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By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
1
Keywords: Thesigan Nadarajan, Waking Up With An Article, Safe Drinking Water,
Hydrotherapy, Water, Environment
Email: wakinguptoanarticle@gmail.com
Site: Malacca – The Heritage City
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Water will be more valued than gold
Topic: Hydrotherapy as A Way of Life
Reason for this article
Experiencing regular thirst, dry mouth, cracked lips, constant tiredness, dry skin and
headaches, I decided to do a simple research to find out why I was having these symptoms. Only
now did I realize that it was a direct cause of sedentary lifestyle, long hours in air-conditioned
environment, and extremely low intake of fluids. Having realized my status which is “I am
dehydrated”, I am now consciously rectifying them by practicing hydrotherapy as a way of life. I
am seeing positive results from my practice. It was from these positive outcomes that I was
motivated to write this article.
Safe and clean water, worth more than gold
Water is one of the most visible substances on the earth covering 70% of the earth
surface. It is also exists in three physical states of matter namely, gas, liquid and solid. In its pure
form it is colorless, odorless and tasteless.1
The chemical formula for water is H2O which is the
description of the covalent bonds of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.2
In its natural
state, only 1% of fresh water is considered safe for
human consumption without prior treatment.3
The rest
of the 99% requires treatment. Why? The answer is
contamination. Due to its becoming a rarity, water as the most “essential for life and survival”4
will eventually become more valuable than gold. Next, let’s look at the health benefits of water.
1
Information source: http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/PDF/COW-Water-Jan2011.pdf
2
Information and download source:
https://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEw
jG7NHXlP3SAhWMto8KHWB3BhoQFghbMAc&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fconte
nt%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9781461491378-c1.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45-
1445145-p175454542&usg=AFQjCNF4cdUsAC0zcuI-bCrjxNyVGFh7mw&bvm=bv.151325232,d.c2I
3
Information source: http://faculty.washington.edu/categ/healthanddevgbf/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2010/03/Access-to-Safe-Drinking-Water.pdf
4
Information source:
http://www.artgallery.sa.gov.au/agsa/home/Learning/docs/Water_Resource2012.pdf
By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
4
Water for health
It is shocking to note that though water is the most essential for life and survival yet it is
not promoted as the primary element for human health. I would like to highlight and elaborate on
four selected health benefits just to demonstrate how water is beneficial for health.
1. Prevents dehydration
What are the causes for dehydration? Bill Gookin5
gives four specific causes for
dehydration. The first is air-conditioning. It is known that “For those who work in an office or
live in surroundings with air conditioning, the atmosphere often has a low water content resulting
in increased losses of water from the lungs and through the skin. On the other hand high
humidity can play a greater role in dehydration than heat…”6
So it is not just heat alone, even a
cold environment (air-conditioning) can cause dehydration which can occur in a greater degree.
The second cause is antihistamines and decongestants which “work by dehydrating the cells...”7
leads to dehydration. The third cause is caffeine. “Caffeine is a diuretic. Caffeine prompts the
body to lose water through urination. This can lead to dehydration and is the reason that
caffeinated drinks are not a good idea when working out or doing other activities that require
fluids.”8
The fourth cause is alcohol. The Alcohol Avisory Council of New Zealand has this to
say in their article entitled: “Alcohol-the Body & Health Effects: A brief overview”, “Alcohol is
a diuretic, meaning that it causes water to be lost from the body through the kidneys (into urine),
which can lead to dehydration.”9
There are other reasons of why dehydration takes place. Next
let’s look at the symptoms of dehydration.
What are the symptoms of dehydration? We can describe the symptoms of dehydration
5
Bill Gookin: https://www.vitalyte.com/media/science-images/CAUSES%20OF%20DEHYDRATION.pdf
6
Information source:
https://www.nutritionfoundation.org.nz/files/file/851/151211%20%20Bulletin%2024%20%20final.pdf
7
Information source: https://www.vitalyte.com/media/science-
images/CAUSES%20OF%20DEHYDRATION.pdf
Information source: http://clahrc-gm.nihr.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/Salford-shorter-briefing-sheet-
090115_final.pdf
8
Information source: https://www.rochester.edu/uhs/healthtopics/nutrition/files/Caffeine.pdf
9
Quotation source: http://www.hpa.org.nz/sites/default/files/documents/HealthEffects.pdf
By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
5
on a continuum from mild to severe.10
A person can have one or more of the symptoms.
Mild Moderate Severe
Thirst Sticky mouth Extreme thirst
Dry lips Sleepiness / tiredness Confusion
Dry mouth Headache Dark (Yellow) / Concentrated
Urine
Dry Skin Dizziness Rapid heart rate
In the event that dehydration is confirmed, the dehydrated person should intake (sip)
fluids gradually but frequently. He/she should cease from physical assertion and rest in a cool
environment.11
In the case of the elderly persons, they should be encouraged to drink fluids
during, in-between and after meals. They should be encouraged to drink fluids in small amounts
but frequently.12
An article by Nestle Nutrition Institute talks about the general importance of bodily
hydration for all and especially more so for aging seniors. Since 2/3 of our body weight is water
and on an average day we lose 2 to 3 liters of water through urination, and sweat, dehydration
will easily occur if the bodily water loss is not replenished. It is recommended that aside from
water received through the process of metabolism, an adult should drink an average of 1.5 liters
of water to keep the body hydrated.13
10
Information sources:
https://dphhs.mt.gov/Portals/85/dsd/documents/DDP/MedicalDirector/2014%205-
29%20Dehydration.pdf
11
Information source: http://www.ct.gov/dds/lib/dds/factsheets/fs_dehydration.pdf
12
Information source: https://sakai.ohsu.edu/access/content/group/1b602fd7-fd07-4e2d-b3de-
79347bf1c08a/Articles%20linked%20in%20modules/dehydration%20in%20older%20adult.pdf
13
Information source: https://www.nestlenutrition-institute.org/education/practical-
tools/documents/waters_senior_light_pages.pdf
By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
6
2. Avoiding constipation
Besides ten other causes, dehydration is one of the causes for constipation. And what is
constipation? Constipation is the difficulty of moving or straining to move the bowels.14
3. Maintaining the health of kidneys
Insufficient intake of fluids (dehydration) together with hot climate has been found to be
one of the causes for the formation of kidney stones resulting in the blockage of the ureters /
urethra leading to urinary tract infections. In order to avoid this possibility, it is recommended to
intake sufficient fluids to dilute the urine that would lessen the formation of kidney stones.15
4. A healthy skin
The largest organ in a human being by size is the skin which makes up an estimated 16%
of the body weight. We are informed that the skin “… has several functions, the most important
being to form a physical barrier to the environment, allowing and limiting the inward and
outward passage of water, electrolytes and various substances while providing protection against
micro-organisms, ultraviolet radiation, toxic agents and mechanical insults.”16
We are also
informed that hydration helps “to keep skin healthy and young-looking. The skin acts as a water
reservoir and participates in fluid regulation for the whole body. Mild dehydration causes skin to
appear flushed, dry and loose, with a loss of elasticity, which makes it look older than it is. The
effects of dehydration on the skin are more noticeable on the face, than on the lower limbs.”17
Having seen the health benefits of drinking water (hydration), we shall next discuss about the
types of water available for hydration.
14
Information source:
https://www.umassmed.edu/uploadedFiles/cdder/Quality_Assurance_Reports/Dehydration_final_tagg
edv2.pdf
15
Information source: http://www.naturalhydrationcouncil.org.uk/wp-
content/uploads/2015/03/NHC_hydration_and_kidney_health_FINAL.pdf
16
Quotation source:
http://courses.washington.edu/bioen327/Labs/Lit_SkinStruct_Bensouillah_Ch01.pdf
17
Quotation source: https://www2.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/70374/Hydration_Toolkit_-
_Entire_and_In_Order.pdf
By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
7
Types of water
There are many types of water available for hydration after being processed and treated to
make it safe for human consumption. Atmospheric water is basically water vapor molecules
that are converted through the process of condensation / dehumidification into water droplets by
utilizing such appliance as “Atmospheric Water Generator”18
Water from the oceans that has
pass through the processes of desalination and disinfection are another source of drinking
water.
19
Inland seas come in the forms of enclosed or semi-enclosed sea environments like bays
and estuaries. Many of these inland seas before they were abused and contaminated were rich
with marine life.
20
Water from Inland seas is made safe for drinking in the same process of
desalination and disinfection because it is basically sea water. The next source of drinking water
is surface waters that take the forms of rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and glaciers.
Most of the fresh water from these sources is treated to remove microbiological, chemical,
physical and radioactive contaminations. As always disinfection process is part of the surface
water treatment.
21
And the last sources of drinking water are ground waters. In reality, surface
waters and ground waters interact and do affect each other. Ground water is made of fresh or
surface water that has soaked through the ground to be stored in tiny spaces between soil, rock,
sand, and gravel. They are found in unsaturated and saturated zones below the land surface.
22
Generally the treatment of ground water involves: 1) Water source site selection, 2) Drilling to
reach the aquifer, 3) Pumping the ground water to the surface, 4) Chlorination for disinfection, 5)
Removal of iron, 6) Storage.
23
It should be pointed out that all waters regardless of their sources
needs to be treated before they are safe for human consumption. And it is the safe drinking water
18
Information source:
http://www.erpublications.com/uploaded_files/download/download_23_04_2016_15_01_33.pdf
19
Information source: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/70621/1/WHO_HSE_WSH_11.03_eng.pdf
20
Information source: http://www.emecs.or.jp/upload/publish/seto_inland_sea_en.pdf
21
Information source: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/S12.pdf
22
Information source: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/groundwater.pdf
23
Information source: http://www.barrie.ca/Living/Water/Documents/Groundwater-Treatment-Process.pdf
By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
8
that has been treated and disinfected that should be used for hydrotherapy. Next we shall look
into the myth and reality of tap and bottled drinking water.
Myths and realities of tap and bottled water
The subject of safe drinking water is mixed with myths and realities. And sometimes we
pay more for believing in myths. As consumers we need to differentiate the realities from the
myths about safe drinking water.24
Here I like to discuss four specific myths and realities of tap
and bottled water.
Myth No. 1: Tap water is unsafe for human consumption. Is this true? It depends on
whether the tap water has been treated and disinfected according to safety standards like the
EPA.
Myth No 2: Bottled water is safer than tap water. What happens when unscrupulous
persons bottle tap water and sell it as treated water? Does the act of bottling make the tap water
safe? One study presents this fact of bottled water, “The false perception of the purity and
cleanliness of expensive bottled water compared to cheap tap sources does not concur with
scientific evidence. Many studies have demonstrated the presence of coliforms and heterotrophic
bacteria in bottled water, and detected these organisms in counts greatly exceeding the
contamination standards set for human consumption.”25
Myth No. 3: Bottled water taste better than tap water. We are told that the “…taste and
quality of both bottled water and tap water depend on the source and quality of the water,
including its natural mineral content and how, or if, the water is treated.”26
Myth No. 4: Bottled water in plastic can be stored safely for a long time. The answer to
this myth is both yes and no. Yes, water can be stored for a long time because the plastic is
durable. No, water cannot be safely stored in plastic bottle for a long time if the plastic used
24
Information source:
http://www.queensu.ca/sustainability/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.suswww/files/files/storyofbottledwater.pdf
25
Microbiology of Bottled Water: A Molecular View:
http://scholar.colorado.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1866&context=honr_theses
26
Information source: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-
11/documents/2005_09_14_faq_fs_healthseries_bottledwater.pdf
By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP)
9
contains Bisphenol A (BPA). And the effect of BPA relating to adverse health is being
evaluated. We are informed that “Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used to make plastics. It is
frequently used in sports equipment, water bottles, medical devices, as a coating or lining in food
and beverage cans, and in credit card receipts.”
27
We are also informed that “Bisphenol A (BPA)
is found in polycarbonate plastics. Plastics labeled with the number 7 are likely to contain
BPA.”
28
World Health Organization (WHO) has this to say about plastic that contains BPA, “In
light of the uncertainties about possible adverse health effects at low doses of BPA, especially on
the nervous system and on behaviour, and also the relatively higher exposure of very young
children compared with adults, the WHO and FAO will jointly organize an ad hoc expert
consultation in 2010 to assess the safety of BPA.”
29
So a doubt exists about storing water safely
for long periods in plastic bottles that contains BPA.
Conclusion
What we can conclude from this article is it doesn’t matter whether it is tap water or
bottled water. What matters is that the water must be treated and disinfected. At the point of
consumption it must be safe and free from most contaminants. And it is this quality of safe
drinking water that we need to consume from a minimum of 2.7 liters to 3.7 liters daily
dependent on factors like gender, age, activities, temperature and life style.
30
We should make
hydrotherapy as a way of life for our health and wellbeing.
©Thesigan Nadarajan, 2017, All Rights Reserved
27
BPA: http://gormanlab.ucsd.edu/courses/files/psy132/BPA.pdf
28
BPA: https://wellington.cancernz.org.nz/assets/Nutrition-and-physical-activity/Information-sheets/1146-
CSNAT-IS-plastics-and-cancer-risk-07112012.pdf
29
BPA: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/No_05_Bisphenol_A_Nov09_en.pdf
30
Water Intake: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutwaterrequir.pdf, pp.8-15

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Hydrotherapy as a way of life

  • 1. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 1 Keywords: Thesigan Nadarajan, Waking Up With An Article, Safe Drinking Water, Hydrotherapy, Water, Environment Email: wakinguptoanarticle@gmail.com Site: Malacca – The Heritage City Join My Mailing List For Future Articles Other Articles 1. Ao Thalane in pictures 2. Ramkhamhaeng night market 3. Marshmallow Market 4. Portuguese settlement in Malacca 5. Floating market of Thailand 6. Indian food: spice-up your life 7. Lessons from the Birds 8. Fourfold path to effective thinking 9. Developing Personality through Travel 10. Get-rich-quick scheme: enriching human
  • 2. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 2 predators 11. Female Dressing: The Objectification of Women
  • 3. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 3 Water will be more valued than gold Topic: Hydrotherapy as A Way of Life Reason for this article Experiencing regular thirst, dry mouth, cracked lips, constant tiredness, dry skin and headaches, I decided to do a simple research to find out why I was having these symptoms. Only now did I realize that it was a direct cause of sedentary lifestyle, long hours in air-conditioned environment, and extremely low intake of fluids. Having realized my status which is “I am dehydrated”, I am now consciously rectifying them by practicing hydrotherapy as a way of life. I am seeing positive results from my practice. It was from these positive outcomes that I was motivated to write this article. Safe and clean water, worth more than gold Water is one of the most visible substances on the earth covering 70% of the earth surface. It is also exists in three physical states of matter namely, gas, liquid and solid. In its pure form it is colorless, odorless and tasteless.1 The chemical formula for water is H2O which is the description of the covalent bonds of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.2 In its natural state, only 1% of fresh water is considered safe for human consumption without prior treatment.3 The rest of the 99% requires treatment. Why? The answer is contamination. Due to its becoming a rarity, water as the most “essential for life and survival”4 will eventually become more valuable than gold. Next, let’s look at the health benefits of water. 1 Information source: http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/PDF/COW-Water-Jan2011.pdf 2 Information and download source: https://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEw jG7NHXlP3SAhWMto8KHWB3BhoQFghbMAc&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springer.com%2Fcda%2Fconte nt%2Fdocument%2Fcda_downloaddocument%2F9781461491378-c1.pdf%3FSGWID%3D0-0-45- 1445145-p175454542&usg=AFQjCNF4cdUsAC0zcuI-bCrjxNyVGFh7mw&bvm=bv.151325232,d.c2I 3 Information source: http://faculty.washington.edu/categ/healthanddevgbf/wordpress/wp- content/uploads/2010/03/Access-to-Safe-Drinking-Water.pdf 4 Information source: http://www.artgallery.sa.gov.au/agsa/home/Learning/docs/Water_Resource2012.pdf
  • 4. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 4 Water for health It is shocking to note that though water is the most essential for life and survival yet it is not promoted as the primary element for human health. I would like to highlight and elaborate on four selected health benefits just to demonstrate how water is beneficial for health. 1. Prevents dehydration What are the causes for dehydration? Bill Gookin5 gives four specific causes for dehydration. The first is air-conditioning. It is known that “For those who work in an office or live in surroundings with air conditioning, the atmosphere often has a low water content resulting in increased losses of water from the lungs and through the skin. On the other hand high humidity can play a greater role in dehydration than heat…”6 So it is not just heat alone, even a cold environment (air-conditioning) can cause dehydration which can occur in a greater degree. The second cause is antihistamines and decongestants which “work by dehydrating the cells...”7 leads to dehydration. The third cause is caffeine. “Caffeine is a diuretic. Caffeine prompts the body to lose water through urination. This can lead to dehydration and is the reason that caffeinated drinks are not a good idea when working out or doing other activities that require fluids.”8 The fourth cause is alcohol. The Alcohol Avisory Council of New Zealand has this to say in their article entitled: “Alcohol-the Body & Health Effects: A brief overview”, “Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning that it causes water to be lost from the body through the kidneys (into urine), which can lead to dehydration.”9 There are other reasons of why dehydration takes place. Next let’s look at the symptoms of dehydration. What are the symptoms of dehydration? We can describe the symptoms of dehydration 5 Bill Gookin: https://www.vitalyte.com/media/science-images/CAUSES%20OF%20DEHYDRATION.pdf 6 Information source: https://www.nutritionfoundation.org.nz/files/file/851/151211%20%20Bulletin%2024%20%20final.pdf 7 Information source: https://www.vitalyte.com/media/science- images/CAUSES%20OF%20DEHYDRATION.pdf Information source: http://clahrc-gm.nihr.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/Salford-shorter-briefing-sheet- 090115_final.pdf 8 Information source: https://www.rochester.edu/uhs/healthtopics/nutrition/files/Caffeine.pdf 9 Quotation source: http://www.hpa.org.nz/sites/default/files/documents/HealthEffects.pdf
  • 5. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 5 on a continuum from mild to severe.10 A person can have one or more of the symptoms. Mild Moderate Severe Thirst Sticky mouth Extreme thirst Dry lips Sleepiness / tiredness Confusion Dry mouth Headache Dark (Yellow) / Concentrated Urine Dry Skin Dizziness Rapid heart rate In the event that dehydration is confirmed, the dehydrated person should intake (sip) fluids gradually but frequently. He/she should cease from physical assertion and rest in a cool environment.11 In the case of the elderly persons, they should be encouraged to drink fluids during, in-between and after meals. They should be encouraged to drink fluids in small amounts but frequently.12 An article by Nestle Nutrition Institute talks about the general importance of bodily hydration for all and especially more so for aging seniors. Since 2/3 of our body weight is water and on an average day we lose 2 to 3 liters of water through urination, and sweat, dehydration will easily occur if the bodily water loss is not replenished. It is recommended that aside from water received through the process of metabolism, an adult should drink an average of 1.5 liters of water to keep the body hydrated.13 10 Information sources: https://dphhs.mt.gov/Portals/85/dsd/documents/DDP/MedicalDirector/2014%205- 29%20Dehydration.pdf 11 Information source: http://www.ct.gov/dds/lib/dds/factsheets/fs_dehydration.pdf 12 Information source: https://sakai.ohsu.edu/access/content/group/1b602fd7-fd07-4e2d-b3de- 79347bf1c08a/Articles%20linked%20in%20modules/dehydration%20in%20older%20adult.pdf 13 Information source: https://www.nestlenutrition-institute.org/education/practical- tools/documents/waters_senior_light_pages.pdf
  • 6. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 6 2. Avoiding constipation Besides ten other causes, dehydration is one of the causes for constipation. And what is constipation? Constipation is the difficulty of moving or straining to move the bowels.14 3. Maintaining the health of kidneys Insufficient intake of fluids (dehydration) together with hot climate has been found to be one of the causes for the formation of kidney stones resulting in the blockage of the ureters / urethra leading to urinary tract infections. In order to avoid this possibility, it is recommended to intake sufficient fluids to dilute the urine that would lessen the formation of kidney stones.15 4. A healthy skin The largest organ in a human being by size is the skin which makes up an estimated 16% of the body weight. We are informed that the skin “… has several functions, the most important being to form a physical barrier to the environment, allowing and limiting the inward and outward passage of water, electrolytes and various substances while providing protection against micro-organisms, ultraviolet radiation, toxic agents and mechanical insults.”16 We are also informed that hydration helps “to keep skin healthy and young-looking. The skin acts as a water reservoir and participates in fluid regulation for the whole body. Mild dehydration causes skin to appear flushed, dry and loose, with a loss of elasticity, which makes it look older than it is. The effects of dehydration on the skin are more noticeable on the face, than on the lower limbs.”17 Having seen the health benefits of drinking water (hydration), we shall next discuss about the types of water available for hydration. 14 Information source: https://www.umassmed.edu/uploadedFiles/cdder/Quality_Assurance_Reports/Dehydration_final_tagg edv2.pdf 15 Information source: http://www.naturalhydrationcouncil.org.uk/wp- content/uploads/2015/03/NHC_hydration_and_kidney_health_FINAL.pdf 16 Quotation source: http://courses.washington.edu/bioen327/Labs/Lit_SkinStruct_Bensouillah_Ch01.pdf 17 Quotation source: https://www2.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/70374/Hydration_Toolkit_- _Entire_and_In_Order.pdf
  • 7. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 7 Types of water There are many types of water available for hydration after being processed and treated to make it safe for human consumption. Atmospheric water is basically water vapor molecules that are converted through the process of condensation / dehumidification into water droplets by utilizing such appliance as “Atmospheric Water Generator”18 Water from the oceans that has pass through the processes of desalination and disinfection are another source of drinking water. 19 Inland seas come in the forms of enclosed or semi-enclosed sea environments like bays and estuaries. Many of these inland seas before they were abused and contaminated were rich with marine life. 20 Water from Inland seas is made safe for drinking in the same process of desalination and disinfection because it is basically sea water. The next source of drinking water is surface waters that take the forms of rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and glaciers. Most of the fresh water from these sources is treated to remove microbiological, chemical, physical and radioactive contaminations. As always disinfection process is part of the surface water treatment. 21 And the last sources of drinking water are ground waters. In reality, surface waters and ground waters interact and do affect each other. Ground water is made of fresh or surface water that has soaked through the ground to be stored in tiny spaces between soil, rock, sand, and gravel. They are found in unsaturated and saturated zones below the land surface. 22 Generally the treatment of ground water involves: 1) Water source site selection, 2) Drilling to reach the aquifer, 3) Pumping the ground water to the surface, 4) Chlorination for disinfection, 5) Removal of iron, 6) Storage. 23 It should be pointed out that all waters regardless of their sources needs to be treated before they are safe for human consumption. And it is the safe drinking water 18 Information source: http://www.erpublications.com/uploaded_files/download/download_23_04_2016_15_01_33.pdf 19 Information source: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/70621/1/WHO_HSE_WSH_11.03_eng.pdf 20 Information source: http://www.emecs.or.jp/upload/publish/seto_inland_sea_en.pdf 21 Information source: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/S12.pdf 22 Information source: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/groundwater.pdf 23 Information source: http://www.barrie.ca/Living/Water/Documents/Groundwater-Treatment-Process.pdf
  • 8. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 8 that has been treated and disinfected that should be used for hydrotherapy. Next we shall look into the myth and reality of tap and bottled drinking water. Myths and realities of tap and bottled water The subject of safe drinking water is mixed with myths and realities. And sometimes we pay more for believing in myths. As consumers we need to differentiate the realities from the myths about safe drinking water.24 Here I like to discuss four specific myths and realities of tap and bottled water. Myth No. 1: Tap water is unsafe for human consumption. Is this true? It depends on whether the tap water has been treated and disinfected according to safety standards like the EPA. Myth No 2: Bottled water is safer than tap water. What happens when unscrupulous persons bottle tap water and sell it as treated water? Does the act of bottling make the tap water safe? One study presents this fact of bottled water, “The false perception of the purity and cleanliness of expensive bottled water compared to cheap tap sources does not concur with scientific evidence. Many studies have demonstrated the presence of coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria in bottled water, and detected these organisms in counts greatly exceeding the contamination standards set for human consumption.”25 Myth No. 3: Bottled water taste better than tap water. We are told that the “…taste and quality of both bottled water and tap water depend on the source and quality of the water, including its natural mineral content and how, or if, the water is treated.”26 Myth No. 4: Bottled water in plastic can be stored safely for a long time. The answer to this myth is both yes and no. Yes, water can be stored for a long time because the plastic is durable. No, water cannot be safely stored in plastic bottle for a long time if the plastic used 24 Information source: http://www.queensu.ca/sustainability/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.suswww/files/files/storyofbottledwater.pdf 25 Microbiology of Bottled Water: A Molecular View: http://scholar.colorado.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1866&context=honr_theses 26 Information source: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015- 11/documents/2005_09_14_faq_fs_healthseries_bottledwater.pdf
  • 9. By Thesigan Nadarajan (MSCP) 9 contains Bisphenol A (BPA). And the effect of BPA relating to adverse health is being evaluated. We are informed that “Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used to make plastics. It is frequently used in sports equipment, water bottles, medical devices, as a coating or lining in food and beverage cans, and in credit card receipts.” 27 We are also informed that “Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in polycarbonate plastics. Plastics labeled with the number 7 are likely to contain BPA.” 28 World Health Organization (WHO) has this to say about plastic that contains BPA, “In light of the uncertainties about possible adverse health effects at low doses of BPA, especially on the nervous system and on behaviour, and also the relatively higher exposure of very young children compared with adults, the WHO and FAO will jointly organize an ad hoc expert consultation in 2010 to assess the safety of BPA.” 29 So a doubt exists about storing water safely for long periods in plastic bottles that contains BPA. Conclusion What we can conclude from this article is it doesn’t matter whether it is tap water or bottled water. What matters is that the water must be treated and disinfected. At the point of consumption it must be safe and free from most contaminants. And it is this quality of safe drinking water that we need to consume from a minimum of 2.7 liters to 3.7 liters daily dependent on factors like gender, age, activities, temperature and life style. 30 We should make hydrotherapy as a way of life for our health and wellbeing. ©Thesigan Nadarajan, 2017, All Rights Reserved 27 BPA: http://gormanlab.ucsd.edu/courses/files/psy132/BPA.pdf 28 BPA: https://wellington.cancernz.org.nz/assets/Nutrition-and-physical-activity/Information-sheets/1146- CSNAT-IS-plastics-and-cancer-risk-07112012.pdf 29 BPA: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/No_05_Bisphenol_A_Nov09_en.pdf 30 Water Intake: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutwaterrequir.pdf, pp.8-15