years. He has only visited his parents for a week, twice a year during this time. That means, he has resided in India for 449 days in the past six years and the same applies for the current financial year too. In this case, first condition is satisfied but not the second. Therefore, Mr. D is Resident Not Ordinarily Resident.
  • 22. NON-RESIDENT  An individual satisfying neither of the conditions stated in (a) or (b) above would be an NR for the year. Taxability Resident: A resident will be charged to tax in India on his global income i.e. income earned in India as well as the income earned outside India. NR and RNOR: Their tax liability in India is restricted to the income they earn in India. They are not in need to pay any tax in India on their foreign income. Also note that in case of double taxation of income where the same income is getting taxed in India as well as in abroad, one may resort to the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) that India would have entered into with the other country in order to eliminate the possibility of paying taxes twice.
  • 23.  Scope of total income Section -5 of Income Tax Act, 1961 provides Scope of total Income in case a person who is a resident, not an ordinarily resident in India and person who is a non-resident which includes. Income can be Income from any source which  (a) is received or is deemed to be received in India in such year by or on behalf of such person; or  (b) accrues or arises or is deemed to accrue or arise to him in India during such year; or  (c) accrues or arises to him outside India during such year.
  • 24. EXAMPLE Ms. G went to London to join a reputed university for a graduation course (three years). While studying there, her professor suggested her to join a post-graduate course at the same university (two years). She had to get an internship certificate to complete the course. Upon completion, the firm offered her a permanent position. She has been an employee there for the past four years. That is, Ms G has stayed out of India for nine years now. She receives rental income from the property that she inherited from her parents. Both the basic condition are not satisfied. That makes Ms. G a non- resident.
  • 25. Note: The condition of minimum 60 days stay in the current financial year will get extended to 182 days in all the cases if:  A person is a citizen of India and he leaves India for the purpose of employment during the current financial year.  A person who stays outside India, being a citizen of India or a Person of Indian Origin (PIO), and comes on a visit to India during the year.
  • 26. TABLE EXPLAINING SCOPE OF TOTAL INCOME UNDER SECTION 5 SL NO . Particulars Resident Ordinary Resident (ROR) Resident Not Ordinary Resident (RNOR) – 5(1) Non Resident (NR)– 5(2) 1 Income received in India Taxed Taxed Taxed 2 Income Deemed to be received in India Taxed Taxed Taxed 3 Income accrues or arises in India Taxed Taxed Taxed 4 Income deemed to accrues or arises in India Taxed Taxed Taxed 5 Income accrues or arises outside India Taxed No No 6 Income accrues or arises outside India from business/profession controlled/set up in India Taxed Taxed NO 7 Income Other than Above (No Relation In India) Taxed NO NO
  • 27.  Note- 1.Residential status is as per section 6 of Income Tax Act, 1961. 2.Deemed income is not actually accrued but is supposed to be accrued notionally. 3.The income accrued is when the assesse obtains the rights to receive it. 4.Previous year means the financial year immediately preceding the assessment year.
  • 28.  Explanation 1 & 2:- Income accruing or arising outside India shall not be deemed to be received in India within the meaning of this section by reason only of the fact that it is taken into account in a balance sheet prepared in India.  Income which has been included in the total income of a person on the basis that it has accrued or arisen or is deemed to have accrued or arisen to him shall not again be so included on the basis that it is received or deemed to be received by him in India.
  • 29.  Certain Examples of incomes which treated as incomes deemed to have accrued or arisen in India: ➢If Mr. X Transfer his Residential Property situated in Delhi then Capital gain arising on transfer of such Capital Asset is deemed to accrue in India. It means Capital gain arising on transfer of property situated in India. ➢ Income from business connection in India. ➢ Dividend paid by an Indian company. ➢ Income from any property, asset or other source of income located in India.
  • 30. EXERCISES  Mr. Rajan left India for the first time on 15th December 2020 and returned back to India on 2nd February 2021. Identify his residential status for the assessment year 2021-22.  MR. Williams is an Indian citizen who lives, in India since 1986.During the previous year 2021-2022 he went to Arabia for 325 days. Identify the residential status.
  • 31.  Solution: Mr.Rajan Singh will get the status “Ordinary Resident”, since he satisfies the first basic condition and both the additional conditions.  Solution: Mr. Williams will get the status “Non- Resident”, since he not satisfy the basic conditions itself as he had stayed only for 40 days in the previous year 2021-22